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" Je \'oudrais echauffer tout I'uiiivers de mon gout pour les janiins. II me semble 
qu'il e>t iuipossible qu'uu luechant puisse I'avoir. II n'est point de vertus que je iie 
suppose a celui que aime a parlei et h. faire des jardins. Peres de famille, inspirez 
la jiirdiiiomauie a voseiifaos." — Prince De Ligne. 



(vol. III., NEW SERIES.) 

Edited by C . M . HOVE Y 


184 7. 




The Thirteenth Vohime of the Magazine has been enlarg- 
ed by the addition of one hundred pages more than any 
previous vohime ; and the following Table of Contents will 
show the very great variety of information which it contains 
in every department of Horticulture, especially on the culti- 
vation of fruits, and descriptions of new and fine varieties. 

C. M. H. 

Boston, December 25, 1847. 




A Retrospective View of the Progress of 
Horticulture in the United States, dur- 
ing the year 1846. By the Editor, . 1 

Taste ill Horticulture and in Designs. By 
Observer, 14 

Observations upon the Potato Rot. By 
J. S. B., West Scituale, Mass., . . 22 

Zinc Labels for Trees. By J. Owen, 
Cambridge, 26 

A Comparative Notice of the Hog and 
Jerusalem Artichokes, with a descrip- 
tive account ol' the growth, habit and 
use of the former varietv. By Dr. M. 
A. Ward, Athens, Ga., .' . . .30 

A Leaf from the History of Pomology in 
the Past. By T. S'. llnmricklio'use, 
Coshocton. Ohio, 97 

Instance of EfTect of Boiling Water on 
Seeds. By X.. 100 

Horticulture of the Past, as compared 
with the I'jeseiit. By T. S. Humrick- 
house, Coshocton, Ohio, . . . 14.5 

On the Cultivation of the Arrow Root in 
the United States, as an article of com- 
merce. Uy Ur. A. Mitchell, of Port- 
land. .Me. In a letter to Hon. H. .\. S. 
Dearborn. Communicated by Gen. 
Dearborn, 193 

Guano, and its application to Fruit Trees. 
By the Editor, 241 

List of Tropical Plants which may be ac- 
climated in the Southern States. By 
Dr. A. Mitchell. In a letter to Hon. 
H. A. S. Dearborn. Communicated by 
Gen. Dearborn, 289 

On the Transplantation of the Coniferous 
Forest Trees, (Pines, &;c.,) of New Eng- 
land to the Southern States. By Dr. A. 
.Mitchell, Portland, Me. In a letter to 
the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. Commu- 
nicated by Gen. Dearborn, . . . 349 

On the Importance of the Cultivation of 
the Oak, and other valuable Timber 
Trees; with Observations on the Pre- 
servation of Ship Timber, and the Pro- 
cess of Decay in Wood. By .\. Mitchell, 
M. D., Portland. In a letter to the Hon. 
H. A. S. Dearborn. Comiiiunicuted by 
Gen. Dearborn, 385 

On the Study and Pursuits of Botany. 
By A. Mitchell, .M. D. In a letter to 
the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. Commu- 
nicated by Gen. Dearborn, . . . 433 


Descriptive .Account of Thirty-two Va- 
rieties of the Grape, fruited in 1846. 
By J. F. Allen, Esq., Salem, .Mass. 
With Remarks upon their general qual- 
ities, &c., 

Root Grafting the Peach Tree and Rose ; 
Grafting the Pear upon the Apple ; the 
Apricot on the Peach; New Mode of 
Raising Cucumbers, A.c. By M. W. 
Phillips, Esq., Log Hall, Edwards, Miss. 

Results of the Cultivation of the Pear 
and other Fruit in the Southern States. 
By R. Cliish(dm, Esq., Corresponding 
Secretary of the Beaufoft Agricultural 



Observations on Root Pruning. By A. 

H. Ernst, Cincinnati, . . . .57 
Descriptions and Engravings of Select 

Varieties of Pears. By tlie Editor, — 

1. Van Assene, Henkel, Elizabeth (Van 
Mons,) Coter, Doyenn6 d'Ete, Doy- 
enne Boussock, 59 

2. Swan's Orange, Dallas, Calhoun, Mc 
Laughlin, Ropes, Pennsylvania, . 24.3 

3. Figue de Naples, Forelle, Ananas, 
Bezi de la Motte, Belle et Bonne, 
Thompson's, 337 

4. Knight's (R. I.) Seedling, Johonnot, 
Winship's Seedling, Henrietta, Lee's 
Seedling, Manners, .... 481 

Descriptions and Engravings of Select 
Varieties of Apples. By the Editor, — 

1. Twenty Ounce, Northern Spy, Red 
Canada, 70 

2. Early Joe, Fall Jennetting, Mars- 
ton's Red Winter, .... 1.59 

3. Hawley, Melon, St. Lawrence, . 535 
Descriptive Account of Prince's Paragon 

Peach. By W. R. Prince, Flushing, L. I., 76 
Additional Remarks on the Northern Spy 
Apple. By J. H. Watts, Esq., Roch- 
ester, N. Y., 104 

Some Account of the Cooper Apple and 
its History. By T. S. Humrickhouse, . 105 

Notice of some new Seedling Fruits of 
the West, with a Description and En- 
graving of the American White Winter 
Calville Apple. By A. Fahnestock, 
Lancaster, Ohio, 108 

Pomological Notices ; or Notices respect- 
ing New and Superior Fruits, worthy 
of general cultivation. Notices of sev- 
eral new Apples, Peaches and Grapes. 
By the Editor, . . . . 112. 448 

Remarks and General Hints on some few 
varieties of the Pear. By S. Walker, 
Rotbury, Mass., 118 

George the IVth Peach. By W. R. Prince, 
Flushing, L. 1., 120 

Mr. Knight's seedling Pears. By the Edi- 
tor, 150 

A Way to keep a Record of the Place of 
every Tree in an Orchard, by which La- 
bels are dispensed with. By T. S. Hum- 
rickhouse, Coshocton, Ohio, . . 156 

A Brief Account of three varieties of Ap- 
ples. By Asahel Foote, Esq., Williams- 
town, Mass., 163 

Explanations in reference to two or three 
Western Apples ; with a Note upon a 
new variety called the Butter Sweet. 
By T. S. Humrickhouse, Coshocton, 
Ohio, 195 

Some Account of the Oswego Buerr^, or 
Reid's Seedling Pear. By the Editor, . 198 

Some Remarks upon the Cooper Apple, 
and its Identity with other sorts. By 
A. II. Ernst, Cincinuari, Ohio, . . 200 

The Currant, its Cultivation, &c. By J. 
IT. Watts, Rochester, N. Y., . .202 

On the Cultivation and Tieatment of the 
Peach Tree in Cold Houses. By Tho- 
mas B.<'owau, Gardener to Dr. Dur- 
fee, Fall River, Mass., .... 204 

Notice of a new Seedling ,\pple. By A. 
Fahnestock, Lancaster, Ohio, . . 256 

A Way to keep a Record of the Place of 
every Tree in an Orchard, — with or 
without Labels. By M. W. Phillips, 
Edwards, Miss., 291 

On the Cultivation and Treatment of the 
Grape Vine in the Green-house or Con- 
servatory i with a Diary of the Progrcbs 

of the Vines, Temperature, Ac. By 
the Editor, 293 

Root Grafting Apple Trees. By a Flush- 
ing Propagator, 3]2 

The Strawberry Question. By the Editor, 347 

May's Victoria Currant, with an Engrav- 
ing of the Fruit. By the Editor. . . 392 

Descriptions and Engravings of select va- 
rieties of Cherries. By the Editor, . 394 

Notice of Three New Varieties of Fruit. 
By Herman Wendell, M. D., Albany, N. 
Y. With Descriptions and Engravings. 
By the Editor, 443 

Notice of two Seedling Peaches. By S. 
T. .Jones, Esq., Staten Island, N. Y. 
With Descriptions of the Fruit. By 
the Editor, 447 

Wendell's Mottled Bigarreau Cherry; 
with an Engraving of the Fruit. By 
Dr. Herman Wendell, Academy Park, 
Albany, N. Y., 494 

Descriptions and Engravings of select va- 
rieties of Plums. By the Editor, . 529 

The VIrgoulonse, or White Doyenne Pear. 
By S. D. P., New Haven, Conn., . . 533 


On the Cultivation of the Pelargonium, 
with a Description of several new and 
fine Seedlings. By Edward Beck; Esq., 
Worton Cottage, Isleworth, near Lon- 
don, 34 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices of 
New and Beautiful Plants, figured In 
Foreign Periodicals ; with Descriptions 
of those recently introduced to, or orig- 
inated in, American Gardens, 77. 215. 315, 
358. 4(ii. 495. 5,0 

Hydrdiigea japAnica, its Cultivation, with 
an Engraving of the Plant. By the 
Editor, 122 

On the Cultivation and Treatment of 
Cape Heaths, (Ericas.) By John Cad- 
ness, Gardener to Mr. J. L. L. F. War- 
ren, Brighton, 167 

Notice of some of the Mosses of New 
England. By William Oakes, Ipswich, 
Mass., 171 

On the Propagation of Stove and Green- 
house Exotics ; in a series of letters. 
By James Kennedy, Gardener to S. T. 
Jones, Staten Island, N. Y. 
Letter I. Propagation by Seeds, . . 210 
II. Propagation by Cnttinss, . 259 
ni. Propagation by Offsetts, . 313 

IV. Propagation by leavers, . . 3.")6 
V. Propagation by Inarching, . 357 
VI. Propagation by Root Division 400 
VII. Propagation by Leaves, . . 401 
VIII. Propagation by Suckers, . 4.52 

IX. Propagation by Plant Division 452 

Descriptions of ei^ht new seedling Ver- 
benas. By the Editor, . . . .213 

Notice of some of the Plants of New 
England. By William Oakes, . . 217 

Some Account of the beautiful new shrub, 
Spirip'a prunifolia, vnr. fiore pleno, with 
a Drawing of the same. Communicat- 
ed by M. Louis Van Hontte, Belgium, . 257 

The Green-house and Conservatory in 
Summer, 263 

Descrl[)tiou8 of eight new varieties of 
Prairie Roses. By the Editor, . . 353 

Garden Notes. By Dr. M. A. Ward, 
Athens, G.I., 492 

Notes on Gardens and Nurseries, . . 436 



European Agi-iciilture and Rural Econo- 
my, from personal observation, . . 125 

The Young Gardener's Assistant, in three 
parts. The Florist's Guide. Tlie Fruit 
Cultivator's Manual. The Kitchen Gar- 
dener's Instructor, .... 126 

Experimental Researches on the Food of 
Animals, 127 

Chemical Essays relating to Agriculture, 127 

The Hasty Pudding ; a poem in three 
cantos, 128 

The Rural Register and Almanac for 
1847, 128 

Proceedings of the National Convention 
of Farmers, Gardeners, and Silk Cul- 
turists, 129 

The Chemical Principles of the Rotation 
of Crops, 129 

A Report on the Trees and Shrubs grow- 
ing naturally in the Forests of Massa- 

chusetts : published agreeably to an or- 
der of the Legislature, . . . 175. 221 

The New England Book of Fruit, . . 225 

The Fruits of America; containing a se- 
lection of all the choicest varieties cul- 
tivated in tlie United States, . . 268 

A Dictionary of Modern Gardening, . 270 

The Journal of the Horticultural Society 
of London, 276 

A Brief Coinpend of American Agricul- 
ture, 279 

The Culture of the Grape. By J. Fisk 
Allen. Embracing directions for the 
treatment of the Vine in the Northern 
States of America, in the open air, and 
under glass structures, with or without 
artificial heat, 406 

An Address delivered before the Chester 
County Horticultural Society, at West 
Chester, Pa., Sept. 10, 18-17,'. . .542 


General Notices. 
Cultivation of Annual Flowers, 185; Pruning 
the Pear Tree, 186 ; Destruction ol Insects 
by Hot Water, 226; The cultivation of the 
Calceolaria as an Annual, 228 ; The culti- 
vation of the Dahlia, 229; Scarlet Pelargo- 
niums for winter blooming plants, 279; Root 
Pruning Trees, 280; Culture of the Chinese 
Primrose, 281; Thinning Annual Plants, 283; 
Pot Culture of the Vine, 283; Root Pruning 
and Management of the Pear Tree, 318; I'ro- 
pagation of Gloxinias, 323; ( hrysanthe- 
niums, 323; Carnations, Picotees and Pinks 
— their Propagation, 325 ; Treatment of 
A/.aleas, 326; Exposing Green-house Plants 
in Summer, 326; Cultivation of Aloysia 
citrioddra, 327; The Heartsease or Pansy, 
327 ; Scarlet Pelargoniums for winter flow- 
ering, 327; Culture of Asparagus in Ger- 
many, 361 ; Cultivating the Pine Apple in 
the open air in England, 363 ; VVindow 
Flowers, 366; Propagation of Plants for 
next season, 411 ; Pruning the Banksian 
Rose, 413; Replacement of I'ranches in 
Fruit Trees, 413; Autumn Pruning Fruit 
Trees, 413 ; Culture of Vines in Pots, 414 ; 
Cultivation of Tea China Roses, 416 ; Vine 
Borders, 418; The Cultivation of the Cur- 
rant and production of new varieties, 453 ; 
Scarlet Pelargoniums, 456; Pruning Fruit 
Trees, 457; Bottom Heat, 4.'i8; Preparation 
of large shrubs for removal, 459 ; Preparing 
for Winter, 460 ; Spring Bulbs, 502 ; Bulbs 
in Pots, 503; Glazing, 505 ; .Management of 
Hawthorn Hedges, 505; Flower Forcing, 
506 ; Cultivation of Raspberries, 506 ; Cul- 
ture of'Tomatoesin the open air, 507; Burnt 
Earth for Roses, and the mode of prepara- 
tion, 510; Proper Manure for Roses, 511 ; 
Moss Rosea suitable for Pillar Roses, 512; 
Bones as Manure, and their use in the cul- 
ture of Pelargoniums, 512; Root Pruning 
Fruit Trees, 513; Exjierinient on Root 

Pruning Pear Trees, 514; Pruning, 546; 
Pruning the Vine, 547; Tag^tes pinnata, 

Foreign Notices. 

Em/and. — Exhibition of the London Horti- 
cultural Society, 419 ; Dahlias and Dahlia 
Exhibitions for 1847, 547. 

France. — Exhibition of the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society of Paris, 508. 

Belgium. — Exhibition of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society of Brussels, 550. 

Domestic Notices. 
Splendid Plantation of Pear Trees, J30; Re- 
marks on the Hog Artichoke, 130; Wm. S. 
Sullivant, Esq., 130; Pleasant Experiment 
with Andromeda calyculAta, 131; The Win- 
ter in Georgia, 132; Horticulture in Ohio, 
132; Maine Pomological Society, 1C2; Gen- 
esee Valley Horticultural Society, 133; Steu- 
benvillc Horticultural Society, Ohio, 133; 
HeliAnlhus divaricdtus and giginteus, 133; 
New Grape in Ohio, 133; Muskeet Grass, 
133; Decan's Superb Grape, 133; Scharges 
Henling Grajte, 133 ; Pittsburg Horticultu- 
ral Society, Pa., 187; Pinielea spectabilis, 
lb7; Philips Sweeting Apple, 187; Supposed 
Influence of the Scion upon the Stock, 187; 
Colniar d'Aremberg Pear, 188; Grosse Cal- 
ebasse Pear, 188; Beurr^ Langelier Pear, 
188; Downing's Mammoth Rhubarb. 188; 
New Horticultural Societies, 188 ; Horti- 
cultural Society in Montreal, C. W., 188; 
Tom Thumb Geranium, IbS; The Ameri- 
can Agricultural Association, 234; Liberal 
Donation to the Mass. Horticultural Soci- 
ety, 235 ; Osage Orange, 235 ; Exhibition 
of the Mass. Iloriicullural Society, 235; 
Cultivation of the Fig and new varieties of 
the Pear, 236; Growth of Trees in the 
Southern States, 237 ; VV'eather in Peniisvl- 
vania, o28; Cultivating the Peach Tree, 328; 



New Horticultural Societies, 329 ; The 
American "White Winter Calville Apple, 
329; Reiil's Seedling Pear, 329; Hovey's 
Seedling Strawberry. 366 ; Premiums for 
ne%v varieties of Strawberries and Rasp- 
berries, 367 ; Burr's Seedling Strawberries, 
367 ; Pistillate Strawberry Plants not pro- 
ductive, 369 ; Two new Seedling ("berries, 
369; Albany and Rensellaer Horticultural 
Society, 369; Seeds of Grapes, 374; Cin- 
cinnati Horticultural Society, 374; Horti- 
cultural Exhibitions of the American In- 
stitute, 375 ; The Ninetcenih Annual Exhi- 
bition of the Mass. Horticultural Society, 
375; Springfield Horticultural Society, 420; 
Wendell's Mottled Bigarreau Cherry, 422; 
Seedling Peaches, 422; New Seedling Cher- 
ries, 422; The Colmar d'Aremberg Pear, 
422 ; Houghton's Seedling Gooseberry, 422 ; 
Exhibitions of Horticultural Societies, 423; 
Liberal Prizes for Pelargoniums, 423; Coe's 
Transparent Cherry, 423 ; Richards's Reur- 
r^ Pear,4Bl; Fruit Convention in the West, 
462; Rockingham Horticultural Society, 
Portsmouth, N. H., 462; Horticultural Ex- 
hibitions, 462; Colmar d'Aremberg Pear, 
515; Rhode Island Horticultural Society, 
515; The Boston Pine Strawberry, 515; 
First Annual Exhibition of the Albany and 
Rensellaer Horticultural Society, 516 ; Ses- 
bdnia vesicaria, 554; New Grasses, 554; 
Weather in Georgia, — New Dahlias, 554 ; 
Roses and Seedling Chrysanthemums, 555; 
Rhode Island Horticultural .Society, 555; 
Cleaveland Horticultural Society ,559; Pears 
in the Southern States, 561. 


Appropriation for 1847, 81; Exhibitions, 81; 
Report of the Committee on Flowers, 
awarding premiums for 1846,82; Report of 
the Committee on Fruits, awarding pre- 
miums for 1846, 85 ; Report of the Com- 
mittee on Vegetables, awarding premiums 
for 1846, 88 ; Report of the Finance Com- 
mittee, 90; Prospective Premiums, 91 ; List 
of Premiums for 1847, 134; Exhibitions, 

142; Premiums on Camellias and Chinese 
Primroses, 142; Exhibitions, 189; Pre- 
miums on Azaleas and Plants, 189; E.xhi- 
bilions. 238; Exhibitions, 265; Premiums 
for Pelargoniums and other plants, 285. 
287; Exhibitions, 331; Premiums for Plants, 
&c., 331, 332; Premiums for Roses, &c., 334; 
Lyman Fund, 377; Exhibitions, 378; Pre- 
miums for Prairie Roses, &c., 378 ; Exhibi- 
tions, 424; Mr. Beck's Prizes for Pelargon- 
iums, 424; Premiums for Plants, &c., 425; 
Exhibitions, 462; Premiums for Plants, &c., 
463; Nineteenth Annual Exhibition, 466; 
Premiums awarded at,47fi; Exhibitions, 520; 
Officers elected for 1848, 521 ; Dahlia Exhi- 
bition, and Premiums for, 523 ; Exhibitions, 

Retrospective Criticism. 
Modesty, 80: Van Zandt's Superb Peach, 81 ; 
Richards's' Beurr6 Pear, 526 ; The Fruits of 
America, 526. 

Answers to Correspondents. 
Polmaise Healing, 92 ; Achimenes picta, 92; 
Scarlet Pelargoniums, 92; Japan Lilies, 92; 
The best varieties of Apples, Pears, Cher- 
ries and Plums, 93; Mildew on Grapes, 93; 
Plants, 93; Raising Grape Vines from Seeds, 
94; Root Pruning, 142; Strawberries, 142 ; 
Dahlias, 143; Cinerarias, 143; Pelargoniums, 

Obituary Notices. 
Death of M. Soulange Bodin, 190; Mr. S. Gir- 
ling, 190; Death of R. Arthur, Esq., 190; 
Death of the Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert, 
330 ; Death of Capt. Jona. Winship, 430 ; 
Death of Henry Waggaman Edwards, 478 ; 
Mr. James Weniworth, 527. 

Horticultural Memoranda. 
January, 47; February, 95; March, 143; April, 
191; May, 239; Jiuie, 2S7 ; July, 335; Au- 
gust, 38.3 ; September, 431 ; October, 479 ; 
November, 527; December, 563. 


j,Y,r. Diagrams. Pase •'^'- 

l.'zinc Label for Trees, . . . . "29 j 23. 

Plants. I 26. 


14. Hydrangea japonica, .... 123 i gg' 

25. Spirae'a prunil6lia 11. pi. alba, . . 2.i8 .^gl 

1 3b; 

Fruit. I gj 

Pears. 36. 

4. Van Assene, 60 39. 

5. Henkcl 62 | ^0. 

6. Elizal)eth, (Van Mons,) . . . 63 | "JJ- 

7. Coter 64 , ;^2. 

8. Doyenne d'Et6, ^'' ' IJ' 

9. Doyenne Boussock, . . . . 08 i **• 

19. Swan's Orange, 247 

20. Dallas, 249 , 

21. Calhoun 251 i 10. 

22. McLaughlin, 252 11. 

r. Pflwe 

Ropes, 254 

Pennsylvania, 2.55 

Figue de Naples, .... 338 

Forelle, 340 

Ananas, 341 

Bezi de la Motte, . . . .343 

Heile et Bonne, 345 

Thompson, 346 

Sterling Pear, 444 

Knight's Rhode Island Seedling, . 482 

Johonnot, 484 

Winship's Seedling, .... 486 

Henrietta, 487 

Lee's Seedling, 489 

Hanners, 490 

Twenty Ounce, . • .71 
Northern Spy, 72 



Fig. Pase 

12. Red Canuda, 75 

13. American White Winter Calville, . 109 

15. Early Joe, 16o 

16. Fall Jenr.etting, 161 

17. i\'arston's Red Winter, . . . 162 
IS. Red Streak, 164 

50. Hawlev, 536 

51. Melon," 537 

52. yt. Lawrence, 539 


37. Schenectady Catharine, . . . 446 

38. Judson, 447 

46. Mulberry, 530 

47. Albany Beauty, 531 , 

Fis:. Page 

48. Denniston's Superb, .... 531 

49. Uenniston's Red, . . . . 532 


33. Late Duke, 897 

34. Arch Duke, 398 

35. Leniercier, 399 

45. WendclTs Mottled Bigarreau, - . 494 

32. Victoria, 393 


2. Jerusalem Artichoke, . 

3. Hog Artichoke, . 


A Flushing Propagator, 
Allen, J. F., . . . 
An Admirer of all Seasons, 
Beck, E., London, 
Buist, R., . 

Cadness, John, . 
Cowau, T. B., . 
Chisholm, Robert, 
Coit, D. W., . 

55. 237. 369, 

Dearborn, Hon. H. A. S., . 193. 290. 

Editor, 1. 59. 70. 77. 112. 122. 132. 

159. 187. 188. 198. 213. 241. 

263. 293. 3.37. 347. 353. 367. 
394. 436. 448. 481. 529 

Ernst, A. H., 57 

Fahnestock, A., ... 108. 133 

Foote, Asahel, 

Frothingham, John, 

Jlopkins, L. P., 

Huidekoper, A., 

Humrickhouse, T. S., 97. 105. 145. 156, 
I. W. J., 








, 561 




, 433 




. 535 

. 200 

, 256 




J. B.R., 

J. S. B., 

Johnson, B. P., 374 

Johnson, M. C, 93 

Jones, S. T., 447 

Kennedy, James, 210. 259. 313. 356. 400. 

M. A. W., . . . 132. 133. 374 554. 555 
Mitchell, A., . . 193. 290. 349. 381. 433 
Oakes, William, .... 171. 217 

Observer, 14 

Owen, J., 26 

P., 130 

Pope, A. R., 142 

Philips, M. W., . . .49. 291. 526 

Prince, Wm. R., . . 76. 81. 120. 526 

R., 131. 224 

S. D. P., 533 

S. L. G., 187 

Springer, Rev. C, 132 

Van Houtte, L., 257 

Veto, 81 

\V., 330 

Ward, Dr. M. A., . . . . 30. 492 

Watts, J. H., 104. 202 

Walker, S., 118 

Wendell, Dr. Herman, . . . 443. 494 
X., 100 



Golden Noble, 


American White Winter 







Hollow Crown, 




Hunt's Orange Sweeting, 












Marston's Red W 



Drap d' Or, 




Northern Spy, 






Philips Sweeting, 


Early Joe, 



Pound Roval, 


Earlv Pennock, 


Putnam Russet, 


Fall Harvey, 


Red Canada, 


Fall Jeunetting, 


Red Streak, 


Fall Pippin, 


Red Pcarmain, 





St. Lawrence, 


Garden Ro> al, 


Twent) Otir.ce, 


Vanderspeigle, 165 

White Winter Calville, 111 

Zoar Beauty, 110 

Zoar Large Green, 110 

New .Seedlings, 256 
Select Varieties, 70. 93 

New Varieties, 108 

List of kinds sent to Ohio, 106 

Premiums awarded for, 66 

Many varieties exhibited, 471 


Arch Duke, 399 

Coe's Tranapsrent, 423 

Dtrwuer'B Late Red. 39S 

I.«lfl D-uke, 337 



Cherries, continued. 


Rocky Hill Honey Heart, 


Wendell's Mottled Bigar- 

New Seedlings, 369. 371. 
Best Varieties, 


May's Victoria, 393. 

Four uew varieties, 

Alicante, 56. 

Celestial, 56. 

Premiums awarded for. 

Houghton's Seedling, 

Calabrian Kaisin, 
Cannon Hall Muscat, 
Decan's Superb, 
Josling's St. Albans, 
Macready's Early White, 
Muscat Blanc Hatif, 
Muscat, August, 
New Hlack Hamburg, 

(No. 16.) 
New in Ohio, 
Prince Albert, 
Raisin de Calabre, 
Scharges Healing, 
White Frontignac, 
New and fine sorts, 
Thirty-two varieties. 
Premiums awarded lor, 
Fine sorts for graperies, 

Best sorts. 





















Beltzar Early Rareripe, 
Beauty of Zoar, 
Early Crawford, 
Fahnestock's Seedling, 

No. 1, 
Fahnestock's Mammoth, 
George IV., 
Graven's Red Cheek Cling, 110 
Hovey's Cambridge Belle, 114 

Jones' Early, 
Jones' Large Early, 
Prince's Paragon, 
Red Rareripe, 
Silvan's Seedling, 
Stetson's Seedling, 

114. 443 

Pears. | 

Andrews, 120 j 

Ananas, 441 i 

Belle et Bonne, 344 j 

Beurr^ Aurore, 237 i 

Adam, 437 

des Cliarneuses, 237 

Coloma, 437 

Goubault, 451 

Langelier, 188 

Spence, 439 

Superfin, 451 

de la Motte, 342 

Bringevvood, 153 

Broom Park, 153 

Brougham, 152 

Calhoun, 250. 479 

Chapman, 521 

Cholwell, 451 

Colmar d'Aremberg, 188. 422. 


Coter, 64 

Croft Castle, 154 

Dallas, 249. 479 

Dearborn's Seedling, 120 

Dix, 120 

Doyenne d'Et^, 66.425 

Boussock, 66. 562 

de la Motte, 56 

Goubault, 451 

gris d' hiver Nouveau, 452 

Dun more, 154 

Duchess d' Orleans, 436 

Elizabeth, (V. M.,) 63. 429 

Epargne, 55 

Eyewood, 119. 154. 437 

Excelenlissima, 525 

Fondante d' Automne, M9 

Forelle, 339 

Figue de Naples, 337 

Flemish Beauty, 439 

Golden Beurre of Bilboa, 437 

Grosse Calebasse, 188. 437 

Haddington, 274. 450 

Hanners 119. 489 

Heathcot, 120 

Henkel, 61. 437 

Henrietta, 479. 467 

Hall, 521 

Johonnot, 484 

Knight's (R. I.) Seedling, 449. 


Kingsessing, 450 

Lee's Seedling, 488 

Leon le Clerc Van Mons, 6. 

Van Zandt's Superb, 81. 526 
White Ball, 114 

Winesburg Large Yellow, 110 
Yellow Cling, HI 

Best kinds for forcing, 210 
Seedlings, 422 

Premiums awnrdetl for, 86 

Las Canas, 

Louise d' Orleans, 


March Bergamot, 





Nouveau Poiteau, 

Oakley Park Burganiot, 

Oliver's Russet, 


Osband's Summer, 

Oswego Beurr6, 


119. 270 
437. 467 

Paradise d' Automne, 437. 467 
Pennsjlvania, 255 

Pengethly, 151 

Pratt, 449 

Prince Esterhazy, 437 

Rapelje's Seedling, 449 

Reid's Seedling, 198. 329. 450 
Richards'a Beurri, 401. 526 
Ropes, 254 

Ross , 152 

Rostiezer, 429 

Smith's Bordenave, 450 

.^ummer Bon Chretien, 461 
Swan's Orange, 243. 449 

St. Ghislain, 237 

sterling, 445 

St. Dorothee, 471 

Thompson's, 345 

Tyson, 120. 141. 437 

Van Aasene, 60 

Van Mons, numbered var. 437 
Vicompte de Spoelberch, 560 
Virgoulouse, 56 

Virgoulouse, (old,) 533 

Westcolt, 515 

Wilbur, 119. 521 

Winship's Seedling, 429. 4«5 
Winter Bartlett, 422 

White Doyenn6 533 

135, Van Mons, 437. 467 

1482, Van Mons, 4.37. 467 

New and valuable var., 6. 5.52 
Various sorts, 55. 190. 535 
Best varieties, 93 

Varieties for quince stock, 320 
Exhibited at Paris, 510 

Exhibited at Brussels, 552 
Large specimens, 514 

New sorts exhibited, 469 

Premiums awarded for, 86 


Albany Beauty, 
Bimeless Seedling, 
Dennislon's Red, 


Reine Claude de Bavay, 
Schenectady Catherine, 

Silvan's Yellow Gage, 
Premiums awarded for, 

274. 450 















Black Prince, 

Boston Pine, 275. 347 



Hovey's Seedling, 275 

Lizzie Randolph, 

North's Victory, 

Ross's Phwnix, 

Stoddard's Seedling, 

Swanstone Seedling, 

Mr. Burr's Seedlings, 

New varieties. 

Premiums awarded for, 





A rrowroot, 



A rtichoke, 


Roman Emperor, 








Egg Plant, 51. 96. 192. 






Lettuce, 96 

Dwarf Russian, 


Palestine, 335 



Royal Cape, 




B rocoli. 


Pumpkin, Farmington, 





New var., 


Potatoes, 22 



Ash-leaved Kidney, 




Blue St. Helena, 





Early June, 





Mountain June, 

Couv6 Tronchud 



Ross's Early, 






Potatoes, 30 varieties, 476 

15(1 varieties, 553 

Seedlings, 475. 478. 553. 


List of new seedlings, 553 

Rhubarb, 558 

Dowiiing's Mammoth, 188 
Giant, 333 

Victoria, 333. 335 

Squash, Wisconsin, 476 

Canada, 466 

Tomatoes, 96. 558 

Many varieties, 553 

Giant , 476 

Water Cress, 382 

Premiums awarded for 1846,88 

Premiums offered for 1847, 134 



In the body of the Magazine, a few errors occur in the spelling of the botanical names, the 
capitalizing of generic and specific names, their derivation and accentuation •. these are all 
corrected in the following list of plants. The synonymes, in several instances, have also 
been given, where plants have been incorrectly indicated. 

Lists of Beck's new Pelargoniums, 41. 495 
List of fine varieties of CHmellias, 142 

Lists of new and fine Pelargoniums, 143. 420 
Lists of fine Dahlias, 143. 52.3. 518. 5.S1 

List of fine Heatlis, 171 

List of the Mosses of New England, . 171 
List of fine new Verbenas, . . . 213 
List of the Plants of New England, . 217 

List o( American .sp. and var. of Oaks, . 224 
New and fine Fuchsias, . . . 266. 331 

New Petunias, 331 

New Lilacs, 331 

Fine varieties of Roses, . . . 334. 509 
New varieties of Prairie Roses, . . 354 
Fine new Gladioli, ..... 378 
New varieties of Scarlet Geraniums, . 378 

>4'bies canadensis 


Abutilon striatum 







Acacia decipiens 


>4canthus vulgdre 


Achlmenes atrosangi 



























picta 8. 92 













— B 

^schyn4nthus Boschm- 

nus 79 

Lobb(d7i»s 216 

miniitiis 216 

PaxtOnj 509 

^'srhmea longifldra lul- 

gens 510 

yigeratum Wrights 131 

Alliiisi maurdruni 434 

Andromeda calycnlata 131 

Anigozinthos cocilneus 379 

.4nenidne japonica 465. 496. 


Aneiira sessilis 131 

Aqtiil^gia seciinda 287 

yfrundo saccliarifera 290 

Ardlsia crenulAla 435 

A'rbor infelix 434 

Azalea iiulica CApeii l.?9 

I)aniels(d?ia 70 

etquisUa 405 

Gledstan^sn 287. 405 

.\zalea Indica Herbirt/a 

purpurea 169 

Large ( licrry 189 

Remingiiiiia 189 

speci6sa 189 
striata formosis- 

sima 405 

seedling while 189 

nndifldra orndta 285 

obtusAta 78. 316 

Barritm rdlva 131 

Begdnja 41bo coccinea 78 

coccinea 361 

fnchsioides 361 

/?^tula iiopulilblia 434 

nouv4rd(V( splendens 509 

Briek^ll/rt cylindrAcca 131 

Brugnidns/a Knighti'r .332 

Wavniini'/ 510 

Duddl6«"Lindley«no 8. 379 

Burcliella specidsa 286 

Calvcanthus fiurida 502 


Calceolarias 405 

Callistfimoa spl^ntlens 286 
Calyst6gia puWscens 78. 359. 
Camfelha jap6nica Comte 

de Paris .316 
Ducliess d'Orleans316 
La Reine 360 
Campiuula gr4ndis 267 
iiobilis 498 
Cdrica Papaya 290 
C4ttleya Harrisdiij* 85 
C^drus Deoddra 10 
C^ltis crassiWlia 183 
Cireus erucigera 468 
exteiisis 286 
gladi4tus 610 
graiiiUfl6rus 493 
grand illdro-speciosis- 
sitnus Maynirdu 404 
C6.strum aurautiacum 496 
rdseuin 426 
Chimondnthus frdgrans 502 
Chirita sinensis 509 
Clerodindron Devonian- 
sis 509 
in('ortiin4tuin 509 
speciosissimum 509 
CllviVi nobilis 381 
Clit6ria 493 
Cqff'ia aribica 290 
Crdcus sitivus 290 
Crow^a canaliculdta 425 
Ciiphea miniftta 509 
platyc^utra 509 
strigill6sa 509 
Cycas revohUa 290 
Cyperus papyrus 434 
Ddphne Fortiuu 315 
Delplilnium BarI6wu' 379 
Dic^utra spectdbilis 500 
Dichorizdiidra ovita 510 
Dipladdnia r6sa camp6s- 

tris 500 

Echinocictus Eyridsu' 332 

mammul6sus 468 

niammillaroides 3.32 

multiplex 379 

Otx6nis 3.32. 492 

sc6pa 468 

Echin6psis vAlida 510 

Echltes spl^ndens 551 

£rica densifWra 465 

hyemilis 522 

muliifldra 465 

vegans 426 

ventricisa 378 

versicolor 426 

5sp. 509 

Flssidens exiguus 130 

niinutulus 130 

Forsyth?a viridlssima 501 

Fuclisio corymbifldra 77. 94 

fulgens 77 

micrintha 77. 359 

var. acdntha 468 

Cleopatra 424 

exoni^nsis 424 

Lady of the Lake 424 

Nymph 468 

Mrs. F. Milbank 424 

Sir H. Pottinger 424 

Smith's Vesta 425 

FumAria fornidsa 500 

Finik/a grandifl6ra 317 

Gardenia Devonidna 216. 499 

fl6rida var. Fortunidraa 79 

mallelfera 499 

r4dicans 79. 378 

Stanleyana 8. 216. 


G6snera Coop^ri 266 

Gerardfdjia 266 

rUbra 266 

splendena 266 

tubill6ra 266 

zebrina 266. 421 

Gladiolus belviddrus 8. 85 

gandav^nsis 381 

Leibnitzii 381 

Lisette 333 

Wilhehninus 333 

Glottidium floriddimm 554 

Gloxinia 41ba maxima 2G5 

bicolor 265 

Cartdnj 8. 265 

cauliscens 403 

celestial 265 

Comtesse Caroline 

Thun 502 

Comtesse Inza Thun 502 
Comtesse Leopoldine 

Thun 502 

grandifldra 425 

iusignis 265 

macrophylla variegd- 

ta 265 

Prince Camille de 

Rohan 502 

rabra 265. 403 

speciisa 265 

supirba 425 

seedlings 425 

TeichlSri 403. 502 

varieties 502 

Habrothimnus ilegans 551 

Hoeminthus tenuifdlius 378 

/fedychium GardnerKinum 


Heliinthus divaricdtus 133 

giginteus 133 

tuber6sus 133 

HAya carndsa 401 

HydrAngea hort^nsis 123 

involucrAta tl. pi. 361 

jap6nica 123. 267. 315. 


/mpitiens platypitala 402 

Ipomae'a Bona Nox 493 

QuamdclU 100 

L<iaru- 79. 359. 493 

Ipomopsis picta 428 

Ismdne calathlna 832 

Ixora coccluea 403 

r6sea 379 

salicif61ia 403 

Jasmine, Maid of Orleans 426 

Justlcm calytrlcha 287 

cArnea 287 

coccluea 465 

violAcea 509 

Kklmia latifdlia 132 

Kierlia bellidifldra 131 

Lagerstrffl'mia indica 426 

Leschenaiiltia arcuAta 402 

fornidaa 360. 403 

spl^ndens 360 

Liebigjo specidsa 541 

£,ilium Brdwnij 865 

cull6sum 403 

Lllium chalced6nica 381 

eximium 80 

jap6nicum 80 

lancifdliura Album 265. 


punctdtum 265 

rdseum 265 

rubrum 265. 380 

longifldrum 381 

philad^lpliicum 80 

sangulneum 80 

specidsum 380 

testAceura 265 

Thunbergjdnttwr 334 

seedlings 380 

LindheimSrta texAna 131 

LisiAnthus RussellidnMS 267 

campanuloides 452 

Lob^ha liitea 452 

jLychuis vesicAria fl. pi. 333 

Lycopddium clavAtum 132 

dendroldeum 132 

lucidulum 132 

Macliira aurautiacum 2.35 

Magndha acuminAta 522 

auriculata 522 

macrophylla 378 

Mammia americAna 290 

Mammillaria, 11 sp. 468 

Mannettm glAbra 465 

MarchAntia disjuncta 131 

Methonica Leopdldii 359 

Milt6n/a speclAbilis 333 

Miisa paradisica 290 

sapi^utium 290 

Myristica officinAlis 290 

iVep6nthes distillatiria 285 

Niphce'a obl6nga 499 

riibida 499 

Notothylas orbiculAris 131 

valvAta 131 

NutiAllf'a grandifldra 380 

O'lea europiE^a 290 

P<Ri)i\ia grandifldra cAruea 


HericartidjiHTTi 333 

prolifera tricolor 333 

sulphiirea 333 

triiimphans 333 

WhitWJt 333 

Moutan Hissi'dna 8 

Passifldra frAgrans 267 

Pentstdnion Gorddnj 541 

Murraydraum 85 

Phldx var. Anuais Chau- 

viere 379. 383 

Augusta 379 

bicolor 423 

borboni^nsia 462 
candidlssima ndva 


Charles 382 

Cromwell 428 

del^cta 379 

Eclipse 402 

Egyptienne 425 

Fleur de Marie 382 

Go- the 402 

Grato 383 

Kermesina 382 

Lawr^nci'a 42.? 

Norfolk! J 519 

CEil de Lynx 379 

plcta 485 

PdttsiJ 463 


Phlox var. Princcsse Ma- 

Rilies ri'ibi'ura 


















Standard of Per- 

RondeietiVz specidsa 




Piibia tinctdria 




Russelha jiincea 


Vail Houttei'j 


Sabbdtta chloroides 




Sassafras offlcinile 




i-chistidum serritum 


new var. 


Scliubertia gravdolens 


Pli) llogduium norwdgicum 



SMam Sieb61d(7 


Piinclda spcctibilis 


Sesb4n(« vesiciria 


Pinus Sfrobiis 


SiUa abutilon 


Platycddon grandilldrum 




Polygala mixta 




Prlnos gldber 


Siphoc4mpylos nltidus 




Sillya lieteropliylla 


Pyrus jap6nica 


Sopiidra falcdta 


R&ndia longiflora 


^pirffi'a prunifolia 11. pi 

flaniinculus aconitifilius 




iJhodora canadensis 




Phododendron chamsecls- 

Stitice Uickensdna 






Ril/e.i aureiim 222 






Steplianotus floribundus 







Sisyrincliiiim longistylum 




Tagdtes pinnita 




Tectona grindis 


Tetragonoihica texdna 
Thea viridis 
Thibaiidia pulcli6rrima 
Thunb^rgjci chrysops 
Till4nds(a, 2sp, 
Torfinia asiatica 

Tracheiium caerilleum 
i/'lmus crispa 


f-'erb^na Melindres 

fine varieties named 
Vern6nia Lindheimdrt 
Veronica Lindleydna 

specidsa 8. 26 

Vexilliria maridna 


Viburnum opulus 
f iola odorAta 
Virgllia liitea 
Kitis Labriisca 
Weig^l/'/ rdsea 
Wistaria Consequdna 
Wits^u/fl corymbdsa 
Yucca filamentosa 


Zjlmia elephintipe.s 

317. 509 
8. 381. 




JANUARY, 1847. 


Art. I. A Retrospective Vieto of the Progress of Horticulture 
in the United States during the year 1846. By the Editor. 

It has not been our good fortune, since our first annual 
summary of Horticultural Improvement, in 1838, to record 
such a general interest and wide spreading taste in Horticul- 
tural and Rural pursuits, as at the present period. The rapid 
changes in national prosperity from 183.5 to 1845, a period of 
ten years, were attended with equally great fluctuations in 
the tastes and pursuits of large classes of the community, and 
until the last year or two, it can scarcely be said that a 
rapidly progressing zeal has been manifested in Horticultural 
and Rural occupations. 

But a better day seems to be dawning : alive to the im- 
portant benefits which result from a more thorough knowledge 
of the art of cultivation, we find a more active interest taken 
in every thing which relates to gardening. He who possesses 
a spot of ground, even if his taste has not been cultivated 
sufficiently to fully appreciate it, feels it no less his duty than 
his pride to go forward in the march of improvement, and 
plant trees, either for profit or ornament, that they may be 
valuable at a future day, if not at the present moment. It is 
not an individual taste which impels the public now, but a 
general cooperation to carry out impro-jrements which have 
too long been left neglected or abandoned. Such a state of 
prosperity is cheering to every cultivator, and it should be 
the aim of all interested in a pursuit so conducive to the 
morals and happiness of a people, to encourage and foster so 
laudable a zeal. 

VOL. XIII. NO. I. 1 

2 Progress of Hortimilture 

The yearly advancement in an art like gardening must be 
necessarily limited: improvements constantly arise, but there 
are few startling discoveries, or wonderful achievements, to 
record. Science is always unfolding something new to the 
cultivator, but experience only will confirm the value or im- 
portance of innovations upon established rules and systems. 
The old routine of practice is not to be thrown aside at once ; 
neither should customs be pertinaciously adhered to which 
had their origin at an early period, and have become part and 
parcel of our knowledge. But the cultivator who would aim 
to excel, must make himself familiar with all the principles 
of the art ; continual study and research, united with obser- 
vation and experience, will then enable him to attain the most 
satisfactory and successful results. 

The season of 1846 has been throughout New England as 
dry, or drier than the three previous dry ones of '43, '44 and 
'45 ; that is, there has been less rain during the summer of 
1846, than during that of 1845 ; yet vegetation has gone on 
as if the season had been nearly an average one as regards 
moisture ; trees have made a most remarkable growth ; crops 
have been generally exceedingly good; there was a good 
yield of grass, and the fruit crop was far above an average 
one. All this, however, has taken place in the absence of 
actual rain ; but if we could know exactly the atmospheric 
moisture, we should find that it has been very much greater 
than in 1S45 ; there has been a constant succession of cloudy, 
misty and hazy weather throughout the summer and fall, 
which has so far prevented evaporation, that what rain has 
fallen has had the greatest effect. 

The winter of 1845 and 1846 was considerably colder than 
that of 1843 and 1844. It commenced very early in the 
west ; large quantities of snow fell ; and a series of severe 
frosts injured all kinds of roots and plants, killing many, 
which had stood out for years, quite down to the ground. 
January was tolerably mild, with one heavy drifting snow 
which, however, nearly disappeared the latter part of the 
month. February was a cold and stormy month, with two 
drifting snows, and good sleighing the whole month ; the 
thermometer indicating 6° below zero. March, on the con- 
trary, was a month of more than ordinarily mild weather, the 

in the United States. 3 

snow disappearing under a warm sun, leaving the ground 
with but httle frost at the close. April continued the same, 
with scarcely a moderate rain during the entire month ; 
planting commenced early in consequence of the dry and fine 
weather, and fruit trees were in bloom the latter part of the 
month, promising an abundant crop. The month of May 
continued favorable ; one or two rather severe frosts occurred, 
which injured the blossoms of fruit trees in some low and 
cool situations ; at the close, several refreshing showers were 
highly beneficial to advancing vegetation. In June, cool 
weather set in, and the whole month was accompanied with 
cloudy, misty, and showery days, without, however, any . 
great quantity of rain ; this was highly favorable to grass 
crops, which had begun to suffer. July continued nearly 
the same with easterly winds. In August, hot weather 
set in, the thermometer attaining 100 degrees in the shade ; 
and, but for cloudy and lowery days, vegetation would have 
suffered severely. September continued favorable, though 
still without rain. October was mild with no very severe frost 
until the Sth or 10th. November was quite different from the 
corresponding month in 1845, when 11 inches of rain fell : It 
continued mild till the 25th, when a light snow fell; this was 
succeeded by rain, but not sufficient to keep the ground open. 
Early in December more snow fell, and now (loth) covers 
the ground about 4 inches, with but an inch or two of frost 
in the earth beneath. 

The season has been on the whole favorable. Apples were 
smaller than usual, owing to the drought, but the aggregate 
crop was heavy. Pears were not near so numerous, large, or 
handsome as last year ; in some locations, the blossoms were 
injured by the early frosts. Peaches were never more abund- 
ant in the Middle and Western States, and there was a fine 
crop in New England. Plums were as plentiful as usual. 
The potato crop was but little affected by the rot in com- 
parison with the season of 1845. 


Under this head, we may refer to the strawberry question, 
as one of importance, and which at last has been satisfactorily 
settled. Four years has the subject been agitated, and during 

4 Progress of Horticulture 

this time the conflicting opinions of cultivators, in all parts of" 
the country, have been recorded in our volumes. But until 
the experiments of the last year we have not been able to 
arrive at certain results. It was therefore with much pleasure 
that in our review of Mr. Longworth's pamphlet, in the last 
volume, (p. 358,) we had the opportunity to give our views 
at length, and views, we are happy to say, which coincide 
with the opinions of all intelligent cultivators. 

So satisfactory has been the result, that we should not again 
occupy the attention of our readers with the subject, but for the 
purpose of noticing some strictures upon the opinions which we 
have from time to time advanced, while the question has been 
under the process of investigation, by our old correspondent, 
the Rev. Mr. Beecher, in the Westei'n Farwer and Gardener. 
We have always had a high respect for Mr. Beecher's opinion, 
but, in the present instance, for some motive which does not 
appear, he has, by quotations here and there from our re- 
marks, having reference to the opinions of our correspondents, 
falsified our views and endeavored to make it appear that we 
have advanced positive conclusions upon the question, with- 
out due investigation. This we deny; we have never had 
but one opinion upon the abstract question of fertile and 
sterile strawberries ; but during the season of 1843, from facts 
which were contributed by several of the most observing and 
careful cultivators, we did doubt the necessity of staminate 
flowers to impregnate the pistillate ones, believing that ste- 
rility or fertility was greatly owing to the method of culti- 
vation ; and we then observed that as soon as convinced to 
the contrary^ we shoidd lose no time in informing our readers 
of the fact; we then immediately set about instituting a series 
of experiments to test this under our own eye; and when 
they were brought to a close the last season, we gave, as we 
promised, the results of our investigations, — satisfactory as 
they have been to all. 

Some excellent Pomological articles have been contributed 
by our correspondent, Mr. Humrickhouse, one of the most 
important of which is that upon a uniform nomenclature of 
fruits ; the principles which he advocates as necessary to 
carry out this, he has laid down in a plain and concise man- 
ner ; and we trust they have been carefully read and consid- 

in the United States. 5 

ered by all cultivators. Until these principles are acted upon, 
it will be useless to expect correctness in our catalogues of 
fruits. There is abroad among cultivators, as well as writers 
upon Pomology, a want of respect in regard to priority of 
names, and original descriptions. In Botanical science, the 
strictest propriety is observed in this respect ; and, to prevent 
errors and confusion, it should be no less observed in Po- 

The blight of the pear tree, so fatal in the west, has been 
the subject of an article by Mr. Ernst, (p. 135,) and he has 
given a very clear description of the manner in which the 
disease appears. But he has added nothmg new to the re- 
marks of Mr. Beecher, in our Vol. X. (p. 441.) 

Another subject which has attracted considerable attention 
has been noticed by Mr. Ernst, viz., the duration of races of 
plants. Our experience is against the opinion of Mr. Knight, 
but how far the causes which Mr. Ernst alludes to, have any 
effect upon the vigor of a variety, remain to be tested by 
long and careful observation. 

One of the most valuable papers which our last volume 
contains, is that of Mr. Humrickhouse, on the cultivation of 
the pear upon the apple ; a great deal has been said by foreign 
writers about the excellence of the hawthorn and mountain 
ash, as a stock for the pear, and by some American journals 
the apple ; but so far as the latter is concerned, we think Mr. 
Humrickhouse has conclusively proved that, though fruit may 
be produced on the apple, the pear is the stock which, for 
orchard culture, must be relied on. For garden cultivation, 
the quince is decidedly preferable, and while the cultivators 
of Great Britain are imitating the method of the French, in 
adopting dwarf trees upon the quince, our own cultivators 
should not neglect to follow their example ; the false notion 
that the quince is a very short-lived tree, is sufficiently re- 
futed by the fact that a long row of qiienouille trees in the 
Garden of the London Horticultural Society, which we saw 
in 1844, had been planted 2.5 years^ and was then in the most 
vigorous and fruitful condition. 

The conclusion of our European notes of gardens has given 
us space to bring up our Pomological notices: and during 
the year, we have given an account of all the new fruits of 

6 Progress of Horticulture 

importance, and also added the engravings and descriptions 
of eighteen kinds of pears, besides several apples and plums. 
The remarks of our correspondent, Mr. Manning, (p. 146,) 
embrace all the new fruits proved by him in 1845, and we 
have the promise of notes on such as have proved good the last 
year. The Leon le Clerc, which in 184.5 created so much 
attention, did not fruit so well last year, probably owing to 
the hot summer ; in many places, it cracked badly ; but this 
should not induce any one to discard it ; the experience of 
several successive seasons should always be required before 
deciding upon the merits of a new kind. The Dunmore has 
fruited again ; but specimens from the President of the Mas- 
sachusetts Horticultural Society, from a tree on the qumce 
were not of so high a character as given by Mr. Thompson. 
A definite opinion must be deferred to another year. The 
true Monarch has not yet fruited, but it is hoped that speci- 
mens will be produced this year ; trees received from various 
sources in England since the identification of the true kind 
by Mr. Thompson, have proved spurious. The following 
kinds of pears have proved to be valuable varieties, posses- 
sing qualities which entitle them to general cultivation : — 
Henkel (Yan Mons), Van Assene, Doyenne Boussock, Dallas, 
Doyenne gris d'Hiver Nouveau, Doyenne d'Ete, Knight's 
seedling, McLaughlin, Elizabeth (Van Mons), Coter, Ananas 
(of the French) Plumbgastel, Beurre d' Anjou,'Pratt, and some 
others. Some new grapes have been lately added to our 
already extensive list ; in a future page will be found a notice 
of some of them by Mr. Allen, but we may name Wilmot's 
Black Hamburgh, New Black Hamburgh No. 16, Muscat 
Blanc Hatif, Cannon Hall muscat. Black Tripoli, Wortley 
Hall Seedling, and Macready's Early white, as fine additions 
to this excellent fruit. A favorable season for peaches has 
also brought to notice some new seedlings which we shall 
notice in the course of the volume. 

As connected with the culture of the grape, which is every 
year rapidly extending, by means of cheap and appropriate 
structures, we should not omit to call attention to the capital 
article of Mr. Russell upon their management in the cold 
house. He has touched the wliole ground, and, with mode- 
rate judgment, no person can fail to produce a fair crop of 
grapes, if his advice is followed. 

in the United States. 7 

A great number of new strawberries are noticed in some 
of the agricultural journals ; Dr. Brinkle, of Philadelphia, 
having raised two hundred and fifty varieties since 1842, 
and Mr. Burr, of Ohio, about fifty. We await the opinions of 
our friends in regard to their merits. At least three years 
will be required to accurately test their value before offering 
to the public. To raise a strawberry from seed one year, 
bring it into fruit, with a dozen or two berries the second, 
and name, describe, and offer it for sale the third, will not be 
a sufficient guaranty to induce cultivators to buy. Princess 
Alice Maud, the Swainston seedling, Prince Albert, the 
British dueen, and other foreign kinds, though some of them 
are tolerably good, have proved far inferior to American 
seedlings, and they cannot be relied upon for principal crops. 

The establishment of a class of premiums by the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society, through the liberality of some 
unknown amateur cultivator, must have a good tendency in 
the selection of fruit ; these premiums being for the best two or 
three varieties during a series of three years ; and those kinds 
which gain two out of the three, will have the standard of 
superiority, so far as the fruit alone is concerned ; something 
must then be allowed in regard to the growth and hardiness 
of the tree, and the general qualities of productiveness, beauty, 
&c. &c. Good results, however, must follow, as the commit- 
tee will, at the close of each year, publish a list of the names 
of the fruits which take the premiums. 


The increasing interest in Pomology, and especially a de- 
sire for information relative to new pears, has induced us to 
devote much of our room to that subject ; consequently our 
last two volumes have not contained so many articles upon 
the cultivation of plants as those which preceded them ; with 
an increase, however, of the number of pages, we shall again 
look well to the interest of the Florist, and endeavor to devote 
our usual room to the cultivation of rare and beautiful plants. 

Our last volume, however, contains some excellent articles. 
The phlox, which has recently attracted more attention from 
the increased beauty of the Belgian seedlings, has been the 
subject of a notice, and we have described twenty-four of the 

8 Progress of Horticulture 

best varieties, and given some remarks upon their cultivation. 
A capital article on the tulip has been contributed by one of 
our most successful amateurs, and also one upon that beauti- 
ful, but too much neglected flower, the pansy, by the same 
writer. These have been in such detail, that we trust they 
have been found of great value to cultivators. 

A reference to our reports of the Massachusetts Horticultu- 
ral Society will show the variety of new flowers and plants 
which have been exhibited. Among the number, will be 
found many of the newest fuchsias, gloxinias, gladioluses, 
roses, achimenes, pelargoniums, &c. The fuchsia has been 
shown in fine condition, and some of the new sorts have been 
great improvements upon the older kinds. Some of the new 
gladioluses have been extremely fine, particularly belviderus, 
a fancy striped variety. Achimenes picta has been the gem 
of pot plants, and will always be a favorite. 

Of new and rare plants which deserve particular mention, 
we may name Veronica speciosa, a very handsome summer 
flowering plant with spikes of violet blue flowers. Buddlea 
Lindleyd?^a, a shrubby plant with pretty clusters of purple 
and lilac flowers ; Gloxinia tubiflora with fragrant flowers, 
and G. Cartoni with exquisite white and pink blossoms. 
Some of the new pelargoniums have been exceedingly fine, 
but we hope to see them another year better grown, and 
brought forward with greater care ; in another page we have 
offered some remarks upon the cultivation of this family to 
which we refer our readers. Some fine new pseonies have 
been exhibited, and in particular one of the shrubby kinds, 
called Hissidna, a remarkable improvement upon the old ones. 
In our Floricultural notices, some new plants of remarkable 
beauty have been described, particularly the yellow tree 
pseony; Gardenia Stanle^rdwa, and the fine things found by 
Mr. Fortune in his China expedition, an interesting account 
of which (p. 445) we have already given. 

The production of seedlings of all kinds is yearly increas- 
ing, and good results must follow these numerous experi- 
ments. Mr. Wilder has been successful with the camellia, 
and has raised two very fine varieties, for which the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society awarded a handsome silver 
pitcher. A great quantity of Japan lilies have been raised 

in the United States. 9 

from seed, and we have no doubt that, in a year or two, some 
beautiful new kinds will be added to our gardens. The high 
price which these superb lilies have been held at, owing to 
their slow increase, and great demand, has prevented their 
finding their way into general cultivation ; but in a year or 
two we hope to see them in every collection. The Chinese 
azalea is the flower next to the camellia which is attracting 
great attention in England and on the Continent, and many 
superb new seedlings have been recently produced. We hope 
our amateurs will try their hand at the production of new 

We stated, in our annual summary last year, that we 
should not let a season pass by without impressing upon cul- 
tivators the necessity of more attention to the culture of hardy 
rhododendrons and azaleas ; and we are happy to know that 
what we have already said has induced many gentlemen to 
introduce several plants into their gardens. Only let a good 
collection once be seen in full bloom, and, our word for it, they 
will be more eagerly sought after than any other flowering 
plant. They are so perfectly hardy, and easily cultivated, 
that it is only surprising that their great beauty has not been 
recognized before. Our nurserymen have only to furnish 
themselves with a good stock, and dispose of them at reason- 
able prices, and then their introduction into every garden will 
speedily follow. 

Our extracts from foreign journals, particularly the Gar- 
dener's Chronicle, contain some valuable hints relative to the 
art of cultivation. We allude particularly to the advice on 
watering out of doors, — the drainage of pots, (p. 265,) and 
the general treatment of greenhouse plants (p. 66). The one- 
shift system of potting, which a year or two ago attracted so 
much notice in England, having lost its novelty, is numbered 
among other theories of the day applicable to some plants, but 
of no general utility. Guano has attracted less attention 
among cultivators of plants, but this arises from a settled con- 
viction of its value, after the many details of experiments 
of the three or four preceding years. We are most happy to 
notice that Dr. Lindley has paid a merited compliment to our 
friend Mr. Teschemacher, in extracting several columns from 
his excellent pamphlet on Guano. Some valuable hints on 

VOL. xni. — NO. I. 2 

10 Progress of Horticulture 

the use and application of Guano will be found at p. 168, by 
our correspondent, Mr. Robinson. 


The introduction of ornamental trees and shrubs of the 
more scarce and rare kinds is rapidly extending, and nursery- 
men are making greater elTorts to add to the very limited 
number which their collections have heretofore contained. It 
is gratifying to see the experiments which are now being 
made to test the hardiness of many trees which have recently 
been introduced to Great Britain, and some of which, from 
the elevated regions of warm countries, will be likely to prove 
hardy in the climate of the Middle and Eastern States. 
Among those more particularly noticeable, we may name the 
Cedrus Deodara or Deodar Cedar, from the East, where it 
forms one of the most majestic trees. In the notes of our 
foreign tour, we have repeatedly spoken of this cedar, and 
urged its introduction into our gardens, where it will un- 
doubtedly prove hardy. A small specimen in our collection, 
little protected with straw, stood the last winter well : as soon 
as it has acquired more strength, we shall try it unprotected. 
The Lucombe Evergreen oak we have proved to be quite 
hardy ; and specimens now before us, (Dec. 15,) are nearly 
as green and beautiful as the holly. The Paulownta is 
another tree, of the habit of the catalpa, producing large pur- 
plish flowers about the same size, with very large leaves, and 
of a growth as rapid as the ailantus. It has stood out quite 
unprotected on Long Island, and we have no doubt it will 
prove hardy around Boston. The original tree, which stands 
in the Jardin des PI antes, of Paris, has very much the appear- 
ance of the catalpa, the leaves not beuig near as large as has 
been stated, when the tree acquires a moderate size. 

The London Horticultural Society, perceiving the great 
good which must eventually result from the production of 
seedling trees and shrubs, has introduced into its schedule of 
prizes for 1847 two or three liberal ones for the best hybrid 
trees or shrubs : within a few years great improvements have 
been made in the lilac, magnolia and some other plants, and 
no doubt this movement of the Horticultural Society will aid 
much in inducing amateurs and nurserymen to extend their 

in the United States. 11 

experiments to all those ornamental trees and shrubs "which 
are most likely to give improved varieties. 

Under this head, we may allude to the excellent article on 
transplanting large trees, by our correspondent, Mr. Hender- 
son (p. 248) ; not that we are great advocates for removing 
large specimens, but merely to show that it can be done, — and 
successfully, — when it is desirable to plant in some exposed 
situation, or produce immediate effect in landscape scenery. 

The Public Garden in Boston, it is stated in the papers, in- 
tend to rearrange their grounds, and plant at least one speci- 
men of every American tree which will stand in this latitude; 
if such is the intention, we hail it as the first really progres- 
sive step which has been made since its organization. Had 
the amount been laid out for the improvement of the grounds, 
and the planting of trees, which was expended in purchasing 
a large collection of plants, the proprietors, as well as the 
public, might now have enjoyed the luxury of umbrageous 
walks and shady groves, which a judicious arrangement of 
trees would, in five or six years, have produced. 

Garden ARcmTECTUKE, 

The improvements in the erection of greenhouses and other 
structures for plants, are rapidly extending. To aid in tliis, 
we have given, agreeably to our promise, a full account of the 
mode of constructing grapehouses on the Curvilinear plan, 
first adopted by Horace Gray, Esq., of Newton, which has 
succeeded so well, that a large number have been erected, 
and others are now building in the same style. Our engrav- 
ings at pp. 379 to 383 represent the manner of construction so 
plainly, that any carpenter of moderate ability could erect a 

To test its applicability for the purpose of forcing, in our 
climate, as well as for grapehouses merely, we have recently 
erected a hothouse, eighty-four feet long, fifteen wide, and 
twelve feet high at the back ; with a roof facing the south 
only, the ventilators being in front, and in the back wall. We 
shall endeavor to give a plan of it hereafter ; it is now, as we 
write, just put in operation. Grapes are intended to be planted 
for forcing. It is fitted up with a pit the whole length, bottom 

12 Progress of Horticulture 

heat being supplied by pipes in a chamber beneath, and is 
warmed with one of Mr. Whately's cast-iron boilers. 

The principles of heating are now a subject of much discus- 
sion m foreign journals. We alluded last year to the system 
which was attracting so much interest, viz., the Polmaise. 
Flues have had their day, — steam succeeded, — hot water took 
its place, — and now comes the Air Ki?ig to dethrone them 
all. According to the accounts which have been given, the 
mode of heating by warm air has been far more successful 
thus far, — as well as, it is stated, more congenial to the plants, 
— and at not a quarter of the expense, — than hot water. Two 
years ago we tried a small house heated upon this system, but 
it did not succeed, owing to improper construction; this year 
we have again partially tried this plan, and it appears to work 
admirably. The Polmaise system is merely the construction 
of a chamber over the furnace, from whence the air is con- 
ducted into the house, and, traversing its length, when it 
becomes cool, is brought back by drains under the floor, to be 
heated again. Thus a constant circulation is going on, which 
is highly congenial to the plants, moisture being supplied by 
a pan of water, over which the hot air must pass as it comes 
into the house. For the climate of England, there is no doubt 
of its perfect success, but for our severe weather it remains to 
be seen whether it can be made to answer ; the only requisite 
will be a powerful furnace to supply hot air. We shall soon 
give some plans and a further account of this new mode, 
that our amateurs may be induced to try it; for vineries 
where only a slight heat is required, in the months of March 
and April, it will succeed well. 


The increase of nurseries is the best evidence of the prosper- 
ous condition of Commercial Gardening : a large extent of 
country to supply, with an increasing taste every where ap- 
parent, has caused a demand which has not been fully met, 
particularly in choice varieties of pears. In the Atlantic cit- 
ies, this is especially the case. But large quantities of stocks 
have been planted out, and we may soon look to a supply 
fully adequate to the wants of the public. 

in the United States. 13 

In Boston and vicinity, the nurserymen have been extend- 
ing their premises, and their collections of trees. The Pomo- 
logical Garden of Mr. Manning has been extended, and the 
facilities for supplying trees increased ; and we are happy to 
know that the deserving young men, who have succeeded to 
the management of their father's place, so well sustain the 
reputation of the garden for accuracy. Mr. Allen of Salem 
has been highly successful in the culture of the grape, and it 
is with great satisfaction that we lay before our readers, in 
another page, the result of his experience thus far, in regard 
to this delicious fruit. 

A constant demand for large trees has been of service to the 
older establishments around Boston, whose accumulated stock 
might sometimes be thought of little value ; and Messrs. Win- 
ship and Kenrick have contributed to supply the demand. 
Messrs. Hovey & Co., by the construction of two new houses 
upwards of one hundred feet long, have greatly extended their 
collections of greenhouse plants; and their stock of fruit trees, 
especially of 7ieiv and j^are kinds, is very large. The specimen 
fruit trees, containing 500 varieties of pears alone, are rapidly 
commg into fruit. Mr. Walker, of Roxbury, is devoting much 
attention to the pear, with a view chiefly to raise large and 
fine specimens which will come at once into bearing, and thus 
prevent the amateur from waiting for a supply of fruit. 

Our time has not allowed us our usual autumn visit to New 
York, but we learn that our Flushing friends have a fine 
stock of trees. Mr. Reid, of Murray Hill, has a fine piece of 
ground at Elizabeth town, N. J., from whence his stock is 
mostly received. Mr. Thorburn, at Hallet's Cove, is devoting 
much attention to a fine collection of plants. 

In Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, many addi- 
tions have been made to the several nursery establishments, 
and our correspondent, Mr. Buist, has opened a seed estab- 
lishment in Chestnut Street. 

Of commercial gardening in other cities, we have no direct 
information. In our last volume is an account of its condi- 
tion in Western New York, particularly around Rochester 
and Buffalo. In the former city, Messrs. Bissell and Hooker 
and EUwanger & Barry, Moulson, and others, are extending 
and increasing their several collections of trees and plants. 

14 Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 

Garden Literature. 

The principal publications of the year have been Browne's 
Trees of America; the Farmers' Dictionary^ by D. P. Gar- 
dener ; the Fruit Cultu7'ist, by J. J. Thomas ; and the C0771- 
pendof Atnerican Agriculture, by Mr. Allen. Mr. Downing' s 
Fruits has passed to a sixth edition. A Report of the Trees 
and Shrubs of Massachusetts, by order of the State, has been 
completed by G. B. Emerson, Esq., but it will not be distribu- 
ted till after the Legislature convene. Other smaller works 
have been published. A new edition of the Flower Garden 
Companion, by Mr. Sayers ; and pamphlets on the Grape and 
Straiobeny, by Mr. Longworth ; and the Cidtu7'e of the 
Grape, by Dr. Flagg. Mr. Colman's work has reached the 
seventh No., three more completing the work. The old New 
England Farmer has been discontinued, and its place filled 
with the Horticidturist, published at Albany. The Geyiessee 
Farmer is ably edited in the Horticultural department by 
Mr. Barry, of the Mount Hope Gardens, Rochester. The 
American Agriculturist and Cultivator continue to be issued 
with their usual merit. 

Art. n. Taste in Horticulture and in Desig7is. 
By Observer. 

We have been often pleased, in the perusal of the "Maga- 
zine of Horticulture and Botany," at the laudable attempts 
of the Editor of that periodical, to introduce to the favorable 
notice and adoption of gardeners, and of those who may have 
a rod or two of ground to cultivate, such contrivances for the 
handsomer growth of plants as combine ornament with util- 
ity. A well ordered garden of ever so humble a character, 
properly laid out, or its plants judiciously arranged, pleases 
the eye very much more than a larger domain where Flora 
reigns indeed, but in a state of misrule and misprison. We 
have seen such gardens, so rudely kept, and so slovenly at- 
tended, that it would require the ardor of a botanist to per- 
ceive any particular interest in the variety, nay, in the profu- 

Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 15 

sion, which oftentimes may be found there. We have also 
seen in some a very Umited area of a few feet of neatly kept 
borders and beds, much fewer plants, yet of such choice selec- 
tion, and admirable adaptation to the circumstances of the 
place, as to afford a degree of pleasure as satisfactory as it 
was unexpected. We have been often most sadly disappoint- 
ed in our expectations of some 7iew species, some rare or lately 
introduced variety^ through the careless or unpropitious man- 
ner in which it has been presented to our eye, and again as 
agreeably surprised to find, in some other collection, points of 
real merit and of excellence, which a better growth, or more 
favorable coincidences, have brought out. Were plants, like 
some other organized beings, as sensitive to a careless and in- 
different regard to them, or to their wants, we could imagine 
how often and how deeply they must be wounded in their 
feelings, or shocked, at the want of common sense and of just 
propriety exercised towards them. In floriculture, more than 
half the art of culture depends on the proper taste employed 
in bringing out and setting forth the distinctive merits of the 
subject under consideration : — this the more especially, if the 
subject be a plant of some well known kind, in which the ge- 
nius of the florist would develope some new beauty, hitherto 
unperceived ; or if, again, it be some new variety of an old 
and well known kind of flower, where none but his critical 
eye would be able to see the distinctive marks of the variety 
from the original species, uifless his contrirance or his art 
should make them at once prominent. To these ends, the 
florist must become not only the artist, but the inventor : and 
the more fertile his mind in experiments, the more successful 
will he be in expedients. Whoever has had &x\y practical ex- 
perience in floriculture knows well how much soils and ma- 
nures aflect the growth and general habit. The cultivator of 
fruits, too, is well aware how much depends on good man- 
agement, not only of cultivation in the soil, but also of judi- 
cious training, and artistical operations above the ground, on 
the body, branches, entire plant itself. Would he produce 
fair specimens of fruit, he knows that he must most carefully 
train, prune, ripen. JXo superfluous growth must be allowed 
to hinder the more important portions, on which are to de- 
pend the healthy and operative functions. Every tree, every 

16 Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 

vine, has its rules of culture, whether espalier or standard. 
The better they are trained, the more orderly they look, and 
the more certain the anticipated result. As, in every thing 
which requires attention, there are, and must be always, rules 
to be observed and methods to be employed, so, particularly 
in the order and management of the garden, there must be a 
similar propriety, to be strictly and rigidly regarded. 

It is on the just appreciation and nice tact acquired, of these 
facts, that the skill of the florist depends. He not only is the 
experimenter on the nature and properties of the soils best 
adapted to the luxuriant or more natural growth of plants, 
but he must combine the talent of a discriminating taste on 
the future arrangement of their growing and flowering. To 
a certain extent only can art overcome nature ; and excess of 
care may prove as fatal, in some cases, as its want. The na- 
tive habits of plants ought to be known. We should not ex- 
pect to see the delicacy and tenderness of some species, whose 
native growth is usually sheltered by situations combining 
shade and moisture, exhibit themselves in a transplanted suc- 
cessful culture, exposed to the sun, and chilled by the change- 
ful winds : nor should we anticipate a gorgeous exhibition of 
brilliancy, in tints of petal or foliage, where heat or light were 
insufficient. These same remarks hold good in the artistical 
arrangement of the growing plant, so that it may adapt itself 
to its unnatural situation, and imitate nature as much as its 
circumstances allow. In this, nature should be regarded as 
much as art will permit : for when either are forced out of 
their legitimate sphere, the eflect must be always and un- 
questionably bad. 

We have spoken of the skill of the florist in setting out the 
particular merits of new species and varieties, so as to show 
their best points, and at the same time to permit and even 
invite the eye of the beholder to detect at once the difterence. 
It is well known that some quite choice varieties difler so 
little from the older ones, that such skill is necessary to make 
their merit appreciated. Sometimes it consists in the better 
shading of the petal, sometimes in the deeper green of the 
foliage, and sometimes in the straighter or cleaner contour of 
the stem. Judicious pruning frequently obviates unpropitious 
characteristics, or ingeniously contrived apparatus overcomes, 

Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 17 

by training, some unsightly traits. These minuter distinc- 
tions apply more particularly, however, to the greenhouse 
culture, than to that of out-door. But even here we have 
been offended at the want of good taste. Pot culture, at the 
best, is liable to great inconveniences ; yet a degree of ele- 
gance, combined with artistic effect, has been repeatedly 
attained. In greenhouses of commercial gardens, we do not 
of course expect such niceness and propriety ; nothing more 
beyond what will conduce to successful culture, and to the 
best disposal of the stock on hand. But, in private collections, 
how unseemly are crowded masses of pots, a multitudinous 
grouping of mere individual plants, all struggling for those 
elements of light and air which should belong by good rights 
to but a few only ! — upright plants growing crooked and un- 
sightly, for want of management ; trailing kinds stiffly tied 
in unnatural positions, and others trained in modes where, 
what of beauty might be intrinsic in them, stands more than 
a fair chance of being lost. Every one knows how much 
depends on the contour of a greenhouse, that a most judicious 
management be regarded, so that the individual merits of 
each plant may be brought to light. A well-ordered private 
collection should excel in the propriety of its management, 
not only in the culture, but in the choice. If intended for 
display, elegant designs should be introduced : if for bril- 
liancy, profuse flowering kinds, and these well grown : if for 
uniqueness, larger, rarer and more picturesque species : if for 
choiceness, the newer and later-known species and varieties : 
if for the effect of peculiar cultivation, those kinds which are 
best and only thus adapted : if for delicacy and grace, those 
of tenderer and lighter character. But in all, choice, taste, 
and artistic effect are essential, plenty of room, neatness of 
execution, adaptedness of design. In fine, other things con- 
sidered in the right place, choice is the great desideratimi ; not 
rejecting some, simply because old, nor hastily making ac- 
quaintance with others, because they are new. For scarcely 
in any department of productive labor is it found more true 
than in horticulture, in all its branches, that that which is 
recommended for netv^ is not decidedly an improvement, nor 
that which is condemned as old^ is henceforth of no value. 
In out-door culture of the garden, the above observations 


18 Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 

may also apply. The nature and capacities of the situation 
are to be consulted. Smaller areas should be devoted to 
humble and showy specimens ; larger and wider should em- 
brace a greater and more various growth. So numerous have 
become the objects of the florist's care, that scarcely any soil 
or spot could be found, which is not suited to ornamental 
improvement. For shade and for sunshine, for moisture and 
for aridness, for fertility and for sterility, for mould and for 
sand, for clay and for peat, may be found plants appropriate. 
For trellises and for arbors, for pillars and for pediments, for 
vases and for baskets, for fountain and for mimic lake, are 
the very flowers and plants which are needed. For all sea- 
sons of the year, from earliest April to chill December, are 
hardier or more delicate, little or larger floral gems, which 
may gladden the heart of the recluse or of the generous. 
Only, to have them enjoyed in their perfection, every one 
should strive to do them justice. So propitious and kind a 
deity as Flora, should not be mocked with a want of taste 
and sense of propriety. She reigns over the graces and ele- 
gances of life and of nature ; she expects her devotees to pay 
her their homage in the same spirit and truth. 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society also, has done 
much to introduce a better and more correct public sentiment 
in regard to the value and importance of Horticultural pur- 
suits. By its judicious and high-minded management, we 
can see yearly, the improvements which are taking place 
around us in this respect. If it were for fruits alone, that our 
gratitude should be shown towards this Society, it would be 
no small matter. But it has by no means stayed its eflbrts 
or its hands in these. For the creation of new varieties of 
superb flowers, we are deeply indebted to its members. For 
the enterprise shown in the introduction of every thing of 
foreign interest, we ought not to forget some, and not a few, 
who hold prominent and laboriously useful offices of its honor 
and trust. For its weekly displays of every thing which 
the season affords, from the newest and latest Belgian pear to 
the prettiest annual or more gorgeous perennial, introducing 
to notice whatever is thus curious and valuable. And for its 
annual exhibition, intended to gratify the public, and to en- 
courage its members to a laudable and more earnest endeavor : 

Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 19 

these are instances of the sagacity of its institution, and of 
the propitious results. It stands thus in a prominent and 
conspicuous point of view, and is recognized by its influence 
and eflects, as in some measure the dictator of the pubhc taste 
in those matters which more particularly concern it. To its 
tables resorts the inquirer after synonyms of undetermined or 
unknown fruits, or else to gather from the experience it has 
realized, some valuable information, which it is supposed 
capable of imparting. To its flower-stands resorts the inquirer 
after what is new or beautiful in floriculture, to learn some- 
thing which interests him. To ascertain how some diflicultly 
cultivated plant may be treated with success, goes the ama- 
teur, to find what he has not himself discerned. Of these, 
we have been. Much that is new, beautiful, curious, rare, 
valuable, we have thus acquired. We trust that a Society 
like this will continue to receive the public approval, and be 
the means of diffusing a correct taste as well as knowledge, 
in our midst. 

The prominent as well as important situation in which this 
Society finds itself placed before the public, who look to it for 
the best and happiest results of Horticulture, in all its depart- 
ments of operation, renders any thing savoring of a critical 
spirit, a peculiarly delicate afiair. Yet, out of justice to the 
great and general cause for which the pages of this Magazine, 
Mr. Editor, are, we suppose, intended, we venture, with an 
attempt of a proper degree of modesty, to difler from the cri- 
terion of taste displayed in the Hall of the Society during the 
two last Annual Exhibitions particularly. We allude to 
those larger and smaller designs, which rendered a small 
space around the fruit tables still smaller, without adding 
any thing of general interest to the occasion. It seems to us 
a pity to destroy so many good, bad and indifferent flowers, 
dahlias, german asters, marigolds and eternals, by nailing 
them through the centre, like base coin, to wooden structures, 
called pagodas and temples, or sticking them on flat pieces of 
pasteboard, of the shape of battledoors, pentagonal stars, or 
any such devices. We know not, but that we are little 
better, perhaps little worse than barbarian in our opinion, but 
such it is, and we shall dare the censure of such judgment. 
Statues, vases, columns, temples, &c. &c., are all well enough 

20 Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 

in their places ; but, to our mind, they should be real. They 
should be works of art ; not skeletons of wood made with 
saw and hammer and covered with fantastically arranged 
flowers, where the design is merely to make surface of masses 
of blossoms, or by pieces of moss and lichens glued on, to 
cover up the wood. In the open air, a bust, a statue, a 
broken column or a classic vase, are all attractive among 
embowering walks and sylvan shades. A rudely constructed 
arbor of crooked limbs of trees, naked or festooned with ap- 
propriate vines, would be a fit recess for Flora ; and in larger 
and more extended grounds, a moss-house is very well, in 
the way of the picturesque, but such strange constructions of 
moss and withered flowers, certainly seem to be very much 
out of keeping, both with the Hall of the Society and with 
the intentions of Horticulture. We never have been able to 
look at all such efforts without a feeling that they were in a 
high degree puerile ; and that they injured essentially the 
purpose and eflect of public exhibitions of floricultural skill. 

We have always had a great admiration for a bouquet. At 
any season of the year, such a bunch of flowers is particularly 
agreeable. But the very idea of a bouquet seems to imply the 
good old English and familiar word, nosegay ; some prettily 
arranged and easily handled affair, which one could carry 
lovingly about with him, and regale his olfactories with the 
breath of more than Araby's odors. But think, Mr. Editor, 
of such a bouquet, — a nosegay a yard or two in length, filled 
with dahlias, marigolds, both scented, indeed, but by no 
means perfutned, amaranths and zeranthemuns, for blossoms, 
with a suflicient back-ground of greenery of various sorts and 
kinds ! There are bouquets, to be sure, of gigantic propor- 
tions, intended as centre ornaments for vases ; we like these ; 
much genius and true taste can be displayed in forming them; 
but we do object to those frame- work and pasteboard designs 
which lean against the walls on either side of the hall, wherein 
nothing is to be seen of art or invention, and the whole matter 
lies in tying in place, or nailing to a flat surface. We by no 
means would discourage enterprise or talent ; but let it have 
its legitimate sphere. A florist should be a cultivator of 
flowers ; he should learn how to present them to the eye, 
with the best advantage and taste. He should learn how to 

Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 21 

make them tell, so to speak ; how to exhibit all their intrinsic 
charms. The fruit-grower should grow his fruit in such a 
manner as that he can realize all the healthful energies of 
that variety of tree, shrub or vine, which comes under his 
care. The saw and hammer belong only to him as accom- 
paniments to the knife, to lay in wood, to prune out excres- 
cent or useless branches. Both in their horticultural art fol- 
low nature, though they deviate from her at the same time. 
Nature is their mistress ; to her general laws they are obliged 
to submit. The nearer they do this, — the happier they effect 
the union of their art with her laws, the more perfect their 
success. A finely cultivated plant displays more talent and 
skill than any number of pagodas of dahlias, or temples of 
hollyhocks. An elegantly grouped bunch of choice flowers, 
pyramidal or cylindrical in its contour, is far more attractive 
than hosts of moss-covered obelisks, decked ofl" with stars of 
asters and wreaths of amaranths. For our own part, we 
would give more and go farther to see a single weH grown 
rhododendron, or a new azalea, than all such efforts at 
effect, combined. Perhaps the trouble and expense of con- 
veying choice and well cultivated pot specimens outweigh 
the advantages proposed ; and that these more cumbrous de- 
signs can be fabricated on the very spot, and serve to make 
a show. This may be so ; and there may be some weight in 
the observation : if so, we only regret the circumstance all the 
more. But certainl}^ such is not the case with the others, 
with inelegant designs and strange perversities of withering, 
withered and long dead flowers. We do not presume that, if 
we are correct, our single anonymous suggestion will be 
adopted ; if we are wrong in our condemnation, we are quite 
willing to remain in that predicament ; nay, we rather prefer 
it to that of falling in with such notions, so contrary to our 
ideas of what would promote and encourage a floricultural 
taste in our community. 

•We have taken the liberty, Mr. Editor, to use your pages 
on this subject-matter of our communication, (if you think it 
worthy an insertion,) because, as we set out, so we repeat, 
that it has given us pleasure oftentimes heretofore, to notice 
your efibrts to promote that elegance and beauty of design in 
floriculture, on which its success depends. We trust that 

22 Taste in Horticulture and in Designs. 

you will be induced to continue in your course ; and by such 
suggestions as you derive from foreign periodicals, (not al- 
ways to be followed, indeed,) and from your own observa- 
tions, that your Magazine will, as its title imports, become 
the medium of " all useful discoveries and hnpi-ovevnents in 
rural affairs." 

We have lately seen that a meeting of the proprietors of 
the Public Garden in your city has been held ; in which were 
taken some active measures to carry out the plans of that 
Institution, as modified and improved, by the introduction 
and planting of all native trees and shrubs, and by making it 
a pleasant and profitable resort of the citizens of Boston. We 
trust that efibrts so laudable will be carried into effect ; and 
that success in its project will cooperate with the efforts of all 
lovers of horticulture, in elevating the public taste, and in 
thereby improving the public morals. 

December 8, 1 846. 

Art. III. Observations upon the Potato Rot. By J. S. B., 
West Scituate, Mass. 

As the disease which has affected the Potato for a few 
years past, both in the United States, and in Europe, has ex- 
cited a great deal of anxiety among agriculturists, and is yet 
involved in some mystery, any attempt, however humble, to 
throw light upon this subject, and to explain the nature and 
progress of this disease, cannot fail to attract the attention of 
those engaged in tilling the soil, whose wealth and prosperity 
are more or less affected by this prevailing epidemic. 

Having pursued, during the past season, a series of original 
investigations upon the subject, the following are the conclu- 
sions to which I have arrived. The disease has not prevailed 
so extensively this year as it did in 1845 ; but yet, complaints 
have reached us of its ravages in some places, and almost 
every where slight traces of its existence have been perceived. 
I discovered such indications in my own garden, and having 
the facilities at hand, determined to give the subject a careful 

Observations upon the Potato Rot. 23 

It has been said that the leaves are first affected ; and that 
the withering of these leaves, as if they had been struck by a 
blight^ is the first sign or warning of the presence of the de- 
stroyer^ But I am inchned to doubt the correctness of this 
statement. The first indication of the presence of the disease, 
is upon the haulm or stalk. This, if carefully examined, will 
be found to be covered with mmute black specks, strikingly 
resembling in appearance the excrement of the fly, and visible 
to the naked eye. These specks are a species of fungus, 
which attacks the plant, in most cases very suddenly, and 
which, in my estimation, is the chief cause of the rot. As 
soon as their roots (for they are parasitic^ have penetrated 
through the cuticle of the stalk, the sap, from Avhich they 
derive their nourishment, becomes vitiated, and the withering 
of the leaves is the immediate consequence. This withering 
of the leaves affects the health of the plant, and renders it 
more susceptible to the attacks of the fungus. Soon the pith 
of the stalk becomes diseased, and, if examined with a lens, 
will be found to contain many of these black specks, showing 
that the fungus is there. Finally, it extends down the stalk 
to the roots, or parts cormecting the stalk with the tubers. 
These roots are completely hollowed out by the fungus, or in 
other words, their interior is entirely destroyed, or, eaten up. 
The skin of the tuber is next attacked, and this becomes dis- 
colored. By lifting up the skin carefully, and examining tiie 
tuber with a lens, the same black specks will be found, show- 
ing that the fungus is there. Last of all, the roots of the 
fungus penetrate the cells of the tuber, destroy their texture, 
and, by breaking down their walls, the contents of contiguous 
cells are brought together, and corruption, or putrifaction 
ensues. This is the last stage of the disease, or the 7'ot. The 
above is a brief sketch of the progress of the disease, which I 
have endeavored to clothe in language comprehensible by 
every farmer. 

In harvesting a field of potatoes, those who have carefully 
noticed the appearance of the stalks, have been able to tell 
what hills were affected by the rot, and what were not ; and 
not only so, but the same observation enabled me to tell what 
tubers in any particular hill were affected. The stalks of 
those hills which are affected, are rotten at the bottom, near 

24 Observations upon the Potato Rot. 

their connection with the root; that is, their texture is entirely 
destroyed, and they are in a brittle, decayed state. Some- 
times one stalk only in a hill is in this condition, and the 
tuber or tubers connected with that stalk, will be found 
affected with the rot. 

After the potatoes are harvested, those on which the black 
specks above described are found, will decay ; but in the pro- 
cess of decay, I have not found that they affected sound 
tubers, and caused them to rot. The disease cannot be com- 
municated ifi this way ; it must pass through the several 
stages aforenamed. There may be instances in which tubers 
slightly affected, or containing merely the germs of the dis- 
ease, from peculiar causes, will remain sound through the 
winter, and it may be in this way that the disease is propa- 
gated from year to year. But of the correctness of this sug- 
gestion, I am not fully satisfied. It needs to be confirmed by 
observation. Those who are acquainted with the natural 
history of the Fungus tribe, are aware, that their sporules, or 
seeds, are exceedingly minute and numerous. Probably mil- 
lions proceed from a single plant. Besides, these seeds are so 
light, being but a mere dust, as seen by the naked eye, that 
they are easily wafted about, and so minute, that they might 
attack a plant without being perceived, until they had reach- 
ed their maturity. It is owing to this, that the disease pre- 
vails so extensively, and it may be that it has thus been prop- 
agated even across the ocean. The wide prevalence of the 
disease, indeed, will be no matter of surprise to those accus- 
tomed to the enlarged views of the diffusion and propagation 
of plants, which an acquaintance with Botany furnishes. 

I have prepared specimens, illustrating the progress of the 
disease under consideration, which I should be happy to show 
to any one desiring further information. The fungus which 
attacks the potato is very small, so much so, that it is proba- 
ble there are no glasses of sufficient power to render their 
seeds visible. Yet, that they have seeds, no one can doubt. 

The specimens to which I have alluded, show the fungus 
upon the outside of the stalk; next upon the pith or inside; 
next upon the interior of the root ; next upon the skin of the 
tuber ; and, last of all, in the cells of the tubers themselves. I 
have also prepared specimens, showing the different appear- 
ance of the healthy and the diseased plant. 

Observations upon the Potato Rot. 25 

In an article published by Mr. Teschemacher, in the New 
England Farmer, about two years since, he attributes the 
disease in the potato to a fungus, and states, that to discover 
a remedy for the disease, he apphed various substances to the 
fungus, to effect its decomposition ; and names salt as the first 
appUcation. '-The action of this w-as so instantaneous and 
decided," says he, " that I did not proceed to any other. A 
portion of the dark substance was placed on a piece of glass 
on the microscope stand, in a drop of distilled water, and then 
thoroughly examined : a little salt on the fine point of a pen- 
knife was then added ; a nearly instantaneous change took 
place; the dark-colored masses separated, much of them 
seemed to pass away, and instead appeared numerous dark 
slate-colored globular bodies, which I easily recognized as the 
spores or reproducing bodies of the fungus." Having the 
above article by me at the time I pursued my investigations, 
I repeated the experiments first tried by him ; but not with 
similar success. The decomposition of the plant was not 
effected ; nor was I able to discover the spores. Three seve- 
ral times I repeated the experiment, but with no different 
result. I did not try either of the other substances mentioned 
by him, as time did not permit. 

The disease called in Germany the Potato scab or wart^ 
and which Dr. Wallworth ascribes to a species of subterra- 
tiean fungus, which he calls Erysihe subterranea, cannot be 
the same, I think, as the Potato rot, for this is not caused by 
a subterranean fungus, but by one which attacks the stalk of 
the plant, as I have already stated. Mr. Teschemacher, in a 
subsequent article in the New England FarTner, appears to 
be of the same opinion, and the remarks which I have offered 
upon this disease will be found, in the main, to agree with his. 

A writer in Silliman's Journal of Science and Arts, for 
September, 1845, states that it " cannot be said with certainty 
that the disease first appears as a fungus upon the leaves ; " 
and that " there are well authenticated instances where the 
potato tops have remained green and flourishing, while the 
tubers were much diseased." In this statement, I am in- 
clined to think there is an unintentional mistake, which has 
arisen from want of accuracy in the observations. There 
may be well authenticated instances of diseased tubers in 

VOL. XIII. NO. I. 4 

26 Zinc Labels for Trees. 

hills where a part of the tops were green and flourishing; 
but I think if all the tops had been closely examined, some 
one would have been found affected, and that one communi- 
cating with the very tubers which were rotten. I am fully 
convinced, that the disease is caused by the fungus in ques- 
tion, and that it first attacks the stalk. 

In the remarks of Professor Playfair, in his Lectures de- 
livered before the Royal Agricultural Society, in London, 
reports of which were published about a year since, he at- 
tributes the disease to the destruction of the cellular walls of 
the tuber, and in this he follows Liebig, the scientific German 
chemist. But this destruction of the cells, it appears to me, 
is not the pi^imary cause of the disease, but an effect, as I 
have already stated, of the penetration of those cells by the 
roots of the fungus. Most of the phenomena described by 
both the above gentlemen, may be discovered attending the 
disease; but its true cause lies behind those phenomena. 
That there is any constitutional weakness affecting the cellu- 
lar tissue of the potato, I am inclined to doubt. We have had 
peculiar seasons, both here, and in Europe, for the past three 
years ; seasons which have been highly favorable to the gene- 
ration and propagation of Fungi, and they have been remark- 
ably abundant every where. It is these fungi that have at- 
tacked the potato, and produced the disease. I believe its 
prevalence to be owing, or attributable, to the peculiar state 
of the atmosphere ; and that no specific, or infallible remedy 
for the disease, has been yet discovered. It may disappear 
in a few years. A change in the atmosphere may render the 
reproducing spores of the fungus inert for a time sufficient to 
destroy them, and this may check the disease. - 1 indulge in 
no apprehensions for the future. A merciful Providence 
watches over us all, and in his goodness we may safely trust. 

West Scituate, Mass.. Dec. 1846. 

Art. IV. Zinc Labels for Trees. By J. Owen, Cambridge. 

In the last number of your Magazine, you have described 
a kind of label for trees, which comes near enough to a 

Zinc Labels for Trees. 27 

method practised by me, for several years, to induce me to 
think that you alluded to a conversation I had with you on 
the subject a short time since. I have now written out my 
method, and accompanied it with some explanations. If you 
think the genuine reading of any importance, you are at 
liberty to give it a corner in your next number. A great ob- 
jection to the use of unpainted zmc, marked with a lead pen- 
cil, one of the modes adopted by your correspondent, is the 
indistinctness of the writing, the color of the zinc and of the 
pencil mark being nearly the same. 

Loudon, in his great work on Gardening, has enumerated 
many kinds of tallies used in England, no one of which com- 
bines, to so great a degree, those essential advantages, dura- 
bility, convenience and economy, as the painted zinc. Even 
for mercantile purposes, I think this will prove the most con- 
venient mode to nurserymen, and be highly useful to pur- 
chasers, most of whom, with the loss of the common wooden 
labels, soon lose the names of their fruit trees, about which 
they remain indifferent, till at length the different varieties 
begin to bear. Then curiosity is excited to identify the kinds. 
The greatest confusion follows. Serious mistakes are made 
and perpetuated. A large and dear experience is necessary, 
before the amateur can separate the wheat from the chaff, 
distinguish the genuine from the spurious, and at last arrive 
at even a tolerable degree of certainty in the nomenclature of 

I send you a few tallies, as specimens of the various 
methods I have used, at different times, while seeking for 
something better than the " good old way." 

Cambridge, Nov. 21, 1846. 

Method of Making the Labels.* — Have ready a sheet of 
zinc, which must be perfectly clean. Take the purest white 
lead, ground in oil ; thin it with spirits of turpentine, in 
place of oil ; add mastic varnish {copal turns the paint 
yellow,) sufficient to make the composition adhere well 
to the zinc and give it hardness, but not in excess, which 

* Any tinman will furnish strips of clean zinc, cut them into pieces of two square 
inches, after being painted, and punch them, at the rate of 23 cents per hundred. 
This would be cheaper than to use whole sheets. 

28 Zi7ic Labels for Trees. 

would render the surface too smooth. Apply the paint thin, 
with a common painter's brush ; the newer it is the better. 
Let the paint dry, in a clear sun, a week at least, when 
another coat may be added. This should be suffered to re- 
main a fortnight, if possible, in order to acquire greater hard- 
ness before being cut ; otherwise the edges will be rough, paint 
being apt to peel from metallic surfaces when first applied. 

The zinc may now be cut into pieces, two inches long by 
one wide, and punched at least half an inch from one end of 
each tally, in order to allow of some wear from the wire used 
to attach it to the tree. The best wire is made of copper. 
Narrow strips of sheet lead are sometimes used, but, besides 
being more clumsy, they are not stiff enough. Iron rusts 
away in a very short time, besides not being so tough as cop- 
per. No. 23 copper wire may be bought for 50 cents per 
pound, which will cut into 640 pieces of 8-inch lengths. 

From the liability of the tallies to twist off a fine wire in 
high winds, this size is none too large. The French nursery- 
men mark their trees, when sent out of the nursery, with bits 
of lead a half inch square, having a number stamped on each, 
and for such mercantile purposes, find a much finer wire suf- 
ficient. But when it is desirable to write the name of the 
tree in full, which is generally the case when a tree is planted 
out, more surface is required, and of course a larger wire is 
necessary to prevent its being broken by the wind. It is a 
better way yet, to rest the tally against a twig, or, if the tree 
be small, and without convenient twigs, to bend the wire 
round the stem and tally together, for the first year, taking 
care to guard against rubbing on the written side. This will 
prevent the friction of the wire on the zinc, which is some- 
times so great as to cause the tally to drop and be lost. 

The best material for writing upon the tally, is a common 
black-lead pencil. It is not only the most convenient, but 
perfectly durable, time rendering the marks almost inefface- 
able. If the pencil be tolerably hard, and cut to a fine point, 
you can write many things on a very small surface. Besides 
the name of the tree, other memoranda, as one may wish, 
may be noted at the time of planting, and afterwards, as in 
grafting anew, making experiments, &c. They may in this 
way be made to relate their own history to many generations, 

Zinc Labels for Trees. 


and, though nature alone can give them " tongues," art can 
give them tallies, the inscriptions on which will often be more 
interesting to the amateur, (to his shame be it said,) than the 

higher and more mysterious language of 


We are obliged to Mr. Owen for a com- 
munication of his mode of making zinc 
labels, which was the plan we had reference 
to in our remarks appended to the article of 
Mr. Phillips, (XII. p. 426.) 

Accompanying the above, Mr. Owen sent 
us several specimens of the labels, an en- 
graving of which we have annexed, {fig. 
1.) showmg the size and form. The 
specimens show the effect of the paint- 
ing when properly or improperly mix- 
ed. One, with mastic in excess, does not 
take the pencil mark readily. Another, 
with copal in excess, takes it rather better, 
though quite indistinct, both having too 
glossy a surface ; a third, painted one coat, 
in proper proportions, in August, written 
upon November 23, and exposed to the 
weather until December 10th, gives the 
pencil mark such permanence, that it can 
only be removed by the aid of sand. A 
fourth specimen shows the effect of wetting 
the surface of the label when the writing 
is made, which gives it a blacker and more 
distinct mark. One label, written upon m 
1841, but twisted off by the gale of Sep- 
tember last, has the mark as distinct as those that have not 
yet been exposed to the weather. To show how much may 
be written upon one label, we copy the following from one 
sent us by Mr. Owen, and occupying only a portion of one side. 

Beurr6 Diel. Planted Nov. 21, 1841 ; proved spurious. Grafted Aug. 13, 
1842 ; bore in 1845. 

We have only one cautionary remark to make, — that is, that 

Fig. 1 . Zinc Lab el 
for Trees. 

30 Hog and Jerusalem Artichokes. 

in all tallies which are attached to trees with wires, especially 
when it is necessary to twist the wire, that it may prevent 
the label from rubbing, care should be taken that they are 
looked at, at least every spring, in order that they may not 
girdle the branch. We have had imported French trees, with 
the lead tags, mentioned by Mr. Owen, attached, which were 
badly girdled from inattention to this. It is also best to at- 
tach the label to a small lateral shoot, rather than the main 
trunk, or any of the principal branches, as a little neglect will 
not then be attended with so much injury. — Ed. 

Art. V. A Comparative Notice of the Hog and Jerusalem 
Artichokes^ with a descrij)tive account of the growth^ habit ^ 
and use of the former variety. By Dr. M. A. Ward, 
Athens, Ga. 

Please to express my thanks to those of your correspond- 
ents who have so kindly criticised the error in my note on the 
Hog Artichoke, published in the July No. of your Magazine, 
(XII. p. 268.) They might, without departing very surpris- 
ingly from the usages of the times, have charged me with 
ignorance, stupidity, or even with some moral dereliction ; for, 
unhappily, a spirit of bitterness has of late been creeping into 
the discussions or controversies which are found m some of 
our Horticultural periodicals, that would seem more congenial 
to the arena of political gladiators, than to the garden, with 
its serene pursuits and researches, the tendency of which 
should be to excite emotions of admiration and benevolence, 
rather than of rancor and uncharitableness. My fault, — 
and it has mortified me much, — was but " a slip of the pen,'^ 
at which I was myself as surprised as I was to see it in print 
at all ; — for my note to you, written in the greatest haste, 
was intended merely to call your attention to the subject, 
without a thought of publication. 

And now, while my pen is in the apologetical humor, I 
believe I may as well forestall future criticism, by begging 
pardon in advance, for another hasty act. It would certainly 
have been more safe, as well as modest, to have written the 

Hog and Jerusalem Artichokes. 31 

words " distinct variety;^ instead of " distinct species of He- 
li an thus." I hope, too, that I have wounded the feelings of 
no one by an imphed distrust in the ability of other botanists, 
to settle this little matter, by naming Drs. Torrey and Gray, 
as those with whose determination I should rest quietly satis- 
fied ; for it is well known that the characters of the species in 
most of the order Compositse, especially in the large genera, 
are often obscure and puzzling, — requiring great practical skill 
and access to the most recent published descriptions and col- 
lections of dried specimens, to enable one satisfactorily to set- 
tle the name of a kind which he has never seen before. 

My opinion, when given, was based principally on the dif- 
ference in the form of the tubers ; — and it is, I believe, a re- 
ceived canon in Botanical nomenclature, that a difference in 
the structure of any of those parts from which the specific 
characters are taken, — provided it be constant, and propaga- 
ted by seed, shall be regarded as a sufficient ground for be- 
stowing a different specific name. It is true that 1 have not 
applied the test of raising them from the seed, but I have, for 
several seasons, grown the two kinds, side by side, in my 
garden, and note the following distinctions : — 

The tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke, {fig. 2) are commonly 
produced in a compact clump around the foot of the stalk, sel- 

Fig. 2. Outline of a tuber of the Jerusalem Artichoke of the natural size. 

dom spreading over an area of more than 12 or 18 inches in 
diameter, but often lying touching one another like eggs in a 
basket. Their general form approaches the globular, and in 

32 Hog and Jerusalem Artichokes. 

the smaller specimens often attains it : though they are fre- 
quently very irregular with knobs and protuberances, which 
are always obtusely rounded at the end. Those of the Ten- 
nessee or Hog artichoke, {fig' 3) are three or four times less in 

Fig. 3. Outline of a tuber of the Hog Artichoke, nearly of the natural size. 

size, but vastly more numerous, formed both along the course 
of, and at the extremities of stolones, which extend, variously 
branching and interlaced, so as to form a thick mat over a 
space 3 or 4 feet across. Those who are sceptical with re- 
gard to the doctrine that Irish potatoes are not roots, but 
modified stems, I think will have no doubts as to the nature 
of these productions. In form, they are always long and 
slender, acutely conical at both ends, though thickest towards 
their distal extremity, which terminates not with a mere eye, 
or bud, but with a regular built crown, as in the tuberous 
roots of Convallaria multifiora. In some, now before me, not 
larger than my little finger, this commencement of next year's 
stem projects an inch, and has already put forth fibres three 
inches long. I am told, but have not observed the fact my- 
self, that these tubers remain solid and succulent in the 
spring, long after those of the common sort have become 
corky or hollow — a property which greatly increases their 
value, as food for hogs. 

The stems of the Jerusalem artichoke, as they commonly 
stand less thick on the ground, are larger in diameter, 
the epidermis green, but, on the upper part and branches, 
thickly sprinkled with minute brown spots, or tinged of a 
purplish brown on the side next the sun. Those of the new 
sort attain about the same height, but are more branched, the 

Hog and Jerusalem Artichokes. 33 

branches long and slender, and entirely of a bright purple 
hue. The flowers of these expand the soonest by 10 or 14 
days, the petals of the ray longer, often twice as long as the 
other, and the plant altogether makes a more gay and striking 
appearance. Indeed, a field of these, of from 5 to 10 acres, or 
even of one acre, viewed from an elevated distance, in the 
month of September, adds a very remarkable feature to the 

Now it may be that these differences are those of a variety 
only, for so far as I can see, the specific character given by 
Limiseus, '' H. fol. ovato. cordatis trinervizs," and even the 
recent one in Eaton's Manual, " Leaves 3-nerved, scabrous ; 
lower ones heart-ovate ; upper ones ovate, acuminate ; petioles 
ciliate ; root tuberous," — will apply quite as well to one 
sort as to the other. Still if it be true, as is most probable, 
from its having been introduced mto this country from that 
direction, that its native habitat is Texas, or Mexico, whilst 
the old one hails from Brazil, I shall continue to think, till 
the matter is settled by authority, that the new sort is also a 
new, or at least a different species. 

As to the taste of hogs for them, it seems to be an acquired 
one, like that of men for oysters, or pickled olives. They 
almost always reject them at first, but after a while begin to 
relish, and then become ravenously fond of them, — turning up 
and pulverizing the soil to a great depth, in search of the 
smallest fragment. 

There is a great difference of opinion as to their value in 
an economical point of view ; some unhesitatingly pronounc- 
ing them a humbug, while others think they are destined to 
produce as important a change in our rural economy, as did 
the introduction of the root culture into England. For my- 
self, I believe that, with judicious management, they may be 
made to reduce greatly the expense of raising pork — and that 
they woidd be well worth cultivating, were it only for their 
effect in renovating the soil. 

Athens, Ga., Nov. 16, 184G. 

VOL. XIII. NO. I. 5 

34 Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 

Art. VI. On the Cultivatioti of the Pelargonium,^ with a De- 
scription of Several New and Fine Seedlings. By Edward 
Beck, Esq., Worton Cottage, Isleworth, near London. 

It is with much pleasure that we announce to our readers, 
that we have been able to secure the assistance of Edward 
Beck, Esq., one of the most successful amateur cultivators of 
the Pelargonium, as an occasional correspondent of our Mag- 
azine. Mr. Beck has been particularly successful in the pro- 
duction of new varieties of pelargoniums, and his seedlings 
of the last three years have annually carried off the first prizes, 
at the Exhibitions of the London Horticultural and Royal 
Botanic Societies of London, for this most beautiful but far 
too lightly prized flower by our amateur cultivators. 

Mr. Beck has also been one of the most successful cultiva- 
tors of roses in pots, which have recently been made objects 
for prizes by the London Horticultural Society, and his gar- 
dener, Mr. Dobson, obtained the highest prize for the best 
twelve varieties. But so wedded to the cultivation of the 
pelargonium is Mr. Beck, that he has offered his whole stock 
of roses, the finest collection in pots in the kingdom, for £50, 
and he states, to use his own words, that " I find if I am to 
be as successful as I desire, I must not undertake too much, 
or something will be neglected, so I make every thing subser- 
vient to pelargoniums. I grow some choice orchids, but they 
are, at times, shamefully neglected, though we often show them 
in my slate articles* very creditably, and now and then pick up 
a prize." This is the true way to acquire great results, for 

* Mr. Beck is aa extensive manufacturer of slate pots, which are finely adapted 
to large Camellias, oranges, &c., and they may be obtained at the annexed prices in 
London : — 

12 inches 


14 " 


15 " 


16 " 


IS " 


20 " 


22 " 


24 " 














We hope some of our extensive cultivators will import a few and try them. 
We intend to do so. They are far better looking than the unsightly tubs generally 
seen. — Ed. 

Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 35 

amateurs too often, with little time to devote to their gardens, 
and unwilling to incur great expense, grasp at too much, and 
too frequently have but little to show either creditable to 
themselves, or gratifying to their friends. 

Last year, Mr. Beck raised about 3.000 seedlings, out of 
which he has kept, for a second year's trial, from twenty to 
thirty plants. Of every plant he keeps for trying a second 
season, he saves only two or three cuttings which he contin- 
ues to grow ; and these, when their merits are fully proved at 
the exhibitions of the second season, are propagated for a stock. 
Mr. Dobson, he informs us, has his stock "in wonderful con- 
dition, both seedlings, yearlings, and two years' old. The 
latter I am particularly interested in, because there are some 
entirely novel points in their characters." Another season, it 
is his intention to publish an illustrated catalogue, which shall 
exhibit the true characters of the flowers, the faults as well as 
the merits. 

Mr. Beck is, strictly speaking, an amateur cultivator, but 
the fame of his seedlings spread far and wide, and there were 
so many applicants for his plants that he was induced to offer 
them for sale ; and to such an extent has the demand been, 
that the past season, his orders exceeded in value three hun- 
dred poimds sterling, for young plants to be delivered in Octo- 
ber. No better test is needed to show the great merit of his 

Pelargoniums, like many other plants of easy and rapid 
growth, which every body thinks there is no art in cultivat- 
ing, are too frequently seen in any thing but the real condi- 
tion in which skilful and judicious treatment will bring 
them ; and the errors also lie as much in cultivating too highly 
as in not cultivating at all. The very large plants which 
are often exhibited, and which now continue to form highly 
attractive objects at the Horticultural Exhibitions, may be, 
and undoubtedly are, fine specimens of what art may accom- 
plish, so far as growth, form of the plant and abundance of bloom 
are concerned ; but the quality of the flowers is generally — we 
might say always — sacrificed to the luxuriant growth of such 
huge specimens. Witness what Mr. Beck writes us on this 
head : — 

" Let me, while on the subject of these plants, remark, that, 

36 Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 

if you want to see fine flowers, the pots must be filled with 
roots, the foliage ceasing to be luxuriant previous to the bud's 
expanding ; this throws the remaining vigor of the plant into 
the flowers, and then you will see them in their true charac- 
ters on the two year old plants. I assure you very candidly, 
if my varieties had been shown by Mr. Cock only last season 
at our exhibitions, the flowers would have been entirely con- 
demned, his plants were so fine, the bloom so bad. But hap- 
pily our collection was always there to vindicate my judgment 
in sending them out. In no one instance last season, did I 
see my productions in their true character, all aiming at large 
specimens, had their plants growing when they should have 
been flowering, the foliage, in some cases, rmming over the 

We do not, by any means, wish to condemn the practice of 
growing large plants ; on the contrary, we have recommend- 
ed it : but then we should not do so with kinds intended to 
show the delicacy of color, or excellent pencillings, which con- 
stitute the real beauty of the pelargonium. But large speci- 
mens form handsome show plants, always admired, and to 
fill up the tables of a Horticultural Exhibition, most prom- 
inent objects. 

We trust our remarks, with the following hints on their cul- 
tivation by Mr. Beck, will have a tendenc^;^ to redeem the 
pelargonium from the neglect to which amateurs seem to have 
consigned it. In England, the choice kinds command a rap- 
id sale, as Ave have just seen, at prices rarely less than 07ie 
pomid, and from that to two pfounds two shillings sterling per 
plant, exceeding even in value, taking into consideration its 
rapid propagation, almost any other plant. But with us, fifty 
cents is the standard price, while a camellia, or some other 
plant far less suited to parlor cultivation, commands quadruple 
that sum. We would suggest to the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society, the propriety of establishing prizes for the exhi- 
bition of the pelargonium, with a view to bring it into proper 
estimation : a series of prizes, on the principle of the Lon- 
don Horticultural Society, which has been highly advan- 
tageous to a just appreciation of its great merits, and at the 
same time given it a rank j^r5^ among the amateur collections 
of plants. That plan is as follows : — 

Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 37 

Pelargoniums in collections of twelve new and first-rate varieties culti- 
vated with superior skill, in eight-inch pots. Gold Banksian medal, £1. 
Silver Gilt, £4. Certificate of excellence, jG2 10s. 

Pelargoniums, in collections of twelve varieties in eleven-inch pots. 
The same medals. [These are the large specimens. — Ed.] 

Scarlet Pelargoniums, in six distinct varieties in pots not less than eleven 
inches in diameter. Silver Gilt medal, £4. Certificate of Excellence, 
£2 10s. Large Silver medal, £l 15s. 

To be disrjualified, if not really fine. 

Some such arrangement, reducing the number of plants to 
six in the place of twelve, if thought expedient, the better to 
accommodate amateurs, with one of the Society's, or one of the 
Appleton Gold medals, and two or three smaller prizes, 
would be the means of at once rescuing this flower from the 
commonality, if we may so use the word, into which it has of 
late fallen. May we not hope that our hints will be duly 
weighed before making up the list of prizes for 1847 ? 

We now come to the directions of Mr. Beck for the full cul- 
tivation of the plants, as laid down in a small treatise pub- 
lished by him, biit which, being now out of print, we publish, 
to save the author the labor of rewriting : — 


The following remarks upon the management of the pelar- 
gonium, are principally intended for the guidance of private 
growers ; for the method of training adopted by exhibitors is 
not that which I think best calculated to make the finest 
display upon the home stage. It is requisite that plants in- 
tended for exhibition should have every truss carefully sup- 
ported by a stick, or they would not bear the transit without 
considerable injury ; this gives them a stiff, unnatural appear- 
ance, very different to that where Nature predominates over 
Art. Again, for exhibition, it is requisite that the flowers 
should be much closer to the foliage than is desirable in a 
private collection. If the accompanying directions are fol- 
lowed, the plants ought to be close and bushy until the end of 
April, when the flower-stalks should push boldly above the 
foliage, so that when the whole are in flower, the eye should 
rest on a rich varied sheet of bloom, unbroken by the dis- 
figurement of the innumerable sticks so offensive at our grcu 
Metropolitan Shows. I have endeavored to give the colors 
accurately ; but the tints are so varied, and called by such 

38 Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 

different names, that it is no easy matter to convey right im- 
pressions to all minds. 


This should always be in stock. A top spit of turfy loam 
in alternate layers, with the muckings out of the stable, al- 
lowed to lie in a heap till the straw is well decomposed, and 
then turned repeatedly in frosty weather until well incorpo- 
rated, forms an excellent staple, and should be placed under 
some open shed, and protected from washing rains. Cow- 
dung, several years old, when it assumes the appearance of 
black mould, peat that contains plenty of vegetable fibre, and 
the best silver sand, should be housed in a similar mamier. 
Presuming a provision of this kind to be at hand, we will fol- 
low the plants as they go from my stock. 


They are sent out by me in four-inch pots, and well estab- 
lished ; shift them at once to a six-inch size, with plenty of 
crocks, into a compost of two-thirds turfy loam, as above de- 
scribed, not sifted, only rubbed down, and the larger stones 
picked out, and the remaining third peat and silver sand. 
Promote their growing freely until they have rooted well 
round the pots, then keep them quiet by withholding water 
as much as possible, and by giving them abundance of air ; 
pinch the tops off the shoots, leaving not more than three eyes 
to break from. 


At the beginning of February, shift them again into eight- 
inch pots. An oyster shell over the hole, and a less quantity 
of crocks, will give abundant drainage. Let the soil be three 
fourths turfy loam, the remainder silver sand and cow-dung. 
Rub off by hand the outside and top of the ball ; pot mod- 
erately solid ; bury a portion of the stem if too long ; support 
and train out the leading shoots, if possible, to short sticks, 
and water with a rose. Keep them close, to encourage their 
rooting ; then give them air at every opportunity, but avoid 
doing so in cold easterly winds, which are always better ex- 


Ought to be withheld as much as possible. If the house is 
fitted with roller blinds and curtains for the front and ends, 

Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 39 

several degrees of frost may be excluded by their use ; and if 
we set the fuel saved, and the better condition of the plants, 
against the wear and tear of blinds, we shall find ourselves no 
losers by their use. In severe weather, do not let the fire 
heat, particularly at night, raise the temperature above 45 de- 
grees. Pans of water for evaporation, placed on the heating 
apparatus, whether pipes or flues, will be found valuable. 


In April, we begin to arrange for this interesting time, now 
at hand. The blooming shoots should be trained out by 
sticks, that ought not to appear higher than the base of the 
flower-stalk : the truss that will not support itself is either 
drawn or unfit for the amateur's stage. Air should be freely 
given from early in the morning till two, three, or four o'clock, 
when the sun warmth should be shut in, and the syringe oc- 
casionally drawn over them. The water should be rain, con- 
ducted from the roof into a tank under the stage, or other 
convenient place, where it will be kept at the temperature of 
the house — an imj)ortant 'point. At the end of this month, 
the eye, brought to a level with the plants, should look hori- 
zontally over a surface of buds standing above the foliage, 
similar to a crop of barley, when ripening. 


At all times, the plants should be kept clean ; but previously 
to the flowers appearing, it is indispensable that not a green 
fly should be allowed to exist ; fumigate, therefore, whether 
aphides be detected or not. 


The arrangement of the plants on the stage, when they are in 
bloom is a point deserving of attention, for the general efiect is 
very much heightened thereby. Some flowers, which will not 
bear a nearer situation, are striking when placed at a distance 
from the eye ; then again, placing the most opposite colors side 
by side displays them to much greater advantage. But on this 
point I need not enlarge. 


To preserve the flowers in bloom, the bees must be care- 
fully kept out ; nothing answers better, for this purpose, than 
cheap open muslin blinds, about A.d. per yard. By this means, 
the light and air will be freely admitted, while the insects are 

40 Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 

effectually excluded. [This is very important ; we have had 
many other flowers injured by bees, as well as pelargoniums, 
especially azaleas, and if bee-raisers knew the injury their 
bees do to their neighbors, they would banish them from their 
premises. In very large greenhouses, it will be attended with 
trouble and expense to put up the blinds recommended by Mr. 
Beck, but where there are bees, it must be done, or the flowers 
will be quite spoiled. — Ed.] 


Should be taken off" the plants when they can be got. They 
strike more readily early than in autumn, and, in addition, 
they make finer plants. If not obtamed before, they must be 
selected at the general 


This is generally in July. The plants should be allowed 
to become quite dry, and then be cut back as closely as the 
leaving suflicient eyes will allow. They should be kept in 
the greenhouse, and have plenty of air until the wounds are 
healed, then be watered and kept close, to induce them to 
break strongly. This they will soon do, and the shoots length- 
en to an inch or more, when they should again be allowed to 
dry, be shaken out, the roots cut boldly back with a sharp 
knife, and repotted into a six-inch size. If plunged into gentle 
bottom-heat, they will soon root round the pots, and be in a 
state for the same course of treatment which they received as 
young plants. [In our dry climate, the plants may remam in 
the open air, where they heal up rapidly enough. Neither is 
it important to plunge the plants in bottom heat, after they 
are potted. — Ed.] 


This is performed in a variety of ways. Mr. Cock, than 
whom there is not a more successful exhibitor, strikes all his 
cuttings in the ground under a hand-glass, without heat. Our 
method is to make a very open compost from a large admix- 
ture of sand, then plunge them on the surface of a tank, cov- 
ering them with hand-lights, kept close during the day, and 
removing the tops at night. In this way, Mr. Dobson is very 
successful. The average time they take to emit roots is three 
weeks, when they are potted singly into small sizes, and 
when well rooted, they are shifted into the four-inch pots, in 

Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 41 

which they are sent out. [In our fine, dry, and warm cU- 
mate, especially in July, the mode adopted by Mr. Cock is 
full as successful as that practised by Mr. Dobson. — Ed.^ 

I would conclude these observations by remarking, that a 
different treatment to the above, in many particulars, may be 
followed with equal success. Practice and observation are 
far better instructers than the most careful directions. Season, 
situation, soils, &c., exercise their influence, and produce dif- 
ferent results, even when the course of treatment is precisely 
similar. But it may be taken as a rule, that neglect will be 
followed by its natural consequence — inferiority both of speci- 
mens and bloom. He who waters his plants without first 
ascertaining whether they require it, must not be surprised at 
the appearance of the spot, or at their dying altogether. He 
who allows them to be crowded together in ill-ventilated 
houses, must expect them to be drawn in foliage and flower ; 
and he who purchases the new varieties, and allows them 
to remain till April in the pots they are sent out in, starving 
for room, and filthy with fly, must not expect to see the blooms 
exhibiting their true character, or answering the expectations 
of the purchaser. 


Seedlings of 1845, senL out October last. 

Aurora, raised in 1844, and unequalled in my collection. — Eye very 
striking, purely white at the base of the back petals, which are of a rich 
glowing crimson, inclining to scarlet, with a deep blotch, leaving merely a 
lighter edge ; bottom petals of a fine glowing crimson ; good substance, free 
bloomer, and excellent habit. 

Received prize at Horticultural Society's Exhibition, 1844, and the high- 
est prize at the same, 1845, and at the Botanical Society's Exhibition also. 

Competitor, 1845. — A rich-colored flower, top petals covered with an 
even tint of velvety-maroon, leaving a narrow rim of rosy crimson on the 
edge ; centre of the flower light, slightly tinged with blue, with lower petals 
of a bright rosy purple, with a deep rose-colored spot in each ; free bloomer 
and good habit. 

Received the prize at the Horticultural and Regent's Park Exhibitions, 
1845, and the medal at each of the same exhibitions this season. 

Hebe^s Lip. — Velvety-crimson top petals, with dark spot gradually shad- 
ing off" to the margin ; white centre, with bright rosy pink under petals; 
large flower, free bloomer and good habit. 

Shown at Regent's Park only, 1845, and obtained prize. Exhibited this 

VOL. XIII. NO. I. 6 

42 Cultivation of the Pelargonium. 

season at Horticultural Society's Exhibition, and Regent's Park, and re- 
ceived a medal at each. 

Bacchus, 1845. — A fancy flower of very fine shape, the upper petals a 
deep maroon, with a narrow border of rose ; centre white, rose-colored un- 
der petals, having dark clearly defined veins and blotches in each ; excellent 
habit and free bloomer. 

Shown only this season at Chiswick, and obtained the Silver Banksian 

Patrician, 1845. — Very finely-formed flower, rosy pink lower petals, with 
dark top ones changing to rosy crimson on the edge ; excellent quality, 
habit and bloomer, but more common in colors than the others. 

Shown at the Botanical Society's Exhibition, 1845, and received a prize ; 
and this year at the same, and obtained silver medal, and at Chiswick, and 
obtained certificate of merit. 

Resplendent, 1844. — Rather small flower, the color of Foster's Confla- 
gration, with a whitish-tinged eye and a well-defined spot ; a free bloomer 
and good habit. 

Shown for the scarlet prize at the Botanical Society's Exhibition, 1845, 
and obtained it. 

Sirius. — A large-sized crimson-scarlet flower, of excellent quality and 
substance, and has been much admired in my collection. 

Gigantic. — This is sent out as a Trade flower only. It is of great size, 
forming large and abundant trusses, making a striking object on the stage, 
and is also well adapted for exhibition, particularly in the country. 

[The prices of these are £l. lis. to £2. 2s. each. — Ed.] 

I beg to remark, that their characters are not my own, but taken from the 
Reports of the Exhibition, with the exception of the two last. 

Seedlings 0/1844, sent out October, 1845. 

If the Exhibition Lists are consulted, it will be seen how often the fol- 
lowing have been shown and obtained the highest prize in the class "New 
and First-rate Varieties." 

Arabella. — A beautiful flower, with white centre ; ground-color warm 
rosy pink ; deep blotch on the top petals, softening into crimson ; free 
bloomer, good habit, and constant. 

Othello. — A flower of novel character ; the upper petals of a deep even 
purple color, surrounded by a perfect margin of a rosy tint ; under petals of 
an even rosy purple color ; close habit, and not an abundant bloomer. 

Desdemona. — A striking flower, from the great contrast between the up- 
per petals, which are a rich maroon, surrounded by a narrow rim of pink, 
and the lower ones, which are a pinkish white, terminating in a white cen- 
tre ; good habit, free bloomer, and constant. This flower has an inclination 
to twist. 

Marc Antony. — To deep-colored top petals, bordered by a narrow rim of 
light rose, are united bottom ones of light rosy pink ; in the centre of each 
is a purplish spot ; good habit and free bloomer. 

Isabella. — Delicate warm pink under petals, uniform in color, short and 

Descriptive Account of the Grape. 43 

well rounded ; top petals deep bright maroon, softening evenly to the edge, 
which is of a warm pink, similar to the under petals ; free bloomer and good 
in habit. 

Mustee. — Handsome large flower ; ground-color delicate warm pink, with 
a steady purple maroon blotch ; good habit, and free bloomer. 

Rosy Circle. — Fresh rosy color, dark, well defined spot; good round stiff 
flower ; profuse bloomer, and constant. 

Favorita. — This flower is inferior to Foster's Favorite,h\it sufficiently like 
it to be mistaken for it. Its good quality consists in its constancy ; and, 
from its habit of growth and bloom, it is desirable for either the private 
stage or exhibition table. 

Margaret. — A small, smooth, good-shaped maroon-colored flower; pro- 
fuse bloomer ; the lower petals flat, pink ; the margin on the upper ones is 
of a bright tint. 

Zenobia. — A very attractive flower, but defective in its general form, the 
lower petals being too pointed. Its novelty consists in its massive mulberry 
spot on the upper petals, margined with rose ; centre white, lower petals 
delicate pink ; profuse bloomer, and good habit. 

Art. VII. Descriptive Account of Thirty-two Varieties of 
Grapes., fruited in 1846 ; with Remarks upon their gen- 
eral qualities, &c. By J. F. Allen, Salem, Mass. 

Below is a list of the grapes which I have grown under 
glass, and exhibited at the rooms of the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society this season, with a description of them. 

By the term, "hangs well," may be understood that the 
fruit will keep on the vine, after it is ripe, sixty days, or 
more ; provided, that proper attention is given, to keep the 
house dry and well aired: by a "late house," is meant one 
in which fire heat is applied in autumn, to ripen and preserve 
the crop. 

Black Hamburgh. — More extensively cultivated, and de- 
servedly so, in the vicinity of Boston, than any other grape 
under glass. It is a great bearer, the flavor very rich and 
sweet ; bunch large, shouldered alike on both sides ; berries 
roundish and sometimes elongated, large, and, when well 
grown, very black, with a thick bloom. Good for forcing, 
cold, or a late house; hangs well. It was sent to England 
about eighty years since from Hamburgh, and this name giv- 

44 Descriptive Account of 

en to it there : in the north of Europe, it is grown by the name 
of Frankendale, which is probably the true one. 

Wilmot's New Black Hamburgh. — A new variety, quite 
distinct ; bunch large and shouldered ; berries very large, 
round, black, with a very thick bloom, and having a ham- 
mered appearance ; flesh firm, and nearly, if not quite, equal 
to the old Hamburgh ; in appearance handsome ; hangs well, 
and suitable for forcing, cold, or late house. 

Wilmot's Black Hamburgh. No. 16. — Another seedling 
disseminated by Mr. Wilmot ; fully equal to the old, and per- 
haps with more spirit : bunch large shouldered ; berries 
round and large. 

Zinfindal. — A very handsome grape ; bunch large and 
long, often with one, and sometimes two, shoulders on the 
same side, nearly as large as the main bunch ; berries medi- 
um size, round and very black, with a thick bloom ; flavor 
good : when first colored, quite acid ; should remain on th5 
vine several weeks after apparently ripe, or until the berries 
begin to shrivel. Suitable for a forcing or late house. It is 
probably a German grape. I cannot find any described an- 
swering to it. 

It was first grown in this vicinity by S. G. Perkins, Esq-, 
of Brookline, who received it from a gentleman in New York 
state ; it very closely resembles a grape miscalled Franken- 
dale, (also grown in this neighborhood,) but it is not the 
same, being more acid. 

Frankendale — alluded to above; resembles the Zinfindal 
in every particular except flavor, and this is quite sweet. It 
is proper to mention, here, that the two are thought synony- 
mous by many ; this last I have not grown myself, but have 
carefully examined it in other houses, and only name it here 
as connected with the Zinfindal ; as it is desirable the true 
name of each should be found, and this may be the means of 
calling attention to them. 

Black Portugal. — A strong-growing grape, of fair quahty; 
bunch very large, shouldered, and compact ; berries set 
well ; requires severe thinning, oval and very black, with a 
thick bloom ; should hang some weeks after coloring, before 
eating. Suitable for forcing cold or late house. 

Early Black July. — The earliest grape ; bunch small and 

Thirty-two Varieties of the Grape. 45 

compact ; berries small, and covered with a rich bloom ; when 
first colored, very acid, but will, by hanging, become very 
pleasant-flavored. Too small to be desirable in the forcing 

Miller's Burgundy. — Very like the early Black July, but 
easily distinguished by the foliage of this being covered with 
a white down. Not worth a place in the house. 

EsPERioNE. — Bunch very large and shouldered ; berries 
black, round, medium size, with a thick bloom ; flavor sweet ; 
does not hang well ; the berries soon shrivel and become dry 
and poor. 

Hansteretto, or Hanstetto. — Bunch large ; berries large, 
black, and oval ; does not set well. 

Black Prince. — A fine, spirited grape ; bunch long and 
shouldered ; berries oval, black, with a thick bloom ; medium 
size ; sometimes cracks ; hangs long. Suitable for forcing, 
cold, or late house. 

Black St. Peter's. — Very like the Black Prince ; hangs 

Black Prolific — A good grape; bunch very large and 
shouldered: berries black, round, with a rich bloom, very 
like the Black Hamburgh ; hangs well. Suitable for forcing, 
cold or late house. 

WoRTLEY Hall Seedling. — The latest grape, and a very 
good one ; bunch medium size; berries large, long and oval ; 
black and covered with a thick bloom; hangs well; cracks 
some. Suitable for a late house only. 

Black Tripoli. — A good sweet grape, resembles the Black 
Hamburgh ; berries more elongated. 

Red Traminer. — A rich grape ; bunch large and shouldered ; 
berries medium size, round and red colored; hangs well. 
Suitable for forcing or cold house. 

Aleppo. — A good grape ; bmich large and shouldered ; ber- 
ries medium size and round : the color, when first formed, 
red, changing to almost white at maturity. Suitable for forc- 
ing, cold or late house. 

Rose or Red Chasselas, a handsome grape, of good qual- 
ity ; bunch rather small ; berries medium size, and of a red 
or rose color ; hangs well. Suitable for all houses. 

White Frontignan. — One of the best Muscat grapes ; bunch 

46 Thirty-two Vai'ieties of the Grape. 

medium size, rarely, but sometimes shouldered ; ripens about 
ten days after the Hamburgh, and requires a dry situation ; in 
a wet soil it will shrivel or shank and will not be worth cul- 
tivation. Berries large and round, and when well ripened, 
of a beautiful amber color ; does not hang so well as many 
kinds. Suitable for forcing cold or late house. 

Grizzly Frontignan. — Another fine Muscat grape ; bunch 
not very large, slightly shouldered ; color reddish gray, with 
a thick bloom ; ripens before the Black Hamburgh and other 
Frontignans ; hangs well. Suitable for forcing cold or late 

Black Frontignan — Same flavor as the other Muscats: 
bunch long; berries black and round; requires the same 
situation as the Avhite. Suitable for all houses. 

Tottenham Park Muscat. — A seedling from the Muscat of 
Alexandria, which it resembles. Bunch large and shouldered ; 
berries oval, amber colored; flavor, muscat, but the two 
years 1 have grown it, it has not been so rich as its parent ; 
sets well^ and hangs well. Suitable for forcing and late 

Charlsworth Tokay. — A very fine grape of muscat flavor ; 
hangs long. Suitable for forcing or late house. 

White Muscat of Alexandria. — Bunch very large, and 
shouldered ; does not set well ; one of the richest muscat 
grapes ; berries large, oval, and of an amber color ; hangs 
long. Suitable for forcing and late house. 

Chasselas de Bar Sur Aube. — A very fine white grape ; 
bunch large and long, often ten to twelve inches, usually 
without shoulders ; very like the White Chasselas in flavor, 
but to be preferred for planting ; a great bearer and sets well ; 
berries medium size, round, and when fully ripe amber color ; 
ripens before the common Chasselas. Suitable for forcing or 
a cold house. 

Muscadine or Early White. — Closely resembles the Bar 
Sur Aube, but, with me, ripens ten to fifteen days earlier. 
Good for forcing. 

Golden Chasselas. — A fine grape; bunch long, sometimes 
shouldered; berries, large, round, and of a golden color; some 
seasons cracking badly ; does not hang well for this reason. 
Suitable for forcing and cold house. 

Horticultural Memoranda. 4tt 

White Gascoigne. — A fine white grape ; bunch large and 
compact, with shoulders; berries inclining to oval, cracks, 
and does not hang well. Suitable for forcing or cold house. 

PiTMASTON White Cluster. — Bunch small, compact and 
shouldered; berries small, rich, and amber colored. Suita- 
ble for forcing or a cold house. 

Verdelho. — The Madeira wine grape ; bunch, medium size 
and shouldered ; berries small and oval, and amber colored ; 
flavor rich ; hangs well. 

White Nice. — Bunch very large ; berries small and round ; 
rich flavored. 

Syrian. — Bunch very large and shouldered ; berries oval ; 
flesh firm, and, if allowed to hang until of an amber color, 
very fine flavored ; hangs well. Suitable for forcing or late 

Salem, December, 1846. 

It is scarcely necessary for us to make a remark upon the 
above most excellent and invaluable article to every grape 
cultivator ; for Mr. Allen is every where well known as one of 
our most zealous amateur grape-growers, devoting nearly all 
his leisure time to this choice fruit alone. His liouses are of 
great extent, and grapes are cut nearly the year round — com- 
mencing with the forced ones, in April, and ending with those 
from the late house, in January. Mr. Allen has upwards of 
sixty varieties of grapes planted out, but he has only given 
us the results of his own experience in regard to such as have 
fruited, leaving the others to be noticed hereafter, when their 
qualities can be compared and tested in the same manner as 
those now enumerated. In connection with Mr. Russell's, 
and other articles we have given heretofore, it affords all the 
information any cultivator need require to produce grapes in 
the greatest abundance and perfection. — Ed. 




Grape Vines in greenhouses and graperies will be at rest, and will require 
no particular care till next month. Vines in hot houses will now begin to 

48 Horticultural Memoranda. 

show their buds, and will require much attention at this early season. Vines 
in pots may now be brought into the greenhouse, where they will push their 
buds early, and ripen a good crop of fruit, if properly managed. 

Peach Trees in pots may now be brought into the greenhouse or vinery. 

Figs in pots may be also forced in the same way. 

Scions of fruit trees may be cut now, and placed away for use in spring. 
Insert the lower ends in a box of earth. 


Camellias y^iW now be the most brilliant ornaments of the greenhouse, and 
will continue so until the roses begin to open their blossoms. But to enjoy 
a good collection of this splendid flower, it is necessary that the plants 
should be in the most healthy and flourishing condition. They should be 
well shaped, the foliage deep green, glossy and rich, and the decaying 
flowers should also be gathered every morning. An occasional syringing 
should be given on fine days, with perfectly clean water, and with a good 
supply of moisture at the roots they will continue to flourish and give an 
abundance of flowers. Attend to the impregnation of the flowers if seeds 
are wanted. 

Japan Lilies should now be carefully repotted, injuring none of the fleshy 
roots ; the offsets should be carefully taken off and placed in small pots. 
The best soil is peat and leaf mould, with a very small quantity of loam 
and sand. Place in a cool shady situation till the tops appear above the 

Dahlias for very early flowering should be potted this month. 

Roses will now be coming forward rapidly, and will need attention. Sy- 
ringe freely, and keep the earth sufficiently moist without being too wet. 
Fumigate as often as the green fly appears ; and water every 10 or 15 days 
with weak guano. Repot young plants rooted in August. 

Pelargoniums will now be acquiring strength to push their new growth, 
as soon as they are repotted the last part of the month. Keep them rather 
dry, and as near the light as possible. 

Gloxinias, Gesneras and Achimenes may be potted now, and placed in the 
warmest part of the house, when they will come forward early. 

Azaleas may now begin to have rather more liberal supplies of water. 

Cactuses should now be rather sparingly watered. 

Fuchsias intended for raising young plants should now be placed in a 
warm situation, in order to induce them to make shoots for cuttings. Old 
plants do well headed quite down to the ground ; they then throw up a 
strong straight shoot. 

Pansy seed may now be sown to supply young plants for early planting 
in the borders. 

Nemophila'i should now have another shift into the next size pots. 

Heaths will require attention ; if the pots are|full of roots, let the plants be 
shifted at once ; water carefully, and syringe occasionally over the tops. 

Verbenas should be repotted now. 




FEBRUARY, 1847. 


Art. I. Root Grafting the Peach Tree and Rose ; Grafting 
the Pear upon the Apple ; the Apricot on the Peach ; new 
Mode of Raising Ciiciimhers^ S^c. By M. W. Phillips, 
Esq., Log Hall, Edwards, Miss. 

I HAVE neglected a reasonable duty longer than I should, 
but my various duties have so completely taken up my time 
at home, that I have postponed. 

In comparison with trees groAvn in this latitude, your trees 
are far behind in size, though equal in the bright and healthy 
appearance of the bark and twigs. I can assuredly show 
maiden pear trees, double and treble the size of yours, and 
peach trees that are full twelve feet high, and two to three 
inches in diameter. I do not wish to be understood as over- 
rating my country, but as giving the facts, that I know I can 
show any day. I can show fifty varieties of pear, maiden 
trees, that will average ten feet high, with size and branches 
to correspond. I have lost of pears nearly all that have been 
here long enough to bear, whilst some, here since 1832, have 
size, health and vigor, but never yet fruited. 

Have you ever tried grafting peach trees 7 Have you any 
knowledge of root grafting of the peach 7 I can show a few 
grafted peach trees that are decidedly the prettiest trees I have, 
not so tall, nor inclined to make long branches, but more 
bushy. I desired some varieties, that were too remote to get 
buds, and where I could get no one to work me a tree as a 
specimen, as a dernier resort, I concluded to try grafting, and 
though the trees were in bloom, the 'grafts with leaves and 
bloom, I grafted, and have specimens about seven feet high, 

VOL. xni. — ^No. II. 7 

50 Root Grafting, 6^c. 

grafted between the 6th and 9th of March, near one month 
too late for this chmate, hut I could not get the grafts in time. 
I was induced to try it, having been told by a youth that his 
father succeeded well in grafting the peach, by using the 
terminal ends of branches, and whip grafting. I did not graft 
thus, but pared the graft as for whip grafting, and then split 
the bark of the stock, and inserted the graft. 

Root grafting the peach will be regarded, in this country, 
as something new ; with your experienced countrymen it may 
not, but it has advantages over all other modes. I received the 
hint from a friend near Mississippi city, who informed me 
that a neighbor of his, who was a very expert budder, and who 
budded for any that required, would not work his own trees, 
and gave, as his reason, that he intended to root graft, that it 
was more certain, and made handsomer trees. Previous to 
this, I Avas shown a lot of trees that were root grafted in 
Hatch's nursery, but the information was vague ; since that 
time, the gardener who worked the trees has returned, and says 
they were worked on refuse roots, that were left after remov- 
ing trees, and that he uses any part of the branches, just as 
in any other grafting, and that he gave the hint to a gentle- 
man who was either living, or was moving below, but is not 
certain that the above gentleman is the one. Mr. Patrick 
O'Connor, gardener at Hatch's nursery, has assuredly very 
successfully root grafted the peach, and they are five to eight 
or ten feet high — maiden trees. 

He also root grafts the rose, and upon removal, the junction 
is complete, and the wound will not be observable in another 
twelve months. These trees and roses are, if any thing, 
larger than I desire to remove. The advantages are, that, in 
the month of February, when but little out-door work can be 
advantageously done, the peach can be grafted ; the trees will 
be saleable in November to any one, whereas my budded trees 
of, say 10th of June, are not large enough to please one in 
fifty, yet they are, in some instances, as large as those you 
sent me ; and there is not such necessity for peach pits, and 
so long culture. So far as I know, or can learn, Mr. O'Con- 
nor deserves the credit, for he has actually the trees to show. 
As to grafting the pear on the apple stock, I recommend it 
to nurserymen, who desire wood, on the same principle as 

Root Grafting, 6f'c. 51 

for budding the rose ; the growth the first year is truly as- 
tonishing, though probably on the same size pear stock, it 
would be as great. My reason for inquiring — page 430, 
November number — about this kind of grafting was. a friend 
sent me eight different pears grafted on apple stocks. I had 
expressed to him an unfavorable opinion of the plan, he 
boasted of the size, and would prove to me I was wrong. 
Before August, four of the eight were dead, and the residue 
not promising, except two, Meadow and Butter. Upon no- 
ticing his own trees, I find the ends of branches have decayed, 
and that the trees seen by me are unhealthy. 

I have seen many apricots worked on the peach, and I can 
see no objection to it, our peach trees not being, in this partic- 
ular region, so liable to decay as with you. I would recom- 
mend grafting in the earth, so that the apricot could be under 
the earth. We have no other stock here that will suit, our 
Chickasaw plum stock not being large enough, and is too slow 
in growth : our native plum, though large enough, is too slow. 
What do you work apricot and plums on? The plum will 
not live on the peach, — so says an intimate friend, zealous in 
the cause, but young in it. I have never tried. 

When giving you my experiment with soot and saltpetre for 
cucumbers and melons, I ought to have included purple eg^ 
plant ; for this last it seems a soak, that is well adapted to 
pushing vegetation forward, as well as keeping off a fly, or 
flea, that destroys them. I could not succeed to get a plant, 
save under glass, until I tried this steep. I have, from time 
to time, tried ashes, soot, salt, lime, dry dust, smoking the 
plants in the morn, with tobacco smoke from my cigar, but 
they were not effectual. At length, in 1844, I tried the steep 
first on the egg squash, and noticing some change, I tried it 
immediately on cucumbers and from that time. I declare to 
you, I have not seen a striped bug around my plants. 

I differ from any person, except a lady now in Virginia, in 
the mode of planting cucumbers. I make a rich, light, deep 
tilled bed, about ten by sixteen or eighteen feet ; I then mark 
off rows north and south, two feet apart, and draw up into 
ridges, as high as can be, with a hoe. I then rake down the 
ridge, so as thoroughly to pulverize the top, and plant my 
steeped seeds some two inches apart ; cover lightly and press 

52 Root Grafting, 6^c. 

the earth with a plank. When the bud has formed, between 
the semmal leaves, I pluck up the weak plants, leaving a 
stand about a foot apart. My cultivation is then to hill up 
once, so as to support the stem erect, and keep clean. From 
a bed of this size, I have fed my family of about twenty-five, 
and have gathered, myself, a bushel at a time for hogs, that 
were not yellow. I think the fruit sets earlier, and that the 
earth, being well shaded, they last longer. How it will do in 
your climate I know not, but my teacher — the lady alluded 
to — says, in Virginia, it is decidedly the best plan. In con- 
sequence of my success in this, pursuing it since 1838, 1 have 
put my melons six feet by about four, my former distance be- 
ing eight feet square. 

" My peach orchard numbers over one" thousand, instead 
of " one hundred ;" these, with six hundred apples and three 
hundred and fifty pears, will not admit of wrapping with paper 
and then tarring. I must have something more readily ap- 
plied. I will rely on whitewash with cowdung, for even 
milk and soot would be too costly where one feeds his cows 
entirely from his house, as I do, through choice, instead of 
being uncertain, the cows not coming up. 

I use, in my nursery, narrow strips of the pasteboard from 
sperm candle boxes, hung on lower limbs. This frightens off 
the rabbit. 

I know the pear will succeed in this latitude, and do not 
think Boston, or the northernmost limit in which they will 
grow, can excel us. The only difficulty is winter pears. 
My object is, not to prove this fact, but to prove which are 
the best varieties. I am greatly pleased that you approve this 
step of mine, for I really feel that I will do immense service to 
my country, and of course secondarily aid all nurserymen. 
\ am a cotton planter, rely only on that business for a living, 
and ought to be considered a disinterested witness. But the 
fruits will be here, side by side, to show for themselves. 

I am influenced by a desire to induce men and women and 
children, to love home, be industrious and temperate. If they 
could enjoy fruits and flowers in abundance at home, they 
would, it seems to me, become attached to the trees and plants ; 
they would be at home all the time, and would inadvertently 
work among them ; ennui, the ruin of this country, could 

Root Grafting, ^c. 53 

never be ; and, having fine fruits to hand to visiters and to 
eat without stint, dram-drinking would become a thing of 
yesterday. This is my first desire, and in truth my exertions 
have been to this end, from the beginning. If there was less 
desire to accumulate wealth, and more taste for the beautiful, 
I have no doubt but what morals, education and religion, too, 
would be advanced. I have acted under this belief, and 1 
hope to taste the fruits thereof ere I am borne hence. My 
motives have been impugned ; but I expected it, and only for 
a moment have I faltered, — and who can bear to have his 
nearest friends call one a theoretical book-farmer, a humbug, 
and all that sort of croaking slang 1 That I have been often 
wrong, is to be expected, but I have tried to be right. 

Have you ever budded the apple on the pear 7 A gentle- 
man of great zeal in aboriculture, and of unquestioned truth, 
assures me he has had the apple to fruit, two years from the 
bud, when put on the pear. 

"We have much to learn yet, and T fancy amateurs must do 
much of the teaching, because regular nurserymen and gard- 
eners have their hands full, without trying experiments. I 
have myself no fondness for extra natural things, and have 
never tried any, in that way. I have worked pear on apple, 
but upon the strong recommendation of a friend ; I do work 
apricot on the peach, but I cannot get a better stock ; and if 
worked, so as to cover the wound in the earth, I really see, 
by practice, no kind of objection. I will continue until I can 
get a thrifty stock. I am planting a number of apricot seed ; 
if I succeed well with them, I will adopt this as a stock. I 
do not think there will be much more, if any, time required. 
I can produce apricots from the bud, at least eight to ten feet, 
and why should a seedling not do this ? 

You must only notice my rambling remarks, for I have but 
little time to write for a magazine of merit. 
Log Hall, Edwards, Miss., Dec. 14, 1846. 

The communication of our correspondent contains many 
good hints and suggestions, which the practica man, as well 
as the amateur, will find worthy of attention. 

The growth which trees make in the south'.vestern States 
is certainly remarkable ; but is such a rapid growth desira- 

54 Root Grafting, <^c. 

ble 7 f Does it not tend to produce blight ? And can the wood 
be so well matured as when the growth is slower? These 
are subjects worthy of consideration by the orchardist. 

Such trees as our correspondent states he has had since 
1832, without coming into fruit, we should deem fit subjects 
for root-pruning ; this, we are sure, will speedily induce them 
to bear. It at once checks the growth, and causes the forma- 
tion of fruit spurs. We have tried this ourselves, and seen 
it fully and successfully tried by others. It may be done the 
coming spring. 

We have root grafted the pear, apple and plum, but never 
the peach, as we could not see that any thing could be gained 
by the operation, for the seedlings are always of sufficient 
size to bud the first year, and there is far more leisure in the 
months of August and September to do this, than to graft in 
the spring. We do not doubt but that the operation of root 
grafting may be as well done on the peach as with the plum ; 
and of the latter we have had fine trees ; as to the graft mak- 
ing a much handsomer tree, we think this must be an error. 
No better trees can be produced than those we have raised 
from buds, being clothed with branches to the ground, — far 
more numerous than should be allowed to remain when the 
trees are removed where they are to stand. Where peach 
stones are difficult to procure, root grafting may be very de- 
sirable, as roots from old trees can be had for the purpose. 

Root grafting the rose is very extensively practised with us, 
and of the very rare kinds we raise hundreds in this manner. 
So successful is the operation, that, from scions cut from trees 
imported from France in October, we have had plants a foot 
high in May, and ready for planting out into the border, and, 
of perpetuals, in full bloom in nine months. 

The apricot will do very well upon the peach, and where the 
peach borer is not troublesome, it will answer every purpose. 
But in this region the borer commits such ravages that the 
plum stock is far the best ; besides, the plum checks the rapid 
growth of the tree, and consequently the wood is better 
ripened and able to resist severe winters. We work our apri- 
cots upon the muscle plum, which is a free grower. The 
Chickasaw and Canada plum are both unfit, though we know 
many nurserymen who use them altogether. We have sev- 

Cultivation of the Pear. 55 

eral trees, procured of various nurserymen, in our collection, 
on the Canada plum, and, in a late gale, a large tree was 
broken off at the junction of the graft, from the overgrowth 
of the scion. We would recommend the muscle plum to our 
correspondent, as the very best stock for the apricot. 

We have never budded the apple on the pear. Though 
the apple will undoubtedly grow, it is doubtful whether such 
a union will be of any utility. Perhaps, to test a new variety 
as soon as possible, it may be advantageous ; but we need ex- 
periments to show whether trees will continue to produce fine 
fruit after they once begin to bear. We shall be happy to 
learn the results of any experiments of this kind, which our 
correspondent or his friends may be induced to try. — Ed. 

Art. II. Results of the Cultivation of the Pear and other 
Fruit in the Southern Slates. By R. Chishoui, Esq., Cor- 
responding Secretary of the Beaufort Agricultural Society. 

I PROMISED you, last summer twelve months, to communi- 
cate my experience in fruit, but the past summer has been so 
very unfavorable that I have had very little fruit, nearly all 
having rotted on the trees. Of peaches, nectarines, and plums, 
I did not get one single good fruit, though my trees were load- 
ed, except from a tree of the Bolmar Washington plum, which 
bore about fifteen or eighteen, which all came to perfection, 
the largest being fully six and a half inches in circumference. 
My apples were generally wormy and rotted before ripening. 
My pears did rather better, though they too rotted very badly. 
The Epargne bore well, and, from one or two fruit picked at 
the right time, I should call it a good, juicy, and sweet fruit ; but 
1 allowed most of the fruit to remain on the tree until over- 
ripe, when they were mealy and flavorless. The Epine d'Ete, 
or summer thorn, bore well also, and the fruit was larger than 
the year before, and probably better, but I thought it only 
fully second quality. The Grey Butter, St. Germain, Winter 
Bon Chretien, Crassane, and Verte Longue Panache bore 
well, and their fruits were about equal, though very different, 

56 Cultivation of the Pear. 

and I consider them of the first quality. The Echasserie, I 
should also pronounce first quality, though it bore only a few 
imperfect fruit. The true Virgouleuse bore a quantity of fruit, 
but they all were cracked, knotty and utterly uneatable, which 
is, I believe, the great objection to it, as the fruit is fine when 
in perfection. The White Butter was knotty as usual with 
me, and consequently just eatable. The best pear I ate dur- 
ing the season was one of the size and shape of the summer 
Thorn, but without any color on the cheek, and ripening 
about one month later, the name of which I do not know, though 
I am under the impression, from no good reason, that I received 
it as the Doyenne, de la Motte, but I hope to be able to test 
this point the next summer, as I hope that the tree I have 
under that name will bear fruit if I can get rid of the bark 
lice that infest it. Even my orange trees, which bore about 
10,000 or 12,000 a year ago, have this season borne only 
about 200 oranges. My oranges, by the by, were pronounced 
the last year, by all who tasted them, as the best they had 
ever tasted, except by one gentleman, who thought that those 
he had eaten from the tree in Cuba were superior. 

The cultivation of fruit, especially of peaches and pears, is 
extending rapidly hereabouts. Of the apples, plums, and 
cherries, we are doubtful of success, though some of us are 
trying them. — I mean to graft and bud my apples mainly upon 
our native crab, which I find on the plantation, and the oth- 
ers upon native or acclimated stocks. I think that when we 
are fairly under way, the north will get its best peaches and 
late pears from the south, and the south its best apples, plums, 
and early pears from the north, at least so says my theory on 
the subject ; Q. E. D. as you will probably say — I am sowing 
the seed of pears to try. 

My small olive trees were loaded with fruit this year for 
the first time ; but, just before the fruit was ripe, it Avas all 
blown down by the gale of the lOth and 11th of October. I 
have several hundred trees just coming into bearing. 

If you raise figs in your houses, why do you not try the 
Celestial, one of the smallest, but a good bearer, and the best 
fig known here and to the south, and also the Alicante, a 
very large, very productive, ever-bearing, and fine blue 
fig? These are our two best figs. Wishing you many 

Observations on Root Pruning. 57 

able contributors, and many punctual subscribers, I remain 

Near Beaufort, S. C, Dec. 21, 1846. 

Will our correspondent be so kind as to forward us, at a 
convenient opportunity, a tree of each of the figs he so highly 
recommends 1 We are now importing some new sorts from 
Europe with the hope of making a collection of the best ; and 
would be glad to have the Celestial and Alicante to compare 
with the European sorts, and note their relative merits. The 
fine pear alluded to of the shape of the summer Thorn may 
be the St. Ghislain, which resembles that variety in form. 
Bark lice may be easily destroyed by washing with oil soap 
about the consistence of common paint. — £ld. 

Art. III. Observations on Root Pruning. By A. H. Ernst. 


Permit me to make a few remarks, through your Magazine, 
on root pruning as adapted to the culture of trees. This, al- 
though a popular measure with some writers and cultivators, 
I cannot but view as a sort of horticultural heresy, calculated 
to produce much mischief This practice will have its day, 
and then be permitted to slumber among the errors of the 

The principle of life, growth, and durability of trees, is not 
unlike that of the animal. To secure these ends to the fullest 
extent, both must be supplied with good and healthy nour- 
ishment, suited to their condition, and just in proportion to the 
number, capacity and healthy action of the receiving or ab- 
sorbing vessels, will the plant or animal be benefited by it : if 
these are obstructed or crippled, it is clear the plant or animal 
must suffer just in proportion to such obstruction, however 
ample or appropriate the food within their reach. The ex- 
treme ends and the laterals of the roots are furnished with 
what are termed spongioles ; these answer to the plant as the 
lacteals of the stomach do to the animal, in absorbing from the 
digested or prepared substance, in the one from the stomach, 

58 Ohservatiojis on Root Pruning. 

conveying it to the lungs, where it is changed into blood, and 
is thus prepared to add to the life and growth of the animal : 
the other from the earth, conyeying it through the sap- 
vessels to the leaves, which are the lungs of the plants : from 
these it is returned in a suitable condition to add to the growth 
of the plant. The leaves of a tree are just as essential to its 
growth and health, as its roots and food, and will as certainly 
suffer from a want of a sufficient supply as the animal whose 
lungs are impaired. Trees too, like animals, require and do 
periodically rest : the tree, being deprived, during this time of 
rest, of its leaves, ceases to grow, although its functions are 
only in part suspended : if, during this time of rest, the roots 
are deprived of moisture any considerable length of time, the 
tree will die. All this goes to show how essential and im- 
portant the leaves are to the growth of the tree, and the roots 
to the supply of the nourishment from the earth for their abil- 
ity to perform their office. Any culture, then, that has a ten- 
dency to prevent the forming of the largest supply of leaves, is 
a fatal error. This is the effect of root pruning. It is evi- 
dent, if the spongioles of the roots are cut off or mangled, the 
plant must suffer just as the animal would, if deprived of the 
lacteals of the stomach, and is thus deprived from the form- 
ing new wood and leaves, until new spongioles can be formed. 
As often, then, as this is repeated, the plant will lessen in 
strength until its life is exhausted by this unnatural process. 

That the system of root pruning may be successfully ap- 
plied to stunting and dwarfing trees, and forcing them into 
fruiting, is an admitted fact, and where the durability of the 
tree is no object, but a show of fruit of more importance, no 
better expedient can be resorted to, to effect the object, and 
where but limited room can be afforded, and a large variety 
of fruit is desirable, the advocates of this system may have 
sufficient cause for recommending it. But to those who have 
not yet been crowded into narrow limits, and deem the dura- 
tion of their trees of any importance, I should advise against 
a resort to it by all means. 

The practice of root pruning is very simple ; nothing more 
is necessary than a sharp spade : with this, the roots are cut 
off by forcing it in the ground with the foot, across the roots, 
a greater or less distance from the body of the tree, accord- 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 59 

ing to its size. The effect is to check the tree in its growth, 
and to force it to expend all its remaining energies in forming 
embryo blossom buds and fruit. This it will continue to do 
until its vital energies are exhausted and life is extinguished, 
the duration of which will depend very much on the vigorous 
application of this destructive system. 

The above remarks are offered in the hope that some one 
more capable may be induced to take up the subject and show 
its mischievous effects. 

Spring Garden, near Cincinnati, December 21, 1846. 

Art. IV. Descriptions and Engravings of Select Varieties 
of Pears. By the Editor. 

In our past volumes, we have given our descriptions and 
engravings of new pears under the head of Pomological No- 
tices. But, as our information under that head is intended 
only to contain brief notices of new or choice fruits, previous 
to a full description of them when better known, we have 
thought it desirable to give our future descriptions of pears 
under a distinct head. 

We have the drawings of many fine varieties, which we 
shall endeavor to present in this volume, and, among them, 
some new and superior kinds, particularly of native origin : 
among these will be the Onondaga, which we have already 
noticed, and which we should have presented a description 
and engraving of before, but for the hope of obtaining a full 
and correct account of its origin. 

The following six varieties are entirely new, and have never 
yet been figured, part of them having been received from 
Van Mons without names ; but brief notices of some of them 
will be found in the communications of the late Mr. Manning 
in a previous volume (VIII. p. 56.) Subsequent experience 
has confirmed the good opinion which he then expressed of 
their merits, and they may be enumerated among the best 
varieties which have been recently added to our collections. 

60 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

61. Van Assene. 

This very excellent pear, {fig. 4,) was received from Dr. 
Van Mons among the first lot of scions which he sent to Messrs. 

Fig. 4. Van Assene. 

Manning and Kenrick, in the spring of 1835. In the second 
parcel, which came to hand in 1836, many varieties were du- 
plicated ; but this name does not appear in that list. We do 
not find the name in the catalogues of the most extensive 
French and Belgian nurserymen, and we hence conclude that 
it is unknown to continental pomologists, and probably only 
exists in American collections. Mr. Manning first fruited it 
in 1841, and briefly described it as above referred to, where 
he calls it a " very tender, fine, and melting pear." Subse- 
quently, we believe, it has been exhibited from Mr. Manning's 
collection, but we have not had an opportunity to taste it 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 61 

until the past year, when we received a fine specimen from 
the Hon. J. S. Cabot. It was one of three or four which he 
exhibited at the Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticuhural Society, and it must be ranked as a very superior 
fruit. Wood vigorous, of a reddish chestnut color, with round 
plump buds. 

Size, large, about three inches long, and three inches in 
diameter : Form, obovate, slightly angular, large and full at 
the crown, and tapering to the stem, where it is obtuse : Skin, 
fair, smooth, dull citron yellow, with several grayish black 
blotches on the shaded side, and regularly covered with rather 
large russet specks : Stein, long, about one and a quarter 
inches, slender, smooth, pale brown, curved, and inserted in 
a small, moderately deep cavity, with slight projections on 
one side : Eye, medium size, closed, and considerably sunk in 
a rather large, round, open basin ; segments of the calyx me- 
dium length, narrow : Flesh, white, rather coarse, buttery, 
melting, and very juicy : Flavor, rich, sugary, slightly per- 
fumed and delicious : Core, large : Seeds, large, very broad, 
deep brown. Ripe in September. 

62. Henkel. 

This is another of the productions of Van Mons, scions of 
which were received with the Van Assene and others in 1835. 
It was also sent again among those received in 1836. When 
it first fruited, we are not informed, but the variety first 
attracted our attention at the last Annual Exhibition of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, when some very good 
specimens were shown from the Pomological Garden. It 
probably had not fruited in 1842, when Mr. Manning de- 
scribed all the new kinds which had come into bearing in his 
extensive collection. The name does not appear in French 
catalogues, but is enumerated in those of the Belgians. The 
'Henkel {fig- 5) is a rich, sprightly and excellent fruit. Mr. 
Manning, in a note to us, in regard to this and other sorts, 
states that the young shoots are stout, and of a grayish brown 
color ; petioles long; leaf folded and curled like that of the Easter 
Beurre, but larger and thicker. This pear is remarkable for 
VOL. xin. — NO. II. 8 

62 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

two bud-like prominences on opposite sides, and near the mid- 
dle of its long stem. The same thing may also be noticed on 
the Wilkinson. 

Fiff. 5. Henkel. 

Size large, about two and a half inches long, and two and 
a half in diameter. Form, obovate, slightly irregular on the 
surface, large in the middle, and obtuse at the stem : Shin^ 
rather rouf^h, lemon yellow, more or less covered Avith patches 
of cinnamon russet, and interspersed with dull green specks : 
Stem very long, nearly two inches, moderately stout, curved, 
light brown, and slightly inserted in a small, contracted cav- 
ity : Eye, medium size, open, slightly sunk in a very shallow 
uneven basin : segments of the calyn short and round : Fleshy 
yellowish white, rather coarse, melting and juicy : Flavor^ 
sprightly, vinous, perfumed and excellent: Core, medium 
size° Seeds^ large, broad, and deep brown. Ripe in Septem- 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 63 

63. Elizabeth (Van Mons.) 

158 Van Mons's numbered Varieties. 

The list of good summer pears is rather limited, and the 
additions to this class are few compared with autumn varieties. 
Every new kind, therefore, of decided merit, ripening at this 
season, is welcomed as a desirable fruit. The Elizabeth of 
Van Mons {fig- 6,) is one of this description. It is not of 

Fig. &. Elizabeth, {Van Mons.) 

large size, but it has a great deal of beauty ; and, without be- 
ing very high flavored, it has that mingling of sweetness and 
pefume which will render it a favorite with most cultivators. 
Mr. Manning describes it as "very sweet." It was received 
from Van Mons, as No. 158 ; but as he gave Mr. Manning 
permission to name any of the numbered kinds when they 
came into bearing, it received from him the name under which 
he has already briefly described it, (VIII. p. 57.) In the fall 
of 1842, the last time we had the pleasure of a conversation 
with Mr. Manning, at his residence in Salem, he gave us 
some specimens of the Elizabeth, from which we made a draw- 
ing, but they were rather small, and we thought it best to 

64 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

await the opportunity of .procuring better ones : the past year, 
we received a fine fruit from the collection of the Messrs. 
Putnam of Salem, from which our engraving is made. Mr. 
Manning, in answer to our inquiries, in relation to the intro- 
duction of this pear, and its qualities, writes as follows : — " The 
Elizabeth was received from Van Mons, as No 158, but I can- 
not ascertain exactly when. A pear, received in 1834, with this 
number, proved to be the Marie Louise, and I am inclined to 
think that the variety which now bears the name was not re- 
ceived earlier than 1838. I know of no more productive vari- 
ety. When the fruit has attained about half its size, the 
blossom end — about half the pear — is, in a majority of speci- 
mens, covered with a thick russet, suddenly terminating in a 
distinct line around the pear, some traces of which are often 
visible when the fruit is mature. Young shoots reddish 

Size, small, about two inches long and two in diameter : 
Fo?'m, obovate, very full around the eye, tapering to, and end- 
ing obtusely at, the stem : Skin, fair, lemon yellow, very bril- 
liantly suffused with red on the sunny side, through which 
appear deeper-colored specks, becoming paler in the shade, 
often with traces of russet : Ste7nj medium length, about three 
quarters of an inch, rather slender, smooth, olive browii, and 
slightly inserted in a shallow cavity : Eye, small, open, little 
sunk in an open, shallow basin ; segments of the calyx short : 
Flesh, yellowish, coarse, melting and juicy : Flavor, saccha- 
rine, rich and pleasantly perfumed : Co7^e, large : Seeds, rather 
large, brown. Ripe the latter part of August. 

64. COTER. 

The Coter pear, {fig: 7,) was one of the varieties received 
from Van Mons in 1834, and is enumerated in the list which 
was published at that time as the " Coter peer." The younger 
Mr. Manning has enumerated it among the fine new kinds 
which have recently fruited in his collection, and has briefly 
described it in our last volume, (XII. p. 149.) The past au- 
tumn, he kindly forwarded us several specimens of this and 
other pears, from which our drav/ing was made, and he has 
recently given us the following additional information respecting 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 65 

it : — " The tree is of moderate growth, making a romid, com- 
pact head, and is a good bearer. Young shoots reddish ohve, 
thickly sprinkled with light dots. Although I have, in your 
last volume, p. 149, stated the time of its maturity to be Octo- 
ber, they were not ripe, the last season, until from the middle 
to the last of November, when I thought it the best pear then 

Fig. 7. Coter. 

To those who are fond of such brisk and vinous pears as 
the Beurre d' Aremberg, the Coter will not be so highly esteem- 
ed ; but to those who like such as the Winter Nelis, it will be 
considered nearly or quite equal to that variety. The name 
does not appear in European Catalogues, and it is probable 
that it is only to be found in American collections. Our spec- 
imens were not ripe till the end of December, coming in after 
the Beurre Diel, and proving to be a most valuable winter 

Size, medium, about three inches long, and two and a half 
in diameter : Form, obovate, nearly regular, tapering to an 
obtuse point at the stem : Skln^ light yellowish green, some- 

66 Descriptio?is of Select Varieties of Pears. 

what clouded with grayish patches, and considerably russeted 
around the stem : Stem, medium length, about three quarters 
of an inch, rather stout, nearly straight, fleshy and swollen, 
and obliquely set upon an obtuse point : Eye, rather large, 
open, and moderately sunk in an open, round basin; segments 
of the calyx medium length, broad, pointed, and reflexed : 
Flesh, white, rather coarse, buttery, melting and juicy : Fla- 
vor, sugary, rich and delicious, with a slight perfume : Core, 
medium size : Seeds, medium size, rather broad and flat, dark 
brown. Ripe in December, and keeps a few weeks. 

65. Doyenne' d'Ete. Theorie Van Mons. 

The Doyenne d'Ete, {fig. 8,) though for some time known 
in France, in the vicinity of Nantes, where M. Poiteau, the 

Fig. 8. Doyennd d'EU. 

author of the Thiorie Van Mons, states it has been consider- 
ably cultivated, is entirely new to American collections. We 
I eheve it fruited, for the first time here, in our collection in 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 67 

1845, when a small tree produced six or eight pears : last year, 
it bore upwards of a dozen, larger and finer than those of 
the year previous. Around Nantes, it is esteemed the best 
pear of the season, and, in comparison with the Citron des 
Carmes, we think it not only full as good, but a far more beau- 
tiful fruit, having a rich yellow skin, brilliantly shaded and 
spotted with crimson. It is about the same size as the Citron 
des Carmes, and the tree has the merit of bearing very young : 
it also thrives well upon the quince. 

Mr. Kenrick, to whom all Pomologists are greatly indebted 
for the early communication of the lists containing the names 
and numbers of the new pears forwarded by Van Mons, and 
to whom the public are under great obligations for his labors 
in the introduction of new fruits, was the first to make this 
pear known to American cultivators, by his correct transla- 
tion of M. Poiteau's description in the Hort. Reg. in 1836. 
But it does not seem to have been introduced for some time 
afterwards. We received it from Vilmorin of Paris, with 
many other new kinds, in the spring of 1843. The tree is 
quite unlike the Doyenne, having dull, brownish red wood, 
making moderately vigorous shoots, and having long, oval, 
pointed, dark green leaves. The fruit, like all summer 
pears, should be picked early, even before they have acquired 
any tint of yellow. They will then ripen off, and possess a 
flesh as melting as a white Doyenne. M. Jamin, in his Cat- 
alogtic^ sets it down as worthy of cultivation in the propor- 
tion of six to three of the Citron des Carmes. 

Size^ medium, about two inches long, and two inches in 
diameter : Form, roundish, turbinate, largest in the middle, 
gradually tapering to the stem, where it is obtuse : Skhi, fair, 
smooth, pale yellowish green, becoming nearly yellow when 
mature, broadly shaded and marbled with brilliant red on the 
sunny side, and dotted with greenish russet specks : Stem, 
rather long, about one and a quarter inches, moderately stout, 
yellowish brown, slightly fleshy at the base, and obliquely 
inserted without any cavity under a slight projection : Eye, 
small, closed, inserted in a very shallow basin ; segments of 
the calyx short, stiff, projecting : Flesh, yellowish white, rath- 
er coarse, buttery, melting, and juicy : Flavor, rich, sugary, 
sprightly, perfumed, and delicious : Core, medium size : Seeds, 

68 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

small, flattened, dark brown. Ripe the end of July and be- 
ginning of August. 

66. Doyenne' Boussock. 

Doyenn6 Boussock Nouvelle. Am. Orchardist. 

The Doyenne Boussock is another variety, which was first 
made known to our collections by Mr. Kenrick, who brought 

Fig. 9. Doyenni Boussock. 

scions home with him in the spring of 1841, on his return from 
Europe; a portion of these he liberally gave to Mr. Manning, 
in whose collection it first fruited in 1843. Mr. Kenrick sub- 
sequently described it, in his American Orchardist, under the 
name of Doyenne Boussock Nouvelle, where he states he re- 
ceived it from M. Jamin of Paris : but, upon a careful inspec- 
tion of M. Jamin' s latest Catalogue for 1843, we only find 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 69 

the. Doyenne Boussock enumerated, and hence conclude that 
the word Nouvelle was appended by M, Jamin merely to de- 
signate it as a new variety. Our tree, which bore last year, 
and from the fruit of which our drawing {fig. 9) was made, 
was received from Paris in the spring of 1843, under the name 
of Doyenne Boussock. The variety which the late Mr. Man- 
ning described in our Vol VIII. p. 56, as this pear, proved to 
be the Doyenne gris. 

We have previously noticed a tree which has proved to be 
this pear, (Vol. XII. p. 470,) which was purchased in Boston 
at an auction of a lot of French fruit trees, and bore for the 
first time last season : and we have remarked that it is some- 
what singular that, among the many new sorts which have, 
for several years, been imported by our amateurs and nursery- 
men, the variety should be almost unknown, especially as it 
proves to be so fine a fruit. It is nearly as large as the Duch- 
esse d'Angouleme, and is even superior to that variety, hav- 
ing a rich, brisk, and vinous flavor, somewhat like the Marie 
Louise. All we know of its origin is what is stated by Mr. 
Kenrick, viz., — " new and large ; of superior excellence ; ripen- 
ing at Paris in November, according to M. Jamin, of whom I 
received the fruit." (p. 143.) The wood is of a reddish brown, 
sprinkled with large, round, grayish specks, much resembling 
the white Doyenne in color, but it is nearly as vigorous as the 
Beurre Diel, having very prominent buds, and remarkable for its 
large and thick leaves of a bright glossy green : it is a good 
bearer, and must rank among the best varieties which have 
been introduced. 

Size, large, about three and a half inches long, and three 
inches in diameter : Form, obtusely obovate, regular, large 
at the crown, and tapering little to tlje stem, where it is very 
obtuse ; Skin, fair, lemon yellow, nearly covered with numer- 
ous tracings of bright russet on one side, and regularly dotted 
with large russet specks on the other : Stem, short, about half 
an inch, stout, straight, wrinkled, brown, fleshy at the base, 
and moderately inserted in a large shallow cavity : Eye, me- 
dium size, open, little sunk in a moderately deep, open basin ; 
segments of the calyx short, round : Flesh, yellowisii white, 
rather coarse, melting and juicy : Flavor, rich, sprightly, vi- 
nous, perfumed and excellent : Core, medium size : Seeds, 

70 Descriptions of Three New Apples. 

small, very slender and long, almost black, mostly abortive. 
Ripe in October. 

Art. V. Descriptions and Engravings of Three New Apples. 
By the Editor. 

Having, in our several volumes, described and figured up- 
wards of seventy varieties of pears, embracing many of the 
newest and most choice kinds, we now intend to devote the 
same attention to that most valuable fruit, the apple. Having 
collected together more than two hundred of the best varieties, 
and upwards of one hundred new American seedlings, and 
planted out specimen trees, of which several will come into 
bearing the present year, we shall have the opportunity of 
describing them from specimens produced under our own eye, 
and shall be enabled to give all the particulars of growth, 
productiveness, &c. These, we trust, will prove as interesting 
and mstructive to pomologists as our articles on the pear. 

We now commence with the descriptions of three new and 
superior varieties, one of which has just been introduced to 
the notice of cultivators. The two first have already been 
briefly described in our pages, but we have not seen any de- 
scription of the last. For the very fine specimens of the Red 
Canada and Northern Spy, we are again indebted to our 
friends in Western New York, Mr. Bissell of Rochester, who 
sent us the former, and J. H. Watts of the same city, who 
forwarded us a bushel of beautiful specimens of the latter. 
To Mr. Watts also, we are indebted for some account of the 
Northern Spy, which we have embodied in our description of 
that apple below. The varieties are as follows : — 

I. Twenty Ounce. Mag. of Hort. Vol. X. p. 210. 

Gov. Seward's, J ^^ ^^^^ collections in New York. 

Twenty Ounce pippin, J 

l:;:^ g:ri.S; \ °^ ^ayug. oou..,. New York. 

The first knowledge we had of this apple was in the au- 
tumn of 1843, when some very fine specimens were presented 

Descriptions of Three New Apples. 71 

for exhibition, before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
by George Howland, Esq., of New Bedford, who procured 
them from trees on his farm in Cayuga county, New York. 
From their great beauty, as well as excellence, the committee 
awarded Mr. Howland a premium, and requested a few sci- 
ons for distribution among the members, which were duly for- 
warded for that object. In the spring of 1S44, we were 
fortunate in procuring a small tree of this variety, together 

Fig, 10. Twenty Ounce Apple. 

with several other new apples, selected from the orchards of 
the west, and the past year j t produced two very beautiful 
specimens, not quite so lavge as those exhibited by Mr. How- 
land but of the size shown in our engraving, (^fig. 10;) the 
tree from which they were gathered not being move than four 
feet high. If proves fully equal to the character we then 
gave it, and taking all its ir>to consideration, it must 
rank as one of the finest early winter apples we possess. 
Where it originated we ha^ve no information. The trees ap- 
pear to be mostly confined to Cayuga county, New York. 

Size, large, about three and a half inches deep and four 
broad: Form, round, regular, shghtly ribbed at the base: 

72 Descriptions of Three New Apples. 

Skin, fair, smooth, dull yellowish green in the shade, but 
nearly covered with bright orange red, in numerous short 
stripes, mottlings and splashes, and dotted with rather large 
prominent grayish specks : Stem, short, about half an inch, 
rather slender, and moderately inserted in a somewhat con- 
tracted deep cavity : Eye, medium size, closed, and sunk in a 
medium sized open basin: Flesh, yellowish white, rather 
coarse, crisp and tender : Juice, plentiful, pleasantly acid, and 
high flavored : Core, large and rather open. Ripe in Novem- 
ber and keeps till January. 

II. Northern Spy. Mag. oiHort Vol. X. p. 275. 

In the latter part of May 1844, specimens of the Northern 
Spy were exhibited at the rooms of the Massachusetts Horti- 

Fig. 11. Northern Spy Apple. 

cultural Society, from Messrs. EUwanger and Barry, of Ro- 
chester, New York. This was its first introduction to the 
notice of Eastern cultivators ; it proved to be a fine apple, and 
trees were much sought after by amateurs and nurserymen. 
From Rochester, many trees were sent to this vicinity, and the 
variety is now pretty generally distributed. 

We are therefore happy to have the opportunity to give an 
account of it, and an engraving from some superior specimens 

Descriptions of Three New Apples. Td 

recently sent us by J. H. Watts, Esq. of Rochester. A 
variety possessing such superior quahties is deserving of the 
most extensive cultivation. It has been stated by some wri- 
ters in Western New York, that when the trees become old 
they produce only small and inferior fruit, and that it is only 
for a few years, when they are in their greatest vigor, that 
they bear good-sized and sound apples : this has also been 
contradicted, and we should think that the statement might 
be rather premature ; for the variety is so new that few large 
orchards can yet exist, and the difference of soil or location 
may make much difference in regard to the fairness of the pro- 
duct. At any rate, it is a variety well worth cultivation, for 
in our estimation it is fully equal to any apple we possess, not 
excepting the Baldwin, the favorite of NewEngland. The fol- 
lowing information in regard to its origin, &:c. has been com- 
municated by Mr. Watts : — 

" I take great pleasure in sending you a box of Fruit, 
known with us as the Northern Spy apple. 

" My object (this season) has been to introduce it, believing 
it to be equal to any grown. One of its peculiar properties is 
that it keeps so well in ordinary seasons : it is in its perfection 
in April and May, and is then as fresh as a June apple. This 
year now the past one, all fruit has ripened earlier with us 
than usual, and consequently many of the Spys are ripe. For 
a description, and somewhat of its history, I am indebted to the 
Genesee Farmer, of the year 184.5. It originated in the town 
of East Bloomfield, state of New York, in the orchard of the 
late Oliver Chapin, and has been known but for some five or 
six years. The first of the fruit seen in our city, a friend tells 
me, he discovered in the month of May, 1841, and he was de- 
lighted with its appearance and soon discovered its fine flavor, 
and on inquiry he found that it was a supposed seedling or 
natural fruit, and it has proved so, and one which has not its 
superior in our country. 

"Young trees, or those that have carefully been pruned, 
produce abundant crops, and the fruit is of large size and ex- 
tremely beautiful. 

" The tree is a rapid, upright and handsome grower, wood 
dark brown, covered with gray-colored specks or dots. Very 
easily distinguished from any other. Fruit somewhat coni- 

VOL. XIII. — NO. II. 9 

74 Descriptions of Three New Apples. 

cal, sometimes slightly ribbed and frequently will mea- 
sure twelve inches in circumference; stalk about three 
fourths of an inch, set in a broad deep cavity. Eye deeply 
set in a broad deep basin. Color pale green in the shade — 
dark red on the sunny side. Those fully exposed to the sun 
are entirely covered with a fine deep red. Flesh yellowish 
white, tender, juicy and high flavored, with a peculiar musky 
perfume. The Farmer says — " This, like all popular fruits, 
is counterfeited by the men and boys who sell fruit around the 
streets and corners, and every apple they can find that in any 
way resembles the Northern Spy is so called." To show you 
how much prized amongst us, I need only say that while 
other apples — such as " Swaars," " Spitzembergs," " Bell- 
Flowers," " Seek-no-Further," and other choice fruit, sell for 
one dollar per barrel, the "Spys" bring from two dollars and 
fifty cents to three dollars per barrel. Our Farmers and Hor- 
ticulturists have been grafting of this fruit to a great extent, 
and in two years more it will be quite plenty and will still 
command a high price. 

" The samples sent are taken from a barrel of a lot of sixty- 
eight barrels, which I purchased this season, and I have been 
particularly gratified that I have had it in my power to send 
them abroad. 

'■ They have been admired in New York, Albany, Connecti- 
cut, Michigan, and I presume in Europe, as some have been 
sent there, and those I now send you I hope ^zSS. find favor in 
the eyes of the Bostonians." 

We add our description from specimens before us : — 

S'lze^ large, about two and a half inches deep, and three and 
a half broad : Form^ roundish conical, flat and broad at the 
base, tapering much towards the crown, which is small : Skin, 
fair, smooth, yellow on the shady side, but nearly covered 
with bright glossy red and distinct stripes of rich purplish 
crimson extending nearly to the eye : often having a blotch of 
russet around the stem, and covered with yellow scattered 
specks : Stem, short, about half an inch, rather slender, and 
very deeply inserted in a large wide open cavity : Eye, small, 
and rather deeply sunk in a medium-sized, somewhat ribbed, 
and abruptly depressed hollow : Flesh, yellowish white, fine, 
crisp and tender : Juice, plentiful, and brisk, of a rich subacid, 

Descriptions of Three New Apples. 75 

possessing a peculiarly delicious aromatic flavor : Core, medi- 
um size, rather open. Ripe in January, and keeps till June. 

III. Red Canada. 

The Red Canada (fig. 11), is a new fruit, recently intro- 
duced from the vicinity of Toronto. Our specimens, which 

Fiff. 12. Bed Canada Apple. 

are very handsome, were sent us by the kindness of our cor- 
respondent, J. W. Bissell of Rochester, to whom we have 
before acknowledged our indebtedness for similar favors. His 
letter accompanying the apples gives the following information 
in relation to this variety : — 

'• It gives me great pleasure to send you some specimens of 
the Red Canada apple. Though not as much puffed, they 
are more of a favorite than the Northern Spy, and such as I 
now send you sell readily at two cents each. The branches 
of the tree are bright colored and the shoots very slender. Sea- 
son, January to April. The first scions were brought here 
many years since by Hall Colby, from near, Toronto, C. W. 
where the apple is supposed to have originated." 

The apples are large, fair and handsome, and of superior 
excellence ; but upon a careful comparison with the Northern 
Spy, Baldwin, and other first-rate sorts, we are inclined to 
give the preference to the Spy. The Red Canada is a firmer 

76 Descriptive account of Princess Paragon Peach. 

fleshed and less acid apple, but it is wanting in that peculiarly 
rich and delicious aroma which places the Spy, in our estima- 
tion, among the very best apples which have yet been brought 
to notice. 

Size, large, about two and a half inches deep and three 
broad : Form, roundish, flat and slightly rubbed at the base, 
narrowing a little towards the crown : Skin, fair, smooth, dull 
yellowish green in the shade, covered with dull red on the 
sunny side, with some indistinct stripes of a brighter tint, and 
rather thickly covered with large, prominent, yellow specks : 
Stem, short, about half an inch, rather slender, and inserted in 
a moderately deep, somewhat open cavity : Eye, quite small, 
closed, and slightly sunk in a very small, shallow, furrowed 
basin'; segments of the calyx long : Flesh, greenish white, fine, 
firm, and breaking : Juice, very abundant, brisk, pleasantly 
acid and high flavored. Core, medium size, rather close. 
Ripe from January to April. 

Art. VI. Descriptive Account of Princes Paragon Peach. 
By W. R. Prince, Flushing, L. I. 

I PROMISED you, some time since, a description of Princess 
Paragon peach, and now transmit the same. I am positive 
as to the fact that the variety which has been disseminated 
by some under this name, is erroneous, and I doubt whether 
the true kind is in any nursery collection, unless received from 
this establishment. 

Prince's Paragon Peach. — A freestone; large size, perfect 
oval ; skin yellowish green, red next the sun ; groove slightly 
depressed, deepening at the extremity with a distinct mame- 
lon ; a rounded cavity at the stem of moderate depth ; flesh 
white, red at the stone, very juicy, sweet, rich, and luscious, 
surpassed by very few ; stone large, rough, of a dull reddish 
brown hue ; ripens September 15th to 22d ; flowers large ; 
glands globose. The tree is very vigorous, attains a large 
size, and bears moderately, thus allowing each fruit a full 

Linncean Bot. Gard. and Nurs., Flushing, L. I., Dec. 1846. 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 77 

Art. VII. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of New and 
beautiful Plants^ figured in foreign periodicals ; with Des- 
criptions of those recently introduced to, or originated in, 
American gardens. 

In our notices of new plants in our past volumes, we have 
endeavoured to make our pages a record of nearly every- 
thing which has been introduced into foreign collections ; fully 
describing those worthy of general cultivation, and briefly' 
those of mere botanical interest. To enable us to do this, we 
have incurred much expense in procuring the various periodi- 
cal works devoted to the subject, and! it has been our object 
to make this article interesting to all : such, we believe, it has 
been. But the researches of collectors have been carried so 
far, that of the many plants which have been recently intro- 
duced, only a few of those figured, in comparison with the 
whole, possess that beauty which commends them to the atten- 
tion of the amateur, and as our room is somewhat restricted 
by an increasing number of contributors, we shall hereafter, 
in order to enable us to keep up with their publication, only 
describe those plants which appear really worthy of introduc- 
tion into gardens. 

I. Fu'cHSTA macra'ntha Hooker Large flowered Fuchsia, 

A green-house plant: gtowin^ four feet high \ with rosy crimson flowers ; appearing all summer 
a native of Peru ; increased by cuttings ; grown in loam and leaf mould; Pax Mag. Bot. xiii. 
p. 97. 

This is one of the most splendid fuchsias that has yet been 
introduced. Though quite distinct from others, " it most re- 
sembles F. fulgens, being dwarf, and similar in habit j but it 
differs from that species in its very dark green foliage, and the 
gay color, and uneven length of its flower tubes. In this 
latter respect, it comes near to F. corymbiflora, but the form 
of inflorescence in the two species is quite different, and com- 
pletely so the color of the flowers ;" F. macrintha being of a 
rich glowmg rosy crimson. The flowers when well grown 
are full six inches long, and the whole contour of the plant is 
one of great beauty. It will probably prove a valuable species 
for hybridization. It is as easily cultivated as the common 

78 Floricultural and Botanical Notices 

varieties, and blossoms abundantly. It was introduced from 
Peru, and is well worthy a place in every collection of plants. 
{Pax. Mag. June.) 

2. AzaYea obtu^sa Lindl. Blunt-leaved Azalea, (^ricacese.) 

A green-house shrub ; growing three feet high ; with red flowers ; appearing in spring -. a native 
of China : increased by cuttings ; grown in rough sandy peat. Bot. Reg. 1846 t. 35. 

This is one of the azaleas introduced by Mr. Fortune from 
China, and in addition to its other merits, it has that of being 
"sweet scented like a Sweet briar." It is described, " as the 
gayest of all the Chinese azaleas in cultivation. It is a little 
bush, with very blunt leaves, both smaller and narrower in 
proportion than we find upon the species already in our gar- 
dens, and also smaller flowers of the most glowing red." It 
is a free flowerer, and of dwarf habit. The species requires the 
same treatment as A. Daniels^d?^a, viz. to be potted in rough 
sandy peat, and the wood well ripened. It is increased by 
cuttings in the usual way. {Bot. Reg. July.) 

3. Bego nia a'lbo coccrNiA Hooker White and Scarlet Begonia^ 


A stove plant ; growing two feet high ; with white and scarlet flowers : appearing in summer : 
B native of India, increased by cuttings ; grown in peat and leaf mould. Bot. Reg. 1846 t. 39. 

The tribe of begonias is but little cultivated in American 
collections ; yet there are some species of great beauty, and as 
they flourish well in our climate under green-house treatment, 
it is to be regretted that they are not oftener seen. The pre- 
sent subject is one of great splendor ; having the outside of 
the calyx vivid scarlet, and the inside of that organ and the 
petals of a snowy whiteness, thus presenting a great contrast. 
For bouquets, it would be invaluable. The treatment of this 
family is simple : merely keeping them in a warm and dry 
place in winter, starting them into growth in little heat in 
February, and keeping them in the green-house in summer, 
where they will form the finest objects among achimenes, 
gloxinias, <fcc. This species should be immediately intro- 
duced. {Bot. Reg. July.) 

4. Calyste^gia pube^scens Lindl. Downy Bindweed, (Con- 


a half hardy climbing plant ; growing six feet high ; with pink flowers : appearing in July and 
August : a native of China ; increased by the root ; grown in any good soil. Bot. Reg. 1846 t. 42. 

" This is the first plant of its order that has been found, pro- 

of New Plants. 79 

ducing double flowers : they are about as large as those of a dou- 
ble anemone, but the petals are arranged with the irregularity 
of the rose ; they are of a pale delicate pink, and remain ex- 
panded some days." It was found by Mr. Fortune, in Shang- 
hai, and was sent home as a double convolvulus. It is a fine 
addition to our climbing plants, and as it grows readily in 
any good soil, it would undoubtedly form a splendid object 
turned out into the open border in summer, in the same way 
as we have recommended for Ipomaea Learii. It flowers freely. 
{^Bot. Reg. Aug.) 

5. Garde'nia flo'rida var. Fortunia^ja Mr. Fortune's Gar- 

denia, (Cinchonacese.) 

a green-house plant ; growing two feet high : with white flowers ; appearing in summer ; a 
native of China ; increased by cuttings ; grown in leaf mould and peat. Bot. Reg. 1846 p. 43. 

One of the most magnificent things which has recently been 
introduced, ranking "on a level with the double white camel- 
ha, which it equals in the beauty of the flowers and leaves, 
and infinitely excels it in its delicious odor." It is thus spoken 
of in the Journal of the Hort. Soc. : — " The common single and 
double varieties of this plant are known to any one. That 
which is now noticed difiers merely in the extraordinary size 
of the flowers, which are nearly four inches in diameter, and 
in having fine broad leaves, sometimes as much as six inches 
long. The flowers are pure white, changing to light bufi" as 
they go ofi", and not imlike a very large double camellia. 
Their calyx has the long broad lobes of the original species, 
instead of the narrow lobes, at least twice as short as the tube 
of the corolla of G. radicans, by which that species is techni- 
cally known." Such a description should induce every culti- 
vator to possess what has so long been wanted — a white camel- 
lia with a delicious perfume. It comes from the North of 
China, where it was found by Mr. Fortune, and although 
nothing is said of its treatment, it is probably as hardy as the 
camellia. It is a noble acquisition. {^Bot. Reg. Aug.) 

6. .^schyna'nthus Boschia^nus Pax. VandenBosch's Mschj- 

nanthus. (Gesnerdcets.) 

A stove plant ; growing two feet high ; with scarlet flowers; appearing in spring : a native of 
Java : Increased by cuttings : grown in moss, peat and leaf mould. Pax Mag. Bot. xiii. p. 175. 

All the JiJschynanthuses are handsome plants, but the pres- 
ent species is peculiarly so from its abundant blooming, pretty 

80 Retrospective Criticism. 

trailing habit and brilliant flowers. " It will grow freely, 
rather too much so, as will most of its family if planted in or- 
dinary soil, and kept in the stove, or even in the green-house ; 
but to flower it well it requires to be kept dry in the winter, 
and brought into a higher temperature : after the blosoms 
have begun to develop themselves, they will flourish well in 
the green-house. It is a fine species and worthy of intro- 
duction. {Pax Mag. Sept.) 

7. LfLiuM sANGufNEUM Lindl. Blood Red Lily (i^iliacese.) 

A hardy bulbous plant : growing eighteen inches high: with dark red flowers: appearing in 
June : a native of Japan : increased by oflsets : grown in loam and leaf mould or peat. Bot. 
Reg. 1S46, p. 50. 

This lily is said to be one of the discoveries of Siebold, who 
introduced the superb lancifoliums, in his Japan expedition. In 
general appearance, it comes near to our L. philadelphicum, 
having an upright and quite dwarf habit, attaining only the 
height of twelve or eighteen inches, and terminated with " its 
large solitary orange red flower." It has proved perfectly 
hardy in the garden of the Horticultural Society — and no doubt 
it will prove as hardy with us as the L. japonicum or exim- 
ium. It is readily propagated by offsets, thriving well in light 
loam and peat with a little well decomposed manure. Mr. 
Groom, who presented the bulbs to the Horticultural Society, 
has succeeded in raising several hybrids between this and other 
species, some of which are very handsome. We shall have 
several of them in flower the coming spring, when we shall 
endeavor to give a full account of them. {Bot. Reg. Sept.) 


Art. I. Retrospective Criticism. 

Modesty. — Mr. Editor: I have been informed, either directly or by some 
indirect way, through the Horticulturist, that one object of starting that 
work in opposition to Hovey's Magazine was, that the latter was too much 
given to extolling the Editor's own wares. I have just spent a few leisure 
moments in looking over the first five or six numbers of Downing's new 
magazine, and find (omitting reviews) seventeen instances where he has 
referred to or named " our work on Fruits and Fruit Trees, ^^ and twenty 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 81 

instances where he has referred to all other works ; this does not include 
nearly as many more instances where correspondents have referred to 
" your book on fruits," and where he has selected notices of " Mr. Down- 
ing's work on fruits." Nor do I mean to include several references he 
makes to " our book on Landscape Gardening and Cottage Residences.'^ 

Another Specimen. — It is well known that Professor Lindley, fifteen years 
ago, controverted with great ability the theory of Mr. Knight, that varieties 
would run out by old age. The same position was taken by Mr. Prince, 
Mr. Floy, and others. Last of all, Mr. Downing also assumed the same 
ground in his work on fruits. Now he says that he is much gratified to 
see Dr. Lindley, " the highest authority in Europe," come out lately and 
"endorse our views'' \ I See No. 4, p. 181. — Respectfully yours, Veto. 
Rochester, N. Y. Dec. 1846. — [Comment would be superfluous. — Ed.] 

Van Zandt's Superb Peach. — I can't waste time on any anonymous 
remarks like the one signed P. B. in your December number, and I think 
you do wrong to admit such without signature, as it deprives your readers 
of a full knowledge of their intent and disinterestedness. To solve the ques- 
tion whether the nurseryman who wrote that article actually possesses the 
"Van Zandt's Superb Peach," which, I perceive, is inserted in his Ckit- 
alogue, and if others have it, I now offer a premium of $ 10 for a single 
genuine fruit, to be exhibited to the Long Island Horticultural Society, 
the ensuing summer, by any one of the nurserymen who have inserted it in 
their Catalogues, the fruit to be grown by the Exhibitor. You will find 
that I am perfectly an fait in this matter, as will hereafter be proven. If 
they are inadvertently propagating a wrong variety, it is for the Interest of 
all it should be corrected. I did not intend my remarks to apply to private 
gardens. — Wm. R. Prince, Prince's Nurseries, Flushing, Dec. 24, 1846. 

Art. II. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, Dec, 5th, 1846. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was 
held to-day, — the President in the chair. 

The Executive Committee reported that the sum of ^1,350 should be ap- 
propriated for premiums for the year 1847, and that the income from the 
Appleton, Lowell and Lyman funds constitute a part of the appropriation. 

A Committee of three was appointed to make the annual settlement with 
the Mt. Auburn Cemetery. 

Adjourned three weeks, to December 23d, 

Exhibited. — Fruit : From the President of the Society, Chaumontel, 
Beurr6 d Aremberg and Columbia, pears : also three Apples received from 
some unknown source — one the Cathead and the other, Fall Harvey. From 
Wm. Stearns, Lawrence, Winter Nelis, Bishop's Thumb, Glout Morceau, 
Wilkinson, St. Germain, Marsh (native) and Bleeker's Meadow, some of 
them very fine. From S. Downer, Passe Colmar pears. From Josiah 


Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Lovett, Winter Nelis and Beurrfe Diel pears, both fine : also Minister ap- 
ples. From S. W. Cole, Cranberry apples. William Thomas exhibited a 
variety of apples raised in Ohio, among the number the Yellow Belleflower, 
R. I. Greening, Cannahan's ravorite,Yellow Newtown pippin, Gloria Mun- 
di (weighing \h lbs.) Winesap, &c., all of large size. 

Dec. %Qth. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day — the 
President in the chair. 

Agreeably to the by-laws, the Flower, Fruit and Vegetable Committees 
made their reports, awarding premiums for the past year, which were ac- 
cepted and voted to be published in the Transactions of the Society. 

The following are the Reports : — 



Hyacinths. — For the best display of 20 kinds, to Joseph Breck & 

Co., . . . . . . . $5 00 

For the second best display, to R. M. Copeland, . . 4 00 

Tulips. — For the best 30 varieties, to Joseph Breck & Co., . 8 00 

For the second best, to S. Walker, . . . . 6 00 

For the third best, to W. Quant, . . . . 4 00 

Pansies. — For the best 12 varieties, to Hovey & Co., . . 3 00 

Green House Plants in Pots. — June 10th. 
Geraniums. — For the best 6 varieties, to W. Quant, . . 6 00 

For the second best, to William Doyle, 
Calceolarias. — For the best 4 varieties, to William Quant 
Cactus. — For the best 6 varieties, to Hovey & Co., 

For the second best, to William Doyle, 
Fuchsias. — For the best 6 varieties, to W. Quant, . 

For the second best, to Hovey & Co., . 
Various Sorts. — For the best display, 12 pots, to Hovey & Co 

For the second best, to William Doyle, 
Hawthorns. — For the best display, to Messrs. Winships, 

For the second best, to Hovey & Co., . 
Hardy Azaleas. — For the best display, to D. Haggerston, . 3 00 

For the second best, to Messrs. Winships, . . . 2 00 

Shrubby PiEONiES. — For the best display, to Joseph Breck & Co., 3 00 
Herbaceous P^eonies. — For the best 12 flowers, to J. S. Cabot, 5 00 

For the second best, to Breck & Co., . . . . 3 00 

For the best display, to W. Mellar, . . . . 3 00 

Pinks. — For the best 6 varieties, to William Mellar, . . 4 00 

For the second best, to Breck & Co., . . . . 3 00 

For the best display, to William Mellar, . . . 3 00 

Ranunculus. — For the best display, to S. Walker, . . 5 00 

For the second best, to Breck & Co., . . . .3 00 

Anemones. — For the best display, to Breck & Co., . .5 00 

Forthe second best, to Hovey & Co., . . . .3 00 

3 00 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 83 

Division A. — Class 1. 
Hardy Roses. — For the best 30 varieties, to Hovey & Co., . $ 8 00 

For the second best 30 varieties, to Breck & Co., . . 6 00 

For the third best 30 varieties, no claimant. 

For the best display, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., . . 3 00 

Class n. — For the best 12 varieties, to D. Crowley, . . 5 00 

No competitor in this class. 

Division B. — Class 1. 
For the best display of Noisette, China Tea, &c. No flowers 
Class H. — Hardy Perpetuals. — Best 6 varieties, to Hovey & Co. 

For the second best 6 varieties, to Breck & Co., 
Hollyhocks. — For the best display, to D. Crowley, 

No other competitor. 
Magnolias. — For the best display, to J. Kenriek, . 
For the second best display, to W. E. Carter, . 
Carnation and Ficotee Pinks. — For the best 8 varieties, to J. L. 
L. F. Warren, .... 

For the second best variety, to Breck & Co., . 
For the best display, to William Mellar, 
Hardy Rhododendrons. — Best display : none offered 

Second best display : none offered. 
Phloxes. — For the best 10 varieties, to J. S. Cabot, 
For the second best variety, to S. Walker, 
For the third best variety, to Breck & Co., 
Balsams. — For the best display, to W. Quant, 

For the second best display, to J. L. L. F. Warren, . 
For the third best display, to Walker & Co., . 
German Asters. — For the best display, to William Quant, 
For the second best display, to Hovey & Co., . 
For the third best display, to J. W. Mandel, . 
Indigenous Plants.— For the best display, to G. Gilbert, , 
Herbaceous Perennials.— For the best display, to J. Breck & Co., 
For the second best display, to Messrs. Winships, 
For the third best display, to P. Barnes, 
Annuals.— For the best display, to Breck & Co., . 
For the second best display, to Parker Barnes, . 
For the third best display, to Walker & Co., . 
Division A. 

Dahlias. Premier Prize. For the best 12 dissimilar blooms, to 

W. Quant, ...•••• 
Specimen bloom, to William Quant, .... 
Specimen blooms, 6 varieties, to William Quant, 
Specimen blooms, 2 varieties, to William Mellar, 

4 00 













3 00 



4 00 

























4 00 





4 00 






Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Division B. 
Class I. — No premiums awarded. 
Class II. — For the best 12 dissimilar blooms, to J. 

L. L. F. Warren, $5 00 

For the second best 12 dissimilar blooms, to Hovey & Co., 
Class III. — No premiums awarded. 

Division C. 
Class I. — No premium awarded. 
Class IT. — For the best 12 dissimilar blooms, to William Quant. 

For the second best 12 dissimilar blooms, to William Mellar, . 
Class III. — For the best 6 dissimilar blooms, to Henry Reed, 
Chrysanthemums. — For the best 12 varieties, to Daniel Crowley, 

For the second best 12 varieties, to James Nugent, 

For the third best, no claimant. 

Premiums and Gratuities 
Awarded at Weekly Shows and for Objects during the Season. 
To Messrs. Hovey & Co., for a fine display of Camellias, 
To Wra. Quant, for the second display of Camellias, 
To W. E. Carter, for the third display of Camellias, 
To W. E. Carter, for a plant of Chinese Azaleas, 
To Salisbury & Willot, for fine plants. Azaleas, 
To the President of the Society, for seedling calceolarias. 
To N. J. Becar, of Brooklyn, N. Y. for the same, 
To D. Crowley, for a splendid specimen of Moss Rose, 
To Wm. Quant, for pot plants, $2, $2, f2, 
To A. McLennan, for pot plants, $ 1, 
To Miss Russell for bouquets, #2, ^2, $2, $ 1, $2, $2, $ 1, $ 1 

$1 4^1 ^o ^o 4bo ^o ^ o 

To Messrs. Winships, for bouquets, $1, $1, $3, $2, $ 

To D. Crowley, for pot plants, $ 1, 

To W. Quant, for bouquets, $1, $2, 

To J. S. Cabot, for fine Pansies, 

To Thomas Needham, for fine Fuchsias, 

To W. Mellar, for pot plants. 

To Walker & Co., for pot plants, $ 1, $ 1, 

To P. Barnes, for pot plants. 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, for bouquets, $1, $1, $1, $1, $1,$1, 

To the President of the Society, for a splendid display of Roses, 

To Messrs. Winships, for fine Prairie Roses, 

To Messrs. Hovey & Co., for pot plants, $2, $2, 

To Walker & Co., for bouquets, $ 1, $2, 

To Messrs. Hovey & Co., for a superb Verdnica speci6sa. 

To R. West, for bouquets, $2, $1, $2, $ I, #2, $1, $1, 

To W. Quant, for Stephan6tus floribiindus. 

To the President of the Society, for Japan Lilies, &c., 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, for seedling Picotees, 

To P. Barnes, for very fine Hollyhocks, 

3 00 


5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

3 00 

3 00 

5 00 

3 00 

3 00 

6 00 

1 00 

25 00 

9 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 

2 00 

1 00 

6 00 

5 00 

4 00 

4 00 

3 00 

6 00 

10 00 

3 00 

3 00 

3 00 

2 00 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 


To Messrs. Hovey & Co., for superb specimens of Japan Lilies, 

To W. Doyle, for bouquets, $1, $2, ^l,f2, $1, 

To James Nugent, for bouquets, $ 2, 

To P. Barnes, for bouquets, 

To W. E. Carter, for Scilla maritima, 

To W. E. Carter, for fine seedling Phloxes, 

To W. Doyle, for Cattleyana Harrisonn 

To E. W. Carter, for Hedychium Gardnenan«m, 

To Messrs. Winships, for Aloe sp. 

To J. W. Mandell, for bouquets, 

To W. Doyle, for Stanhopea occulata. 

To the President, for Dahlias, 

To P. Barnes, for fine specimen of Ipomopsis picta. 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, for Gladiolus belviderus, 

To D. Haggerston, for Stove plants. 

To Walker & Co., for displays of Annuals, &c. during the season. 

To W. E. Carter, for the same. 

To W. Quant, for the same. 

To W. Miller, for the same. 

To Messrs. Hovey & Co., for the same, 

To W. B. Richards, for the same. 

To A . Aspinwell, for fine display of Roses, 

To L Davenport, for the same, 

To Messrs. Winships, for fine Shrubs during the season, 

To Messrs. Winships, for fine specimens of Yucca gloriosa, 

filamentosa and sup6rba, .... 

To E. W. Carter, for Polyanthus, 

To W. E. Carter, for Spiraea japonica, Pentst^mon Murrayctnwm, 
To J. Breck & Co., for displays of flowers during the year, 

#500 00 



The Committee on Fruits have awarded the following premiums for the 
year 1846. 


In accordance with a vote of the Society, and by the liberality of a gen- 
tleman desirous of advancing Horticultural Science, ofl^ering one Hundred 
Dollars a year, for three years. 

Apples. — For the two best varieties and specimens of SuramerApples : 
To Otis Johnson, for the Red Astrachan, . . $5 00 

To Otis Johnson, for the Early Bough, . . . 5 00 

For the two best varieties and specimens of Autumn Apples, 

To George Hyde, for Gravenstein, . . . 5 00 

To Otis Johnson, for the Porter, . . . . 5 00 

VOL. XIII. — NO. II. 10 

■ $3 


. 7 


. 2 


. 1 


. 1 


. 3 




. 2 


. 2 


. 1 


. 2 


. 5 


. 2 


. 2 


. 5 


, 3 


. 3 


. 3 


. 3 


. 3 


. 3 


. 5 


. 3 


. 5 




. 2 00 

. 2 


. 24 


S6 MassacJmsetts Horticultural Society. 

For the two best varieties and specimens of Winter Apples, 

To George Walsh, for Baldwin, 

To S. Walker, for R. I. Greening, 
Pears. — For the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Pears, 

To Otis Johnson for Jargonelle, 

To S. Pond, for Williams's Bon Chretien, . 
For the two best specimens and varieties of Autumn Pears, 

To S. Walker, for Fondante d'Automne, 

To S. Downer, Jr., for Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
For the two best varieties and specimens of Winter Pears, 

To J. S. Cabot, for Beurre d' Aremberg, 

To Josiah Lovett, for Winter Nelis, 
Cherries. — For the three best varieties of Cherries, 

To Otis Johnson, for Black Tartarian, 

To George Walsh, for New Large Black Bigarreau, 

To J. F. Allen, for Sweet Montmorency, 
Plums. — For the three best varieties of Plums, 

To J. F. Allen, for Green Gage, 

To S. R. Johnson, for Washington, 

To Joseph Lovett, for Reine Claude Violet, 
Peaches. — For the two best varieties of Peaches, 

To J. F. Allen, for Bellegarde, 

To Josiah Lovett, for Grosse Mignonne, 

$ 100 00 

Apples. — For the greatest number of kinds, and the best grown, 

to B. V. French, . . . . . #10 00 

For the 2d best do., to George Hyde, . . .5 00 

For the 3d best do., F. W. Macondry, . . . 3 00 

Pears. — For the greatest number of kinds, and the best grown, to 

M. P. Wilder, 

For the 2d best do., to S. Walker, .... 
For the 3d best do., to J. S. Cabot, 
GitAPEs. — For the best exhibited, to David Haggerton, 
For the next best exhibited, to Thos. Needham, 
For the next best exhibited, to Hovey & Co., , 
For the greatest number of varieties, and the best grown, to 

J. F. Allen, 

For the next best do., to Wm. Quant, 
Assorted Fruit. — For the best basket of Fruit, of various kinds, 

to Otis Johnson, . . . . . . 10 00 

For the best dish of Apples, not less than 12 specimens of one 

variety, to Hyde & Co., . . . . . 5 00 

For the 2d best do., to Otis Johnson, . . . 3 00 

For the best dish of Pears, not less than 12 specimens of one 
variety, to J. F. Allen, . . . . . 5 00 

.$5 00 

. 5 00 


. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 oa 

. 5 00 

. 500 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 

. 5 00 











5 00 





Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 87 

For the next best do., to S. Walker, . . . $ 3 00 

Apples. — For the best summer Apples, on or before the 1st Sep- 
tember, to Otis Johnson, . . . . . 6 00 

For the next best do., to A. D. Williams, . . .4 00 

For the best fall Apples, on or before the 1st December, to 

George Hyde, . . - . . . 6 00 

For the next best do., to Otis Johnson, . . . 4 00 

For the best winter Apples, on or before the 1st of March, to 
George Walsh, ...... 

For the next best do., to Samuel Walker, 
Pears. — For the best summer Pears, on or before the 1st Septem- 
ber, to Otis Johnson, ..... 

For the next best do., to J. F. Allen, .... 

For the best fall Pears, on or before the 1st December, to J. F. 
Allen, ....... 

For the next best do., to Samuel Walker, 
For the best winter Pears, on or before the 1st March, 1847, to 
Josiah Lovett, .*.... 

For the next best do., to J. S. Cabot, 
Cherries. — For the best specimen, not less than two quarts, to 
Otis Johnson, ...... 

For the 2d best do., to George Walsh, 
Peaches. — For the best specimens grown under glass, to J. F. Allen, 
For the 2d best do., to Wm. Quant, .... 

For the best specimen, grown in open culture, to John Merriam, 
For the 2d best do., to Josiah Lovett, 
Apricots. — For the best specimen of Apricots, to Hovey & Co., . 

For the 2d best do., to E. E. Bradshaw, 
Nectarines. — For the best specimen of Nectarines, to J. F. Allen, 

For the 2d best do., to S. Downer, Jr., 
Quinces. — For the best specimens of the best kind of Quinces, to 
Samuel Pond, ...... 

For the 2d best do., to Wm. Quant, .... 

Plums. — For the best Plums of the best flavor, not less than two 
quarts, to J. F. Allen, ..... 

For the next best do., to E. E. Bradshaw, 
Gooseberries. — For the best flavored and finest specimens, two box- 
es, to Alexander McLennan, .... 

For the 2d best do., to J. Hovey, .... 

Currants. — For the best flavored and finest specimens, two boxes, 
to Otis Johnson, ...... 

For the 2d best do., to A. D. Williams, 
Raspberries. — For the best specimens of Raspberries, not less than 
two boxes, to J. F. Allen, .... 

For the 2d best do,, to Chever Newhall, 

6 00 

4 00 

6 00 

4 00 

6 00 

4 00 

10 00 

6 00 

6 00 

4 00 

6 00 

4 00 

6 00 

4 00 

6 00 

3 00 

6 00 

4 00 

5 00 

3 00 

6 00 

3 00 

5 00 

3 00 

5 00 

3 00 

5 00 

3 00 

88 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Strawberries. — For the best specimens of Strawberries, not less 

than two boxes, to Hovey & Co., . . . . $6 00 

For the next best do., Josiah Richardson, . . .4 00 

Water Melon.— For the best specimen of Water Melon, to Otis 
Johnson, ...... 

For the 2d best do., to R. S. ^Mcintosh, 
MusKMELON.— For the best Muskmelon, to Wm. Quant, 

For 2d best do., Alexander McLennan, 
Figs. — For the best specimen of Figs, to J. F. Allen, 

For the 2d best do., to F. W. Macondry, 
Grapes. — For the best specimens and the best variety of Grapes, 

grown under glass previous to July 1st, to D. Haggerston, 10 00 
For the 2d best do., to J. F. Allen, . . . .7 00 

For the best specimen and variety of Grapes, grown under glass 

subsequently to July 1st, to J. F. Allen, . . . 10 00 

For the 2d best do., to Hovey & Co., . . 7 00 

Grapes, {Native.) — For the best specimen and variety of Native 

Grapes, to Kendall Bailey, . . . . 5 00 

For the 2d best do., to J. F. Allen, . . . . 3 00 

5 00 
3 00 
5 00 
3 00 
5 00 
3 00 


$326 00 











. 5 


. 5 


To J. F. Allen, for fine display of Grapes during the season, . 10 00 

To J. F. Allen, for his seedling Montmorency Cherries, 

To Josiah Lovett, for fine display of Blackberries, . 

To Josiah Lovett, for the best Muskmelon, open culture, 

To Charles E. Grant, for fine Native Grapes, 

To W. H. Denning, for Beauty of Kent Apples, 

To James Arnold, (by W. Young,) for fine specimen Grapes, 

To Horace Gray, for fine specimen Grapes, 

$371 00 


awarding premiums for 1846. 

The Committe for awarding premiums on vegetables, respectfully report 
the following as the result of their examination : — 
Asparagus. — For the earliest and best, not less than 3 bunches, to 

William Quant, . . . . . . 5 00 

Beets. — For the best, (pure blood beet,) during the season, not less 

than 12 roots, to A. D. Williams, . . . . 5 00 

Broccoli. — For the best 3 heads, to J. Lovett, . . .5 00 

Beans. — For the best and earliest peck of string beans, to Thomas 

Needham, . . . . . . . 3 00 

For the best and earliest Lima beans, not less than 2 quarts, to 

F. W. Macondry, . . . . . . 3 00 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 89 

Cucumbers. — For the best pair under glass, previous to the first Sat- 
urday of June, to Orr N. Town, . . . . $ 5 00 
For the second best do., to D. Crowley, . . .3 00 

Cauliflowers. — For the best and largest, during the season, not 

less than 3 heads, to A. D. Williams, . . . 5 00 

Corn. — For the best and earliest sweet corn, not less than 12 ears, 

to A. D. Williams, . . . . . . 3 00 

Cabbage. — For the best drumhead cabbage, during the season, not 

less than 3 heads, to A. D. Williams, . . . 5 00 

For the best Savoy cabbage, during the season, not less than 3 

heads, to A. D. Williams, . . . . . 3 00 

Egg Plants. — The bestdisplay, during the season, to Orr N. Town, 5 00 

Lettuce. — For the best 6 heads, before 1st Saturday in July, to 

Thomas Needham, . . . . . . 3 00 

Potatoes. — For the best and earliest peck, previous to August 1, to 

A. D. Williams, . . . . . . 3 00 

Peas. — For the best and earliest peck in June, to F. W. Macondry, 3 00 

Rhubarb. — For the largest and best, previous to the first Saturday 

in July, not less than 12 stalks, to Josiah Lovett, . . 5 00 

Sqcashes. — For the best pure Canada squashes, not less than 6 in 

number, to A. D. Williams, . . . . 5 00 

Tomatoes. — For the best and earliest, not less than 1 dozen, to A. 

D. Williams, 5 00 

Vegetables. — For the best display and greatest variety, at the 

weekly exhibitions, during the season, to A. D. Williams, . 10 00 
For the second best do., to F. W. Macondry, . . 5 00 

For the best display and greatest variety, at the annual exhibi- 
tion, to A. D. Williams, . . . . . 10 00 
For the second best do., to F. W. Macondray, . . 7 00 

Celery. — For the best and largest blanched, not less than 6 roots, 

to A. D. Williams, . . . . . . 5 00 


To J. L. L. F. Warren, for a wreath of corn, 12 varieties. 

To E. Wight, for variety of squashes. 

To William Quant, for early Tomatoes, 

To J. Hovey, for six heads of Lettuce, 

To Thomas Needham, for a display of early cucumbers, 

$ 124 00 

Exhibited. — Fruit : From the Hon. J. S. Cabot, fine specimens of the 
Beurr6 d' Aremberg, Winter Nelis and Columbia pears. From Josiah 
Lovett, very fine Chaumontel, Le Cur6, Passe Colmar, Beurr6 d' Arem- 
berg and Glout Morceau pears. From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Cross pear 
and Baldwin and R. I. Greening apples. From S. R, Johnson, fine Dix 
and Beurr6 Diel pears, and a variety called the Urbaniste, probably not true. 


. 3 00 

. 3 00 

, 3 00 

. 2 00 

. 3 00 

90 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

From S. Walker, Baldwin, R. I. Greening and Nonsuch apples. From 
Dr. Hedge, Cambridge, Easter Beurr6 pears. From A. D. Williams, R. I. 
Greening, Baldwin, Winter Sweet Greening and Pearmain apples. From 
George Walsh, Baldwin and Hubbardston Nonsuch apples, and fine Easter 
Beurr6 pears. From John Dudley, Cambridge, Winter Bon Chretien 
pears. From John Owen, Isabella and White Risling grapes, and Gran- 
ny Earle apples, the latter small but good. 

Saturday, Jan. 2d, 1847. — The quarterly stated meeting of the Society 
was held to-day — the president in the chair. 

Parker Barnes declined serving on the Flower Committee, and W. B. 
Richards was elected to fill the vacancy. 
The Finance Committee made their annual Report, as follows : — 

Receipts during the year, from all sources, . $ 3,346 34 

Expenditures during the year, . . $ 3,286 76 

Balance in the Treasury, . . 59 58 

$3,346 34 

The Committee reported the property of the Society, including the New 
Hall, to be valued at $ 42,035, the only debt being a mortgage of #15,000, 
payable in 1848. 

On motion of S. Walker, it was voted, that a gold pencil case, pen and 
inkstand, or any other articles to the amount of $50, be presented to Dr. E. 
Wight, for his long and faithful services as Secretary of the Society. — 
Messrs. S. Walker, C. M. Hovey and E. M. Richards, were chosen a com- 
mittee to procure the same. 

An amendment to section XX of the by-laws, was proposed by S. Walk- 
er, and entered upon the records ; the amendment strikes out all after the 
word " them " in the 23d line. * 

The following persons were elected honorary and corresponding members 
of the Society. 

Honorary. — Baron Justis Liebig, Geissen, Prof. Lindley, London, Hon. 
Theodore Frelinghuysen, New Jersey, Col. T. H. Perkins, Boston, J. P. 
Gushing, Esq., Watertown, Judge Davis, Boston, Josiah Bradlee, Esq., 
Boston, S. H. Smith, Esq., Providence, Dr. Israel Munson, New Haven. 

Corresponding. — Prof. Asa Gray, Cambridge, E. N. Hosford, Albany, 
Rev. Henry Colman, Rev. H. W. Beecher, Indianapolis, A. B. Allen, N. 
York, L. Tucker, Albany, T. Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Eng., M. Laffay, 
Paris, R. Buist, Philadelphia, J. B. Russell, Cincinnati, Dr. William D. 
Brinkle, Philadelphia, Capt. James P. Gerry, U. S. N., Hon. George 
Lunt, Newburyport, E. Beck, Esq., London, C. Mackintosh, Dalkeith, 
Scotland, Joseph Paxton, Chatsworth, Eng., R. Glendenning, Chiswick, 

Adjourned one week, to January 9th. 

Saturday, Jan. 9th. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to- 
day, — the President in the chair. 

The Executive Committee reported, that, as there was no Decorating 
Committee appointed, and as $200 has been appropriated for that purpose, 
the apportionments be altered as follows : — $ 650 to Flower Committee : 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 91 

$ 550 to the Fruit Committee, and $150 to the Vegetable Committee, and 
the report was accepted. 

The committee chosen to settle with the Mount Auburn Cemetery, re- 
ported that they had duly attended to the same, and had received from the 
Treasurer of that Association, the sura of $3,233 41, being one fourth of 
the net proceeds, the proportion belonging to the Society. 

It was voted that the Lowell medal should be of the same valuation as 
the Appleton medal, and the Committee on medals were authorized and 
instructed to procure suitable dies for the purpose. 

It was voted that the sum of $ 300 be placed at the disposal of the Li- 
brary Committee for the increase of the Library, and that said committee 
report a list of books which it is desirable to purchase ; also, voted to au- 
thorize the committee to appoint a Librarian with a salary of $ 50 per 

Voted to invest $2500 of the amount received from Mt. Auburn, for 
paying the debt of the Society. 

Kthibited. — Fruit: From J. Pinneo, Hanover, N. H., a variety of ap- 
ples, viz : Twenty ounce (fine,) Jewett's fine red. Nonsuch, Sweet Pearmain, 
Golden Pippin, (?) Lebanon Sweet, Erie Sweet, Dexter and Lebanon Sour; 
several of them very good. 

Adjourned two weeks, to January 23d. 

Saturday, Jan. 23(i. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to- 
day — the President in the Chair. 

The Executive Committee reported the list of premiums for the present 
year, which was accepted and placed in the hands of the publishing com- 

The Executive Committee also offered a resolution upon the subject of 
Prospective Premiums, which was accepted ; and the resolution was placed 
in the hands of the Committee for establishing premiums, who made a re- 
port as follows : — 

Prospective premiums for objects to be originated subsequent to A. D. 
1846, and which, after a trial of five years, shall be deemed equal or supe- 
rior, in quality and other characteristics, to any now extant. 
For the best seedling Pear, the Society's large gold medal, . . ^60 

For the best seedling Apple, the Society's large gold medal, . . 60 

For the best seedling Hardy Grape, the Society's large gold medal, . 60 
For the best seedling Plum, the Appleton gold medal, . . 40 

For the best seedling Cherry, the Lowell gold medal, . , 40 

For the best seedling Strawberry, the Lyman plate, , . .50 

For the best seedling Raspberry, the Lyman plate, . . .50 

For the best seedling Hardy Rose, the Society's large gold medal, . 60 
For the best seedling Camellia, the Society's large gold medal, . 60 

For the best seedling Azalea indica, the Lowell gold medal, . . 40 

For the best seedling Tree Paeony, the Appleton gold medal, . 40 

For the best seedling Herbaceous Paeony, Lowell gold medal, . 40 

For the best seedling Potato, the Society's large gold medal, 60 

The Report was accepted, and ordered to be published. 

Adjourned two weeks, to February 6th. 

92 Answers to Correspotidents. 

[Want of room compels us to omit the premiums offered for 1847 till our 
next number.] 

Exhibited. — Fruit : From the President of the Society, Nonsuch apples 
and fine Easter Beurr6 pears ; also a variety of apples received from various 
sources, among which were the yEsopus Spitzemberg (very fine,) Winter 
Pennock (poor,) Fall Harvey, in good preservation, but flavor indifferent. 
Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited Baldwin apples, and Bergamotte de Par- 
thenay pears; also handsome Northern Spy apples received from J. H- 
Watts, Esq., Rochester, New York, which the committee pronounced very 

Art. ni. Answers to Correspondents. 

We now resume our answers to correspondents, and shall endeavor here- 
after not to allow so long a space to occur again. 

PoLMAisE Heating. — T. C. — We intend to give a full account of this 
method of heating as soon as we can find room : a great deal has been said 
in its praise in the English papers, and from a small apparatus which we have 
erected in one of our houses on the plan, we think much more favorably of 
it than formerly. A few years ago we tried to heat a small house, with a 
furnace, in the same way that dwellings are warmed ; but the furnace was 
not of sufficient power, or properly constructed, and we erected a common 
furnace with flues, in its place. Since the principles of Polmaise have been 
so ably elucidated, we have pulled down the old one, and erected another, 
combining that system with the common flue, and we find it to work so well, 
that we should recommend it to the attention of amateurs for further trial. 
We shall offer some facts which we think will show its economy over flues 
or hot water. 

AcHiMENES PiCTA. — Au Amateur. — This most beautiful species first flow- 
ered here in our collection in the Summer of 1845, andsubsequently found 
its way into many choice collections of plants ; it is the most brilliant of the 
tribe, and is as easily cultivated as either of the other species. The little 
corms or tubers should now be potted in a soil of leaf mould and peat, with 
little sand, and placed in a hotbed or very warm place in the greenhouse, 
where they will soon begin to grow. When they have made four or five 
leaves, they may be potted off singly into small pots, or in shallow pans, 
eight inches broad, five or seven plants in each ; in this way, they flourish 
well, and make a splendid show ; give a good drainage. We shall endeav- 
or to offer an article on this tribe soon. 

Scarlet Pelargoniums. — X. — Many of the new kinds are a great im- 
provement upon the old ones ; the following comprise six new and choice va- 
rieties : King, Ingram's Dwarf, Mallason's No. 1, Mallason's No. 2, Nimrod 
and Huntsman. They are all profuse flowerers, and of dwarf habit. 

Japan Lilies. — I. W. J. — We shall endeavor to comply with your wish- 
es, and should probably have done so before, had we not misplaced a draw- 

Answers to Correspondents. 93 

ing, taken from a superb specimen last summer, which we intended should 
accompany our article; our plants last season were the admiration of all, 
some of them producing sixty flowers. In the mean time we advise plant- 
ing in a compost of leaf mould and peat in equal parts, with a small quan- 
tity of sand. 

The best varieties of Apples, Pears, Cherries and Plums. — S. D. 
Redfield. — The earliest and best four summer apples are the Early Har- 
vest, Bough, Red Astrachan and Williams's Favorite: the best four Fall , Por- 
ter, Gravenstein, Fall Pippin and Lyscom : the best four Winter, Baldwin, 
R. I. Greening, Russet and Northern Spy. The earliest and best three 
summer pears, are the Citron des Carmes, Jargonelle and Bloodgood : the 
best three Fall, Williams's Bon Chretien (Bartlett,) Louise Bonne de Jer- 
sey, Paradise d'Automne : the best four Winter, Beurr6 d' Aremberg, Win- 
ter Nelis and Glout Morceau. The two earliest and best cherries, are 
the Mayduke and Black Tartarian : the two best late. Downer's late Red and 
Sweet Montmorency. The two earliest and best plums, Bradshaw's and 
Green Gage : the two latest and best, Jefferson and Coe's late Red. In 
giving these names, we should remark that there are many others equally 
deserving of the same rank. The Strawberry grape is a very good native 
variety, quite new, but well worth cultivation. 

Mildew on Grapes in Vineries. — M. C. Johnson. — Old vines are in 
no way more subject to mildew than young ones, so far as our experience 
goes : and we believe this is the opinion of grape-growers generally. How 
far Mr. Kenrick's views are correct in relation to trailing on or near the 
ground, we have no knowledge, as we do not think the experiment has been 
tried here. We do not doubt ourselves, but that a trellis over an inclined 
plane paved with brick or stone would be highly advantageous and greatly 
promote ripening as well as check mildew, from the greater humidity which 
they would enjoy. In an account of a very successful mode of cultivation 
of the grape in houses without heat, which we gave in a previous volume, 
(IX, p. 86) the excellence of the fruit was in a great degree attributed to the 
paved floors, which were watered when they became heated by the sun, 
and thus gave off an abundance of moisture of a genial temperature. Prob- 
ably paving in the open air would have a similar effect ; and by watering 
induce a humidity which would check the mildew. We hope our corres- 
pondent will try this mode, and we should be glad to know the result. 
The objection of Mr. Johnson is a good one, viz : — that the flowers as well 
as fruit might suffer from the effects of heavy rains : to obviate this, the 
distance of the trellis from the pavement should be increased. In the vine- 
yards of France, the vines are trained to stakes about three feet high, but 
we gathered very fine fruit within one foot of the ground — and the crop, 
so far as we observed, was exceedingly good — satisfactory results can only 
be arrived at by actual experiment. 

Plants. — L. P. Hopkins. — As you invite questions from your subscri- 
bers, I propose the following': — 

1. Should Gloxinias and Gesneras be kept absolutely without water 
during the winter, and allowed to die down to the ground ? 

94 Answers to Correspondents. 

Yes. In the month of November, we place the pots underneath the stage, 
turning them upon their sides, where they remain till February, when they 
are again repotted and started into growth in a mild heat. 

2. What is the proper mode of treating tuberous rooted geraniums? 
We have not had much experience with this class : they should, however, 

be managed similarly to other tuberous rooted plants : keeping them rather 
dry in winter, and potting them in fresh soil in March, and placing them in 
the warmest part of the house until they are well established. 

3. How should Fuchsias be treated after flowering? Should they be 
allowed to rest or encouraged to grow ? 

They should be allowed to rest. In December we place the plants under 
the stage, and only give them an occasional watering, when they are quite 
dry, till February or March ; they are then shifted into new pots, rubbing 
off the loose soil, and either headed quite down to the ground or all the lat- 
eral branches cut off to within an inch or two of the main stem ; they will 
then make fine flowering plants by the month of June. 

4. How should Cape Jasmine be treated, to make it flower, and to pre- 
vent the leaves from turning yellow ? 

Keep the plants rather dry during winter, and in March bring them into 
a temperature of 75° or 80° with more moisture, which will start them at 
once into growth ; by May they can be placed in the greenhouse, or even in 
June plunged in the open ground, and they will retain the verdure of their 
leaves the year round, and bloom abundantly. The soil should be leaf 
mould, peat and sand. 

5. How can Fuchsia corymbyflora be made to flower? I have several 
plants of it, some old ones, and some raised within the year from cuttings — 
they make a luxuriant growth, but refuse to flower, though I have kept 
them almost withont water for two months at a time. 

We have never seen this superb species in good condition in our gardens; 
but we have described many fine plants which we saw in Europe, though it 
is there generally considered a rather diflicult plant to manage well ; it is a 
most luxuriant grower, and the only way to bring it into bloom is to confine 
it to a moderate sized pot, and bend down the top of the shoot to make it 
throw out laterals, which soon form flower buds. 

6. What is the easiest mode of propagating the Oleander? 

Placing the cuttings in phials of water, in a temperature of 75° or 80®, 
until they emit roots, when they should be potted off into a light rich soil, 
composed of leaf mould, peat and sand. 

Our correspondent is informed that, in our previous volumes, excellent ar- 
ticles have appeared oil the culture of the Azalea, Gardenia, Camellia, 
Fuchsia, and, indeed, upon every popular plant. 

Raising Grape Vines from Seeds. — A Subscriber. — I see no reason why 
we may not have as great variety of hardy grapes adapted to the climate, 
as apples, and propose to plant a quantity of seed from several different 
kinds. As you have kindly offered to devote a portion of your valuable 
Magazine for the purpose of answering inquiries, — will you please inform 

Horticultural Memoranda. 95 

me, through that medium, the best method of treating that seed. Loudon 
and other writers give us directions for planting other seed and for taking 
care of the young plants, but are silent about grape seedlings. 

We are glad to find the culture of the grape, from seed, is attracting 
more attention ; and we are happy to give all the information we possess to 
aid those who will make the attempt ; convinced as we are, that it is to hy- 
brids that we must look for varieties for out-door cultivation in our climate. 

Our experience is rather limited, but we have now some hundreds under 
way, a few of which we hope to see in fruit the present year. Our plan 
has been to sow the seeds in boxes in February or March, placing them in a 
greenhouse, if one is at hand, if not, in a hotbed, or even a frame; they 
will soon make their appearance above ground, and when two inches high, 
they should be potted off singly into small pots, and afterwards shifted, 
according to their vigor. The second year they are turned out into the 
open ground about the first of June, where they soon make vigorous shoots, 
and on the approach of winter are protected with a covering of coarse litter, 
or leaves. Their after treatment is the same as for vines raised from cut- 
tings or layers. If A Subscriber will turn to our vol. IX, p. 373, he will 
find some capital directions on this head, from our correspondent, Mr. Ca- 
mak of Georgia. 




Crrape Vines in the forcing house will now be setting their fruit, and will 
need much attention, being careful to keep up a good temperature, not too 
high at night, but regular and even. In the greenhouse and vinery, the 
eyes generally begin to swell about the twentieth of this month, unless the 
temperature is kept very low : as soon as they begin to swell, the shoots 
should be loosened from their place in front, and tied loosely up to the trel- 
lis, allowing the ends to hang down. In this way, they may remain for 
two weeks, when the eyes will all show, and they may then be made fast 
to the trellis : syringe lightly, every morning and evening, in good weather. 
Cuttings may now be put in, if there is a hotbed at hand, if young vines are 
wanted. Vines in pots may now be brought into the greenhouse, where they 
will soon start into growth, and produce good crops. 

Peach Trees and Figs in pots may now be taken into the greenhouse or 
vinery, and will bring forward an early crop. 

Scions of trees may still be cut and placed away as we directed last month . 

Orchards, where there is a great deal to do in the spring, may be pruned 
now, which will save time in the busy season of April and May. 

96 Horticultu7'al Memoranda. 


Pelargoniums will now require more attention. All plants which are in- 
tended to bloom well in April and May should now be repotted, if it has 
not been done before : eight inch pots are sufficiently small for good-sized 
plants, and, if they are very large, they will require about eleven inch : as 
soon as repotted, give them a good syringing, and, if they are attacked by 
the green fly, fumigate immediately. Train out the shoots carefully, and 
attend carefully to the watering : for further direction, we would refer to 
Mr. Beck's article in our last. 

Roses will now be advancing rapidly, and such as appear stunted for pot 
room should be immediately shifted into a larger size : syringe occasionally, 
and fumigate to destroy the green fly. 
Japan Lilies should now be repotted in the manner advised last month. 
Dahlias, if wanted for very early flowering, should now be potted and 
placed in the warmest part of the greenhouse. 

Camellias will now be in full bloom : give them abundant supplies of 
water at the roots, and syringe occasionally overhead : pick off all decay- 
ing flowers, and attend to impregnation, if seeds are wanted. 
Verbenas should now be repotted. 
Victoria Slocks will now need a shift into larger pots. 
Achimenes, Gloxinias, dfc, started in pans, should now be potted off 
singly into small pots. 

Schizanthuses should be now shifted into large-sized pots. 
Calceolarias will require potting again. 

Fuchsias should now be propagated from cuttings of the new wood, if 
young plants are wanted. 

Gladiolus Gandavensis, and Floribundus should now be potted for early 

Sparaxis and Ixias, now about to bloom, should be liberally watered. 
Ten Week Slocks, and other sorts of tender annuals, may now be sown 
for producing plants to turn out early into the border. 

Nemophilas should again be potted if very large and fine plants are 

Heaths should be carefully attended to ; giving good supplies of water, 
and an occasional syringing overhead. 

Azaleas now begin to show their buds, and may have a greater supply 
of water. 
Plants in Frames should be aired in fine weather. 


Hot Beds. — In gardens, where it is desirable to have early cucumbers or 
vegetables of any kind, hotbeds should be put in operation ; about the mid- 
dle of the month is the time to begin ; the beds will not then be in readiness 
to plant until near the end of the month. 

Cucumbers should be planted in small pots, three seeds in each, and al- 
lowed to grow until they are hilled out next month. 

Lettuce, Radish, Egg Plants, Marjorum, Tomato, Celery and other seeds, 
should be immediately sown in order to have early plants for placing out in 
the open ground as soon as the weather will admit. 




MARCH, 1847. 


Art. I. A Leaf from the History of Pomology in the Past. 
By T. S. HuMRicKHousE, Coshocton, Ohio. 

There has always been a proneness, in existing genera- 
tions of mankind, to attribute all knowledge and all science 
to themselves ; and to regard preceding ages as involved in ig- 
norance and darkness, if not barbarism. The truth of this 
remark applies to no age more than to the present, to no 
country more than to our own, and to no subject more than 
to Pomology. Brother Jonathan must amend,' — he must re- 
form, — or he will, if indeed he has not already, become a prov- 

Why should we arrogate so much to ourselves, when a lit- 
tle research would be sure to lead us to the opposite conclusion ? 

In the history of Pomology from the earliest to the pres- 
ent times, the curious antiquary may find a vast field for his 
researches ; and, in the attempt to explore it, will employ him- 
.self fully as usefully as in many of his present undertakings. 

Without further preface, I take the liberty of transcribing 
what follows from the ^^ Memoirs and Correspondence of John 
Evelyn, edited by William Bray, Esq., London, 1827," 
pages 435 to 437 inclusive, in the hope that, by publishing it, 
you will confer a favor upon those of your readers who may 
not have access to the work : — 

" In a letter to Mr. Boyle, 23d November, 1664, he," (Eve- 
lyn) " says, one Rhea (qu. Ray 7) has published a very use- 
ful book concerning the Culture of Flowers, but it does no- 
thing reach my long-since attempted design on that intire 

VOL. XIII. — NO. m. 11 

98 A Leaf from the History 

subject, with all its ornaments and circumstances, but God 
only knows when my opportunities will permit me to bring it 
to maturity." 

" In the Preface to the Acetaria, published in 1699, he men- 
tions a work in which he had spent upwards of forty years, 
and his collections for which had, in that time, filled several 
thousand pages. The author of the Biographia Britannica 
believes that this was the work part of which he had shewed 
to his friends under the title of ' Elysium Britannicum,' but 
which, in that Preface, he calls ' The Plan of a Royal Gar- 
den,' «fcc. ; and that his Acetaria and Gardener's Kalendar. 
were parts of it. This is confirmed by the preceding letter to 
Dr. Boyle. 

" Among the MSS. at Wotton, there are parts of two vol- 
umes with the running title of ' Elysium Britannicum,' con- 
sisting of miscellaneous observations on a great variety of 
subjects, but not digested, except a printed sheet of the con- 
tents of the intended work as follows : — 



Proeniissis proemittendis, 6lc. 
Book I. 

" Chap. 1. A Garden derived and defined, with its dis- 
tinctions and sorts. — 2, Of a Gardiner, and how he is to be 
qualified. — 3. Of the Principles and Elements in generall. 
4._0f the Fire.— 5. Of the Air and Winds.— 6. Of the Wa- 
ter. — 7. Of the Earth. — 8. Of the Celestial influences, parti- 
cularly the Sun and Moon, and of the Climates. — 9. Of the 
four Seasons. — 10. Of the Mould and Soil of a Garden. — 11. 
Of Composts and Stercoration. — 12. Of the Generation of 

Book II. 

"Chap. 1. Of the instruments belonging to a Gardiner, 
and their several uses. — 2. Of the situation of a Garden, with 
its extent. — 3. Of fencing, enclosing, plotting, and disposing 
the Ground. — 4. Of a Seminary, and of propagating Trees, 
Plants, and Flowers. — 5. Of Knots, Parterrs, Compartiments, 
Bordures, and Embossements. — 6. Of W alkes, Terraces, Car- 
pets, and Alices, Bowling greens, Maills, their materials and 
proportions. — 7. Of Groves, Labyrinths, Doedales, Cabinets, 

of Pomology in the Past. 99 

Cradles, Pavilions, Galeries, Close-walkes, and other Relievo's. 
— 8. Of Transplanting. — 9. Of Fountaines, Cascades, Riv- 
ulets, Piscinas, and Water-works. — 10. Of Rocks, Grots, Cryp- 
tas, Mounts, Precipices, Porticos, Ventiducts. — 11. Of Stat- 
ues, Columns, Dyals, Perspectives, Pots, Vases, and other 
ornaments. — 12. Of Artificial Echos, Musick, and Hydraulick 
motions. — 13. Of Aviaries, Apiaries, Vivaries, Insects. — 14. 
Of Orangeries, and Conservatories of rare Plants. — 15. Of 
Verdures, Perennial-greens, and perpetuall springs. — 16. Of 
Coronary Gardens, Flowers and rare Plants, how they are to 
be propagated, govern'd, and improved ; together with a Cat- 
alogue of the choycest Trees, Shrubs, Plants, and Flowers, 
and how the Gardiner is to keep his Register. — 17. Of the 
Philosophico-Medical Garden. — 18. Of a Vineyard. — 19. Of 
Watering, Pruning, Clipping, Rolling, Weeding, &:c. — 20. Of 
the Enemies and Infirmities to which a Garden is obnoxious, 
together with the remedies. — 21. Of the Gardiner's Almanack, 
or Kalendarium Hortense, directing what he is to do Moneth- 
ly, and what Flowers are in prime. 

Book III. 
" Chap. 1. Of Conserving, Properating, Retarding, Multi- 
plying, Transmuting, and altering the Species, Formes and 
substantial qualities of Flowers, &c. — 2. Of Chaplets, Fes- 
toons, Flower-pots, Nose-gaies, and Posies. — 3. Of the Gar- 
diner's Elaboratory, and of distilling and extracting of Essen- 
ces, Resuscitation of Plants, with other rare Experiments. 
— 4. Of composing the Hortus Hyemalis, and making books 
of Natural Arid Plants and Flowers, with other curious ways 
of preserving them in their Natural. — 5. Of planting of Flow- 
ers, Flowers enamell'd, in Silk, Wax, and other artificial rep- 
resentations of them. — 6. Of Hortulane Entertainments, to 
shew the riches, beauty, wonder, plenty, delight, and use of 
a Garden Festival, &c. — 7. Of the most famous Gardens in 
the World, Antient and Moderne. — 8. The Description of a 
Villa. — The CoroUerie and Conclusion." 

Surely, this grand conception of Evelyn's — formed by him 
two hundred years ago, to which he devoted a portion of 
his leisure during a period of forty years ; toward the comple- 
tion of which he made vast advances, but to which he was 

100 Effect of Boiling Water on Seeds. 

prevented from giving form and substance, by the multiplic- 
ity of important affairs in which he was engaged during his 
whole life-time, has never been realized — no, not even ap- 
proached, in any work yet given to the public. True : many 
things in the design would, were it executed, be found more 
curious than useful, and some even based upon error — such 
and so great have been the advances made by science since 
his day — but, are there not many admirable hints contained 
in the mere statement of his plan, which modern horticultu- 
rists would do well to avail themselves of and improve. 
January 7, 1847, 

Art. II. Instance of Effect of Boiling Water on Seeds. 


It is a well known fact to many, that certain seeds are pe- 
culiarly difficult to be made to vegetate by the usual process 
of sowing. Perhaps much disappointment has been often ex- 
perienced, from the failure of germination of the seeds of choice 
and curious plants. Many modes have been suggested or de- 
vised to facilitate their germination; some founded on the 
natural character of the original species ; such, for instance, 
as sowing the seeds of the Primulacese, (those which are na- 
tive of Alpine situations, as the Auricula, Androsace, Solda- 
nella, &c.,) on snow, and exposing them to the open air when- 
ever an opportunity occurred of their receiving a snowy 
shower ; or exposing them to great natural or artificial heat, 
in places strongly irradiated by the sun's rays ; in hotbeds, 
on flues of conservatories and the like ; or subjecting them to 
scalding heat, by pouring boiling water over them, as in the 
case of Ipomse^a Quamoclit ; or, again, to the stranger process 
of absolute boiling for the space of ten or fifteen minutes : also 
of soaking in alkalies : immersing in acids, (e, g., oxalic acid,) 
or watering with a weak solution of acid, until the seed vege- 
tates, or with a solution of chlorine, which has the same effect. 
Doubtless, in some of the instances, a chemical action is sus- 
tained between the amylaceous particles of the seed and the 
acid agent, or some gaseous principle is evolved which had 

Effect of Boiling Water on Seeds. 101 

been lost by drying or age, but in others, as in boiling and 
scalding, the action seems mysterious. However curious the 
subject, or inexplicable the mode, yet the pleasant fact re- 
mains, and, in lieu of disappointment, by some one of these 
modes, the careful experimenter is enabled to raise to success- 
ful culture, species of plants, the seeds of which he may have 
had in his possession for years, and been unable to excite to 
a growth. 

In the case of the harder kinds of seeds, those covered with 
a very tough, or else with a very indurated shell or husk, for 
instance, the Acacioe and Mimosas, it docs not seem so surpris- 
ing that the action of extreme heat should be so well sustained. 
The extremely hard-wooded shell of the Havv?-tliorn seed, 
(Crata3^gus.) it is well known, enables that plant to resist 
vegetative influence for one, two or more years: and although, 
if sown as soon as ripe, many of the seed will appear on the 
next spring, yet straggling plants may be seen in the seed 
bed, rising from the original sowing, for successive seasons. 
So the seeds of the Honey locust (Gleditsch/a) are of the 
same character in process of vegetation. Subjected to boiling, 
the seeds of Acacia lophantha will sustain no injury when 
boiled fifteen minutes, as we have repeatedly observed: nay, 
the young plants seem to grow the more rapidly from seed 
subjected to that length of the process, than those from seed 
not so long boiled. Many curious leguminous seeds are al- 
most annually brought from tropical countries, either gathered 
from wild plants, or sent from botanical collections, which are 
thrown away by ignorant culturists, into whose hands they 
may chance to fall, or sown without any reference to these 
well known facts in vegetable economy, and are thus never 
destined to see the light. To the Acacia and Mimosa tribe 
especially, (of the great natural order Leguminosae,) our green- 
houses and collections of living plants are very much indebt- 
ed for rare elegance of foliage or exquisite beauty of flower, 
or fragrance of blossom, or general contour of shape ; and in 
some such collections, some one species or variety may be 

To increase the chance of possessing some newer or rare 
kind, it surely would repay the amateur or common gardener 
for whatever trouble or patience he might exercise to insti- 

102 Effect of Boiling Water on Seeds. 

tute many experiments founded on a little scientific knowl- 
edge to cause foreign seeds, which often fall into his hands, to 
germinate. No one is the loser by such operations : for even 
failure does not always detriment the general cause of culture; 
but the rather enables a further experiment to be better made. 
And patience, as well as experiment, is often found to be an 
excellent paymaster in the long run : not only, as many have 
known, in waiting for the blossoming of their rarer plants, 
but also in the waiting for the germination of their seeds, 
after months have elapsed since they ordinarily and normally 
should have appeared above the soil. In our own very humble 
and private experience, we have known the value of such a 
virtue connected with floricultiiral science: and before our 
eyes, at this moment, are some seedling Ziliacea? of rarer 
kinds, for whose appearance we waited more than a year ; 
although, in the same sowing, were others, for aught we know, 
as difficult of vegetation, which appeared above the soil in a 
few weeks. 

The most singular feature by far of the power seeds possess 
of resisting heat by boiling water (to return to our subject 
matter,) is to be noticed in the fact of seeds not furnished 
with strong and woody exteriors or shells ; and of those of 
less durable envelopes ; of this latter, for instance, the seeds of 
the Rubi, (Raspberry,) of which Lindley, in his Theory of 
Horticulture^ p. 157, tells us that he was acquainted with the 
germination of some seeds of this fruit '' picked from a jar of 
jam, and which must, therefore, have been exposed to the 
temperature of 230°, the boiling point of syrup." 

Induced, at several times, by these accounts, and similar 
found elsewhere in works of Horticulture, to institute some 
experiments on the vitality of seed, we tried to see what suc- 
cess one might have on four several sorts, which v/e subject- 
ed to hot water raised to the boiling point, and kept in that 
state for ten minutes. Of this lot, was a single seed of a 
Gleditschia, several of Robinia, which, however, did not ap- 
pear above ground. The third kind of seed has escaped our 
memory, but it did not vegetate : the fourth seed was the 
<S^ida polydndra, brought several years ago from the Botani- 
cal Garden at Calcutta, by a friend of ours, and which we 
had in our possession ever since, and, failing to vegetate it by 

Effect of Boiling Water on Seeds. 103 

the common process of sowing, in desperation, we put it to 
the* severe test of the water trial, and, to our gratification as 
well as surprise, several fine plants made their appearance 
above ground in a few weeks. The Sides are malvaceous 
plants, possessing soft seeds, that is to say, seeds with no in- 
durated exterior, and which, one would naturally suppose, 
could not resist much of an elevation of temperature, especial- 
ly in boiling water, which, permeating their tissue, might 
be thought capable of destroying their organization. But 
notwithstanding appearances seemed so much against them, 
yet something like a dozen plants came up and grew luxuri- 
antly, of which we saved a couple by potting which have 
given us a few flowers, pretty as are any of that genus, but 
of little more ornament than that most common species now 
rejected from our gardens, viz., ^Sida abuiilofi, original from 
India, but now almost naturalized as a weed in gardens and 
on rubbish heaps. The entire genus, indeed, may be set 
down, in the words of Loudon, as " free flowerers of no great 
beauty ;" of which we have certainly a rare exception in >S'ida 
striatum {Abutilon striatum) of the Catalogues. What *S'ida 
polyandra will prove in open culture, we can scarcely form 
any opinion from our present knowledge ; if no better than 
the old and rejected S. abutilon, thus much will it have 
proved, that, in its case at least, it will add its weight of tes- 
timony to the value and importance of a more experimental 
and scientific process of seed sowing, based on philosophical 
principles ; and that the record of the most seemingly trivial 
facts in horticultural experience, may lead to results which 
will bear on the greater interests of the general subject. And 
so, Mr. Editor, should you deem this rambling and discursive 
essay of any value in the record of facts relating to a pursuit 
in which, with yourself, you are aware, we are interested, 
you are at liberty to insert it in some corner of your Maga- 
zine, that, perhaps, it may remind others of similar experi- 
ments, from which they may receive even greater reward in 
more successful results. 
January 27, 1847. 

We are most happy to present an article so full of interest 
to every lover of rare plants : and we hope the minuteness 

104 Remarks on the Northern Spy Apple. 

with which these experiments have been detailed will in- 
duce all who may have rare seeds placed in their hands to test 
their vegetative powers. Has our correspondent tried the boiling 
process on rose seeds, which often require a long period to 
vegetate, especially if not sown as soon as gathered? We 
might name other kinds which are found difficult to make 
grow : but the hints here given are sufficient to induce all lov- 
ers of plants to institute experiments. — Ed. 

Art. III. Additional Remarks on the Northern Spy Apple. 
By J. H. Watts, Esq., Rochester, N. Y. 

Amongst the strange things of the day, I find a very strong 
prejudice existing against the endeavors to introduce tlie North- 
ern Spy apple ; — not that it is not a superior fruit, but that the 
tree is not a fruitful bearer. Now in a country where fruit 
is so abundant of other kinds, suppose our Spy trees are not 
as prolific, does that militate against them entirely '? Surely 
not • and, as I have interested myself much in favor of the 
fruit, and not so much in the tree, I think it my duty to give 
you the particulars. You will find them in the copy of a letter 
which has been furnished me, and which I transcribe for 
your use : — 

"Mr. Oliver C. Chapin, of East Bloomfield, N. Y., says, 
under date of the 20th January, 1847, — that the first North- 
ern Spy apple trees were raised from seeds brought from the 
Northwest part of Connecticut, about the year 1800, by Eli- 
jah Taylor. The original tree was set in an orchard by He- 
man Chapin, and some sprouts from it were taken up by 
Roswell Humphrey, and by him the fruit was first raised — 
(an honor, by the way, equal and more so than that he had 
commanded — large armies) — as the original tree died before 
bearing." "I believe there are nine of the trees first set out 
by Humphrey now living, and they are rather larger than the 
other trees in the orchard will average, of the same age, and 
treated in all respects the same." "The trees have a hand- 
some, upright top, are tolerably thrifty, and no indications of 

Some Account of the Cooper Apple. 105 

being short-lived." " They hear well every year, and a por- 
tion of the apples are as good as any that we have, and, un- 
der favorable circumstances, will keep till June.''' " I have 
no means of ascertaining the quantities raised, but should 
guess that four or five hundred bushels were raised annually 
in the north part of this town, and a few in other places." 

" The ojily objection that I knoAv of to them is, that a large 
proportion of the fruit is small and scrubby, and of little val- 
ue, being more unequal, in size and flavor, than most others." 

Mr. Chapin does not say that the apple was called the 
Northern Spy, in Connecticut. As you have correspond- 
ence, no doubt, with growers of fruit in that region, you will 
do well to learn more about it there, if you can. 

You will see that the culture of the fruit has been mostly con- 
fined to the region it was first produced in, although it is fast 
wending its way west, and, generally, more or less all over the 
United States, as scions have been sent in every direction* 
Those I have had were raised fourteen miles east of Roch- 
ester, and, the season past, a gentleman within two miles of 
Rochester has raised some ten bushels, said to be very fine. 
As I am not a grower of fruit to sell, nor of trees, I cannot be 
said to be prejudiced for that purpose, but I agree Avith al- 
most every one, that it is the best fruit of the apple kind I 
have ever seen, and hope to live to see it as plenty as other 
fruits which are now grown here in such abundance. I trust 
your patience will not be exhausted. The facts about the 
Northern Spy are what I have been seeking to find, and they 
are at your service. 

I may have some other suggestions to make to you hereafter. 

Rochester, N. Y., January 22, 1847. 

Art. IV. Some Account of the Cooper Apple and its History. 


You request me, Mr. Editor, to send you a drawing, to- 
gether with the history, &c., of the " Cooper apple." I can 
furnish you with the history but not the drawing. When I 
had the opportunity, last fall, from a specimen sent me by 
Rev. C. Springer, to have made a drawing, I neglected to do 

106 Some Account of the Cooper Apple. 

so, for reasons which will appear in what follows, and be- 
cause I supposed it would undoubtedly be recognized by Mr. 
Downing, to whom specimens were likewise sent by Mr. 
Springer, as an old acquaintance. I now regret it, since, had 
I done so, I could have complied with your request. 

The Cooper is, indeed, a most superior apple. If you 
transcribe in full Mr. Manning's description of the "Drap 
d'Or," (as I hope you will do in a note to this,) and add to it, 
as Mr. Kenrick has done, that its season extends through No- 
vember, you will have a complete description of the Coop- 
er. Indeed, I believe them to be identical, though the one 
specimen sent me by Mr. Springer was not enough to enable 
me to come to that as a settled conclusion. Nor would I has- 
tily, in any case, pronounce upon the identity of fruits. 

The Cooper apple, like the Putnam, — should I not rath- 
er say Roxbury Russet, — was brought from New England by 
the emigrants who settled the " Ohio Company's Purchase," 
and founded Marietta, in company with the Rhode Island 
Greening and other sorts. It is contained in the original list 
of the varieties so brought out, now in the possession of Wil- 
liam Rufus Putnam, as appears by the statement of Mr. Bate- 
ham, Editor of the Ohio Cultivator, in an article published 
in the number of his paper of the date of 1st. August, 1846, 
and which, on Mr. Bateham's authority, I take to be undoubt- 
edly genuine. As that list is valuable for reference, and will 
be better preserved for that purpose in your Magazine, I have 
thought proper to subjoin it. 

" List of Apple Grafts received from Connecticut in 1796 : — 

1. Putnam Russet, 

2. Seek-no-Further, 

3. Early Chandler, 

4. Late Chandler, 

5. Gilliflower (red), 

6. Pound Royal, 

7. Natural (Seedling.) 

8. Rhode Island Greening, 

9. Yellow Greening, 

10. Golden Pippin, 

11. Long Island Pippin, 

12. Tallman's Sweeting, | 23. Spitzenberg. 

13. Striped Sweeting, 

14. Honey Greening, 

15. Kent Pippin, 

16. Cooper Apple, 

17. Striped Gilliflower, 

18. Black Gilliflower, 

19. Prolific Beauty, 

20. Queening, 

21. English Pearmain, 

22. Green Pippin, 

Some Account of the Cooper Apple. 107 

Having received, some time since, a letter from Mr. Spring- 
er, informing me of his communication to Mr. Downing, 
touching the Cooper, and some others of our varieties I 
immediately wrote to him, referring him to the foregoing list 
m proof that it is not an Ohio fruit. I also, about the same 
time, mentioned the same fact to the Hon. James Matthews, 
another of Mr. Downing's correspondents. And I requested 
both of them, that, in writing again to Mr. Downing, they 
should call his attention to it, and obtain from him his' opin- 
ion, as he had seen the fruit, if it is not the '•' Fall Harvey " 
the "Dyer," or the '-'Drap d'Or." This they will doubt- 
less do. 

I have already stated my opinion that the Cooper apple is 
the -Drap d'Or" of Coxe, but by no means affirming such to 
be the case. 

Coshocton, January 27, 1847. 

We trust our friends and correspondents in the West will 
not suppose we wish to detract in the least from the merit 
which attaches to their fertile soil, in the production of new 
seedhng fruits, in endeavoring to show that many of those 
which are supposed natives, are only well known eastern 
kmds which were carried into their region by the early set- 
tlers of the country from New England. There are undoubt- 
edly hundreds of seedling apples of great excellence now in 
existence in their nurseries and orchards, and we soon expect 
to see great additions to our catalogues, especially from Ohio • 
but as several supposed native fruits have prov^^d not to be 
so. It may be well to proceed cautiously in identifying many 
of the kinds which are yearly brought into notice, that confu- 
sion may not grow out of hasty conclusions. Our excellent 
correspondent, Mr. Ernst, whose exertions have been so sig- 
nally important in detecting native seedlings, and bringing 
them to the notice of cultivators, thought we were hasty in 
our remarks when we stated that the " Detroit, Putnam russet 
and other apples had proved to be Eastern varieties;" but we 
believe now, that even some of those whose dictum was sup- 
posed to be authority, admit what we showed to be the fact 
(Vol. XH., p. 141,) that the Putnam Russet and Roxburv 
rvusset are identical. ^ 

108 New Seedling Fruits of the West. 

After seeing the notice of the Cooper apple in the Ohio 
Cultivator^ we requested Mr, Humrickhouse, on whose good 
judgment we could rely, to inquire into the history of that 
variety, and, if possible, to send us an engraving, and, as the 
result of his inquiry, we are enabled to offer the above excel- 
lent paper, which every cultivator, we are sure, will join with 
us in saying, has an important bearing on the question of the 
seedling origin of the Cooper apple. Mr. Humrickhouse has 
shown that it was originally carried from Connecticut ; but as 
we believe there is no apple known under the name of Cooper 
in Eastern collections, it is very reasonable to conjecture that 
it may be known under some other name. For the present, 
we shall only add Mr. Manning's description of the Drap 
d'Or, alluded to by our correspondent, and leave the subject 
to be taken up again when we have an opportunity to ex- 
amine the fruit. 

Drap d'Or. — A large, flat apple, of a bright, but pale yel- 
low color, covered all over with small black pips (never with 
a red check) ; the flesh is tender, very light and pleasant ; the 
growth of the tree is large and spreading ; it bears well, and 
should be found in every good collection. Ripe in September 
and October. This is the true Drap d'Or of Coxe and Ronald^ 
but not of Duhamel. — Manning^ s Book of Fruits, p. 48. 

Art. V. Notice of some Neio Seedlirig Fruits of the West, 
with a Description and Engraving of the American White 
Winter Calville Apple. By A. Fahnestock, Lancaster, 
Ohio. • 

I HAVE some choice native apples of great merit, amongst 
which are the Early Pennock, A?nericati White Winter Cal- 
ville, Crimson Nonpareil, Belle de Witt, Hart's Orange Sweet- 
ing, Red Pearmain, Baldhill, Early Summer Red Streak, 
Hocking Seedling, Hooker, Large Late, Large Vandevere and 
Zoar Large Green, «fcc. These apples are not in any nursery 
that I know of, except one, in Ohio, besides my own. I have 
also a new Nectarine raised by Mr. Baker, supposed to have 
come from the seed of a peach ; it has fruited but once, and is 
very fine, also some new plums and pears, peaches, &c. 

New Seedling Fndts of the West. 


It would fill up too much of a letter to describe and name 
them all, requiring some three or four sheets at least. I think 
them all an acquisition to any nursery, and will send you 
grafts this spring, or young trees in the fall, if you desire, of 
every kind that is new and valuable, I will give you the 
outline of two of the apples, with descriptions taken from the 
fruit, which is correct and warranted. 

Early Pennock. — It is the largest and handsomest apple of 
its season I have ever seen, ripening from the 1st to the 10th 
of August; a good eating fruit, and first-rate for cooking. 
[Having already, by the kindness of Mr. Humrickhouse, given 
an engraving of this fine variety, (XII., p. 472,) we omit it 
here. — Ed.] 

American White Winter Calville. — This apple {fig. 13,) 
was propagated by taking sprouts from a seedling tree in the 

Fig. 13. American WhUe Winter Calville. 

orchard of Mr. Dan'l Miller, of La Fayette township, Coshoc- 
ton County, Ohio. The size is large, sometimes equalling 
that of the largest yellow Belleflower, to which it bears some 
resemblance, as it also does to the " Belmont or^Waxen or 
Gate," sometimes flat, mostly round or oblong, tapering some- 
what to the eye, with broad ribs ; skin thin, delicate, of a 
VOL. xm.— NO. in. 12 

110 New Seedling Fruits of the West 

waxen and glossy appearance, pale straw color, without a 
blush ; seeds plump and oval ; stem from half to three quar- 
ters of an inch long, small, and set in a deep pointed and 
ribbed cavity. Calyx small and closed; in a moderate sized 
basin, shallower at one end than the other : flesh white, ten- 
der, juicy and fine grained, possessing a delicate aroma ; and 
although it comes into eating early in November, it will keep 
till March or even April, retaining its flavor well. The tree 
is a fine, strong and upright grower in the nursery, foliage 
peculiar, of a bright rich green, and very glossy. 

Harfs Orange Sweeting is also very fine. 

Red Pearmain is a very large, oblong fruit, handsomely 
striped with red, and exceedingly fine for eating at this sea- 
son — a very superior fruit. 

The Zoar Large Green is a seedling from Zoar, and is a 
very fine winter fruit, keeping till April. I have seen them 
weighing one pound. They are brighter than the Rhode Isl- 
and Greening, and a much larger fruit. 

The Zoar Beauty and Flat Pear are also seedlings of Zoar, 
and well worthy of a place in every orchard. 

Bimeless Seedling Plum (the superintendent at Zoar) is in 
size between the Green Gage and Imperial Gage, an uncom- 
mon bearer and superior fruit in flavor. The original tree, 
noAv about eighteen years old, stands in front of his mansion 
house, and bears plentiftdly every year, and has never been in- 
jured in the least by the curculio. 

Silvan'' s Yellow Gage, a seedling of the same place, named 
after their nurseryman, (Mr. Silvan,) is a plum of superior 

Beauty of Zoar Peach, Silvan' s Seedling, and Zoar Late 
Yellow, are seedling Peaches from Zoar, also Smoothstone. 
The first and last named I have seen in bearing. They are 
handsome and good. 

Wineshurgh Large Yellow is a very large and fine peach, 
a seedling from Winesburgh in Holmes County, and very ex- 

Graven! s Red Cheek Cling is a seedling of the same county, 
bore this season. It is a large and handsome fruit, very de- 

Beltzar and Beltzar^s Early Rareripe originated in Coshoc- 

New Seedling Fruits of the West. Ill 

ton County, are fine early varieties, ripening from 1st to 10th 
of August. 

Fa/mesfock^s Seedling- No. 1, and Fahnestock' s Mammoth 
Yelloio Cling., two seedlings of my own. — I consider them su- 
perior, and they shall speak for themselves. The seedling is 
much larger than the cling : one I had from the tree would 
not go into a teacup, and measured larger in circumference 
than any peach I have ever heard of We have some other 
fine seedling peaches. Also a plum called the Imhoof Gage, 
raised from a seed of the Green gage : it is rather oblong, and 
nearly as large again as the Green gage, possessing all its 
qualities. I would describe more to you, but space will not 

There is a decided improvement in the taste of the people 
here, and particularly in Columbus and Chilicothe. Our ag- 
ricultural paper has done much, and will do more, for the ad- 
vancement of the interest of all nurserymen and horticultu- 

Lancaster, Ohio, January, 1847. 

We are happy to give so good an account of the progress of 
Horticulture in the West, and particularly of the production 
of such a number of fine varieties of fruit. The Early Pen- 
nock seems to be a most valuable early apple, and, from its 
size and beauty, as well as excellence, worthy a place in ev- 
ery collection. But, in regard to the other variety, described 
by Mr. Fahnestock as the American White Winter Calville, 
it may seem somewhat presumptive in us to ask why it is 
called the American. If we compare the description of the 
White Winter Calville, of Manning or Lindley, we shall find 
that it answers almost precisely to that given above by our 
correspondent. It is an old French variety of much merit, 
and may have found its way into Ohio, from some of the ear- 
ly French settlements in the West. Though we would, by 
no means, pronounce upon a variety, merely upon a descrip- 
tion, still we should wish to have good evidence that it is a 
seedling before calling it the American White Winter Cal- 
ville : for it is possible that one description may answer to 
two apples, though it is not very probable. At any rate, we 
trust Mr. Fahnestock will send us a tree or some scions, that 
we may compare the leaf and wood as well as the fruit. 

112 Pomological Notices ; 

We shall be glad to receive any descriptions or notices of 
new fruits which our correspondent may find the opportunity 
to send U3. — Ed. 

Art. VI. Pomological Notices : or Notices respecting new and 
superior fruits, worthy of general cultivation. Notices of 
several new apples, peaches and grapes. By the Editor. 

Apples. In our last volume (XII. p. 474,) we briefly des- 
cribed several new apples, which have been lately introduced 
to cultivation; since that period, however, a few other new 
sorts have been recommended to us by our correspondents, a 
few of which we now name : — 

Hooker. — This is a very fine apple, of which the following 
account has been sent us by our friend J. W. Bissell, of Roch- 
ester, N. Y. " The original tree is growing on the farm of 
the grandfather of my partner, in Windsor, Conn., and was 
brought to this country by E. B. Strong. The tree grows 
strongly and bears a great crop, each alternate year : season, 
December to April. You will notice that the flavor is much 
like the Seek-no-further, which makes it a very great favorite 
with women and children ; yet, unlike the Seek-no-further, it 
is first-rate for cooking ; the skin is very thick and preserves 
the fruit well. It is of medium size, with a red skin, and 
high flavored." 

Hawley. — This is another new apple, not known in the 
nurseries, but, according to our correspondent, E. W. Leaven- 
worth, Esq., of Syracuse, N. Y., of undoubted merit. He 
writes us that " it is superior to any apple of the month of 
October for the table. It has been cultivated by two uncles 
of mine, in Columbia and Cayuga, for 20 or 30 years past, 
— one calling it the Hawley, the other, Dows, apple. It is 
large — as large as the Baldwin — fair, green, becoming partly 
yellow, tender, juicy and delicious. Hawley and Dows are 
the names of the men from whom the scions were originally 

Melvin Sweet. — This is the name of a variety considerably 

New Apples, Peaches and Grapes. 113 

cultivated in Concord, Mass. Our friend Mr. Moore, who 
sent us some excellent specimens, informs us that it originated 
in that town, that it is a great bearer, and readily brings 75 
cents to ^1 a barrel more than the Baldwin. It is an apple 
of good size, roundish form, with a yellowish green skin, dis- 
tinctly striped with pale red, and possessing a rich and sugary 
juice. In eating from November to February. 

Granny Earle. — First introduced to notice by E. Phinney, 
Esq., of Lexington. It is a small apple, of roundish oval 
form, green skin, striped and splashed with red, with a white, 
crisp and tender flesh, abundant juice, and high flavored. 
Ripening from November to January. 

Winter Harvey. — A very large conical apple, slightly rib- 
bed, a native of Maine ; skin clear pale yellow : stem very 
short : flesh, yellowish, firm and tender, juicy and excellent. 
Ripe in December and keeps till April. Several barrels have 
been sent to Boston market annually for the last three or four 
years, and they retail as rapidly as any other kind. Some 
specimens exhibited March 29, 1845, before the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, were in fine preservation. 

The President is the name of a new variety highly recom- 
mended by some of our friends in western New York, where 
the variety is cultivated. We are promised a full account of 
it ere long. 

Leland Pippin. — This is the name of a variety cultivated 
in the vicinity of Sherburne, Mass., and takes its name, we 
believe, from our old friend Deacon Leland, of the Sherburne 
nursery, who first introduced it to notice. It comes in after 
the Porter, and is said to be fully equal to that fine variety. 

Peaches. The rapidity with which seedling peaches are 
produced, would lead us to suppose that a greater number of 
fine varieties might have been raised. But, with few ex- 
ceptions, the list of fine new ones is exceedingly limited, and 
but a small number of them equal such foreign kinds as the 
Noblesse, Grosse Mignonne, Malta, &c. Recently, there has 
been a greater interest manifested in the production of seed- 
lings, and we may hope soon to see some additions of greater 
value than many which now fill up the catalogues. The fol- 
lowing are new and promise well : — 

114 Pomological Notices ; 

Sfetso7i's Seedling. — A variety of great beauty and excel ■ 
lence, with a white skin, beautifully sujffused with pale blush : 
of rather oval form, terminating in a distinct mamelon at the 
apex: flesh very juicy, melting and delicious. Ripens early 
in September. Raised by N. Stetson, Esq., of Bridgewater. 

Uovei/s Cambridge Belle. — One of the most beautiful peach- 
es we have ever seen, with a clear waxen skin, tinted with a 
glowing blush on the exposed side, and of a rich, brisk and 
delicious flavor. Ripens early in September. Specimens 
were exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
in September last, and the Committee stated it to be " of good 
flavor, and worthy of cultivation." 

White Ball. — This is an early variety, very beautiful and 
excellent, a constant bearer, of good size and high flavored. 
An accidental seedling in our collection. It is superior to 
Morris's White, though not quite so large. Ripens early in 

Grapes. Some very superior varieties have lately been add- 
ed to our rather limited list of good grapes : a few of which have 
been fruited here, and others recommended by Mr. Thompson, 
of the London Horticultural Society. The cultivation of the 
grape is rapidly extending, and, as amateurs are anxious to 
make a trial of all that have obtained a good reputation, we 
embrace an early opportunity to briefly note the characters of 
some of the recently introduced varieties which promise well. 
Another season Ave shall be enabled to describe more particu- 
larly such as have not yet fruited, in this country, from vines 
in our own collection which will bear the present year. 

Muscat Blanc Hatif. — A new and superior Muscat grape, 
very early, ripening just after the Chasselas ; with good sized, 
handsomely shouldered, bunches, and round berries of a clear 
amber color, fall of a rich muscat juice. The berries set well, 
and appear perfectly free from shanking, a defect of the White 
Frontignan, which we noticed in vines planted nearly side 
by side and in the same border. It is a most valuable grape. 
Mr. Buist informs us he received the variety from the south of 
France, about five years ago. The Pennsylvanian Horticul- 
tural Society awarded him a handsome prize for fine specimens. 
A few clusters exhibited by us last autumn were highly 

New Apples, Peaches and Grapes. 115 

New Black Hamburgh, {No. 16.) — When in London in the 
autumn of 1844, we made several visits to the extensive 
estabHshment of Mr. Wilmot, of Isleworth, well known for his 
superior cultivation of the grape, for Covent Garden market. 
Among the grapes which he recommended to us, as the very- 
best in his collection, was one which he designated as the 
New Black Hamburgh, (No. 16,) to prevent confusion with 
Wilmot's New Black Hamburgh. The variety, we believe, 
did not originate with him, but, from its superior excellence, 
was adopted, as one among a select list which he had found 
the most profitable for cultivation. Mr. Allen has briefly no- 
ticed it at p. 44, after having fruited it in his collection, 
and has spoken in just terms of its value. It is very similar 
in appearance to the Black Hamburgh, but the foliage is quite 
distinct, and the flavor is even more brisk and vinous than 
that variety. It should be in every collection. 

Macreadif s Early White. — This is the name under which 
we have cultivated a very early and fine variety, received from 
Mr. Rivers, near London. We have never seen the name, in 
the catalogue, of any other nurseryman, and of its origin we 
have no knowledge. It is a white grape, with oval transparent 
berries, medium-sized bunches, and a remarkably sweet and 
delicious juice. It ripened the earliest in our collection last 
season, and hangs for some time. 

Prince Albert. — This is the name of a new and fine grape, 
which we saw in great perfection at the Royal Gardens, at 
Frogmore, under the charge of Mr. Ingram, the Queen's Gar- 
dener ; and a brief notice of it will be found in our account of 
that place (XII. p. 81). There were only two vines in the 
house, but each of these had three or four bunches of superb 
grapes, although the vines had been only eighteen months 
planted. Previous to this, Mr. Wilmot had also recommended 
the variety, but he had no young plants to dispose of: a varie- 
ty of such fine appearance, with bunches weighing about 
31bs., we were anxious to possess ; and Mr. Ingram kindly 
promised us some of the cuttings ; last season, Ave had the plea- 
sure of receiving them safely, and in good condition, and now 
have a few vines which we hope are sufficiently strong to 
ripen a few clusters of the fruit. The variety originated, we 
believe, in Jersey. Its general appearance is similar to the 
Black Hamburgh. 

116 Pomological Notices ; 

Josling's St. Allan's. — This is a new seedling grape, des- 
cribed by Mr. Thompson, in the last number of the Journal 
of the London Horticultural Society. It was raised by Mr. 
Josling, seedsman, &c., St. Albans, about six years ago. The 
last season, fruit of it was exhibited before the London Horti- 
cultural Society, September 1, and a certificate of merit was 
awarded. The bunch, supported by a strong footstalk, is very 
long and tapering, with strong diverging shoulders. The ber- 
ries are about the size of the White Frontignan, round, green- 
ish white, acquiring a tinge of yellow, when well ripened. 
Flesh rather firmer than that of the Frontignan grapes, but 
not so firm as that of the Muscat of Alexandria, very rich 
and sugary, with a Frontignan flavor. The leaves in their 
general outline are tolerably round, their lobes not deep, but 
the serratures are tolerably sharp ; both the upper and under 
surfaces are remarkably glabrous, and slightly tinged with 
red. On the whole, the leaves bear considerable resemblance 
to that of the White Muscat of Alexandria ; the berries, how- 
ever, differ in being decidedly round, like those of the Fron- 
tignans ; but the leaves of the latter are not glabrous, being 
furnished with bristly hair, at and near the axils of the veins 
beneath. It is perfectly distinct from any other variety known. 
Mr. Josling states, that about six years ago he sowed seeds of 
several kinds of grapes, which had been disfigured by wasps, 
among which were the White Muscat, White Nice, White 
Muscad ine, and White Sweetwater. The seeds were gathered 
promiscuously, but he thinks it is between the White Muscat 
and White Nice, as they grew side by side. It differs most 
distinctly from the White Frontignan, from the time of show- 
ing the fruit, until, and when, ripe. In showing its fruit, the 
branches are very long on amazingly stout footstalks, which 
start diagonally from the vine, in a manner very different from 
any I grow. At this stage, they are very conspicuous through- 
out the house. After this the berries assume a dark green 
color, the Frontignan is of a pale green ; it shoulders, the 
Frontignan does not : the bunch tapers to a point, the Fron- 
tignan is more cylindrical ; the footstalk throughout the bunch 
is very stiff", the Frontignan hangs loosely. In flavor, it ap- 
proaches the Frontignan more than any other grape ; but even 
in this respect it differs materially, the berry in the mouth 

New Apples, Peaches and Grapes. 117 

having more substance, and being more sugary and sweetmeat 
like ; when ripe, it assumes a dark gold color. It does not re- 
quire much thinning. It is late in ripening, and does not shank 
or shrivel, like the Frontignan. Its habit of growth is strong 
and robust. Mr. Thompson concurs in the opinion that it is 
a valuable variety. 

[This description answers exceedingly well for the Muscat 
blanc hatif,] 

Calabrian Raisin. — In the 2d No. of the Journal of the 
Horticultural Society, Mr. Thompson describes a variety un- 
der this name, which had fruited in the Society's garden. He 
states that it was obtained from the nursery of the Messrs. 
Baumann of Bohviller, who have a fine collection of grapes. In 
their catalogue, it is called the Raisin de Calabre. The bunch 
is large, slightly shouldered, long and tapering. The berries 
are large, quite round, white, transparent, so that the seeds can 
be perceived. The flesh is moderately firm, with a rich sug- 
ary juice. It is a late grape, possessing likewise the property of 
hanging long after it is ripe ; and it will keep for a considera- 
ble time after it is cut. With good management, it may be 
preserved for months, in a fresh state, fit for the dessert. The 
vine grows vigorously, and is likely to be a good bearer. 
From what has already been observed of its disposition to 
form large bunches, those who make the production of them 
a principal object, will doubtless grow bunches of this variety 
half a yard or more in length, as has been done in the case of 
the Black St. Peters, comparatively with which, grown under 
similar circumstances, the Calabrian Raisin appears the larger 
of the two. 

On account of its long keeping, it is exceedingly suitable 
for being planted with the Black St. Peters, which is the best, 
often hanging till February. But a variety that would keep 
equally long, and afford a contrast as regards color, was wanted. 
This desideratum is admirably supplied by the introduction of 
the Calabrian Raisin. Mr. Thompson states that it seems per- 
fectly distinct from any hitherto cultivated or described. The 
berries of the White Nice are smaller, and of a greenish color : 
those of the Syrian are a little oval, and less transparent. Its 
greatest resemblance is to the White Malvasia, but this is a 
rather early grape, and of smaller size. It will prove a valu- 
able acquisition. 

118 Remarks on some Varieties of the Pear. 

Arr. VII. Remarks and General Hints, on Some Few Varie- 
ties of the Pear. By S. Walker, Roxbury, Mass. 

Much has been -written, and much more said, on the merits 
and cultivation of the pear, and still, Mr. Editor, we want that 
light and information which experience alone can give us on 
this subject. 

We do not expect to add much, if any thing, to the stock 
of information already acquired ; but, if any remarks which 
may fall from our pen, or our lips, on this subject, shall elicit 
remarks from others, either to establish our own views, or to 
present to the fruit-growing community the best mode, or a 
better mode, of cultivating this delicious fruit, and the varieties 
that deserved the most extensive cultivation, we shall then 
consider that something further has been done ; but, until we 
find others, and many there are, more competent than ourself 
to take up this interesting subject, we shall probably, at times, 
presume to trespass on your kind indulgence, and solicit a 
place for such remarks as opportunity may present, or our poor 
ability may enable us to furnish. 

Although specimens of some of the new varieties were pre- 
sented, during the past season, (1846,) at the Hall of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, yet nothing of surpass- 
ing excellence was brought forward in the new class ; that 
is to say, the new pears which were shown, for the Jirst time, 
did not fully sustain their foreign reputation, while others 
which have been shown for several years, and among these 
we found several native varieties, rather exceeded their repre- 
sentation and our expectations. We shall mention those new 
varieties only that we consider as worthy, in every respect, of 
extensive cultivation. But, before we proceed to do so, we 
wish to state briefly that the first, second, or indeed the third, 
and sometimes the fourth trial of new foreign or native pears 
is oftentimes insufficient to enable us to give an unequivocal 
and decided opinion as to their true character and merits. 
We ground our remarks, and form our opinion, from specimens 
presented at the Hall of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 

Remarks on some Varieties of the Pear. 119 

ciety, or fruit produced in our own grounds, or sent to us by- 
kind friends during the past season. 

Again, we wish it to be fully understood that no estimate 
can be made of the true character of any fruit, more particu- 
larly of the pear, unless the specimens are fair, well grown, of 
full size and quite ripe : or, in other words, in the highest 
state of perfection the variety will attain to under the most 
skilful management and favorable season. Some varieties, 
under the care of a lover of fruits, well cultivated in a conge- 
nial soil, may be compared to " refined gold," while the same 
variety in unskilful hands, the trees neglected, in grass land, 
or in wet and impoverished soil, may prove as " dross." I 
would further, and in conclusion on this part of my subject, 
remark, that first-rate specimens, of the best flavor, cannot be 
expected to be obtained from trees that are overloaded with 
fruit. An overcrop is not only injurious to the fruit, but also 
to the growth and future well-being of the tree. Nature 
makes great efforts to accomplish her purposes ; but if all her 
energy and resources are called upon to mature fruit, the trees 
cannot increase in size, and nature thus taxed becomes ex- 
hausted — tires — faints and dies under the load. 

With the foregoing remarks, which we thought might not 
be altogether unacceptable to your readers, we proceed to give 
a list of such new varieties of pears as have, in our opinion, 
been found worthy to be classed among those deserving of ex- 
tensive cultivation. 

Yan Mons Leon Le Clerc. — One of the best pears we ever 
ate, and the best pear we tasted the past season. 

Eye WOOD. — With this variety, after a trial of three years 
we were agreeably disappointed. The first year we marked 
it second-rate. The past season, it proved to be very ten- 
der, very melting and juicy, subacid, too much so for persons 
who like sweet pears, but to the lovers of the Brown 
Beurre, and Beurre d' Aremberg, this variety will be highly 

Fondante d'Automne. — This pear, when well grown and 
fully ripe, has no superior, and very few equals. 

Hannas and Wilbur. — (The latter native). These varie- 
ties may be classed among the best of the season ; they were 
both ripe on the 20th of September. 

120 George the IVth Peach. 

Dix. (Native.) This variety may be placed among the 
very best pears in the country. At some future period the 
Dix will be as well known, and as much esteemed, as the 
Williams's Bon Chretien {Bartlett). 

Dearborn's Seedling. (Native.) Fruit small, but very 
fine flavor. 

Heathcote. (Native.) This variety may be placed among 
the best. The present season, we found it little, if at all, in- 
ferior to the Saint Michael, {Doyefme blajic.) 

Andrews. (Native.) A pear of great merit; it will be 
extensively cultivated as it becomes better known. 

Tyson. (Native.) Though last on m}'' memorandum, not 
least in my estimation. This fine variety originated at Jen- 
kinstown, near Philadelphia, some fifty years ago, and al- 
though it may be classed among the best, it did not find its 
way into the State of Massachusetts until the year 1S35, or 
1836 ; when scions were sent by Dr. James Mease, of Phila- 
delphia, to the Hon. B. V. French, ofBraintree, with an assur- 
ance that the Tyson would prove equal to the Seckel. Mr. 
French gave a part of the scions to various cultivators, and, 
among the recipients, was William Oliver, Esq., of Dorches- 
ter, who grafted the scions received into the leading branch of 
a fine healthy tree. In the year 1841 or 1842, and, for some 
two or three succeeding years, Mr. Oliver presented specimens 
of the Tyson pear at the rooms of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society. We were present and partook of the first 
specimen that Mr. Oliver presented ; and have continued to 
notice the pear, from year to year, until the past season. We 
now rank it, as we have ever done, among the best summer 

Roxbury, February llth, 1847. 

Art. YIII. George the IVth Peach. By W. R. Prince, 
Flushing, L. I. 

I HAVE been anxious, for several years past, to solve the 
mystery which has hnng over this fruit, and at the same time 

George the IVth Peach. 121 

to present such facts and proofs as would satisfy others. In 
this research, I have received the most important aid from a 
gentleman of great intelligence, but who is, at the same time, 
one of the least assuming votaries of Pomona, John W. Kne- 
vels, Esq., of Fishkill. I received intimation long since that 
the tree in the garden of the late Robert Gill, Esq., in Broad 
Street, New York, whence the scions of the so-called George 
the IVth were obtained, was an itioculated tree ; but it is only 
within about three years, that I have ascertained satisfactorily 
that the tree was obtained from my father, under another 
title. I am now enabled to state these facts positively, and 
to refer to unquestionable authority for proof on these two 
important points. Dr. James S. Rumsey, a great connoisseur 
of fruits, who resides at Fishkill Landing, is a step-son of the 
late Robert Gill, Esq., already referred to, and who, at the 
latter part of his life, removed from Broad Street, New York, 
to Fishkill Landing. The lady of the late Mr. Gill, who is 
the mother of Dr. Rumsey, now resides with him, and is in 
perfect possession of all her faculties. Mr. Knevels, in his 
letter to me, states thus : " From them I have often heard it 
asserted that the peach named and noticed by Mr Floy, as 
the George the lYth, was obtained, as is in fact well known." 
(This Mr. Floy himself states.) " The tree grew in their 
court yard, in Broad Street, and was one of several trees 
received by Mr. Robert Gill, at one time, under an order sent 
to your nursery, for so many trees of the Red Rareripe ; of 
this there can be no question." — In reply to an application 
made by me (Mr. Knevels) at your instance to Dr. Rumsey, 
he says : " The fact of the original George the IVth peach tree 
having been procured from Mr. Prince, as the Red Rare- 
ripe, I have often mentioned to you and others interested in 
such matters." 

Such is the information obtained from other sources ; I will 
now speak for myself In the spring of 1843, 1 planted a tree 
of our ordinary Red Rareripe, (which is called " Morris Red 
Rareripe," by Mr. Downing,) and a tree of the George IVth 
side by side, and they have both borne fruit for three sea- 
sons ; and, on a critical comparison of growth, foliage, glands, 
flowers, and fruit, I cannot perceive the least particle of dis- 
tinction. / therefore pronounce them to be ide?itically the same, 

VOL. xni. — NO. III. 13 

122 Hydrangea Japonica. 

and to be the original and ancient Red Rareripe, brought to 
Flushing by the Huguenot emigrants at the Revocation of 
the edict of Nantes, together with the Pomme d'Api apple, 
St. Michael, and Summer Bon Chretien pears, and some other 
fine fruits, all of which were extensively cultivated in the 
nursery and orchards of my grandfather, and have continued 
to be so in numerous orchards and gardens up to the present 
period. The Red Rareripe peach has been propagated to a 
greater extent in our nurseries than any other variety, and 
disseminated to every part of the Union. It acquired its cog- 
nomen of " Morris," from being extensively cultivated in the 
orchards of Gouverneur Morris, and his relatives, at Morrissa- 
nia, a few miles from the city of New York. 

The genuine original Red Rareripe, or George IVth, has 
globose glands. The Red Rareripe of Mr. Downing, No. 41 
of his work on fruits, is a distinct variety, and has serrated 
leaves, without glands. 

I shall send you the results of other investigations connected 
with the history, nomenclature, and synonomy of the varie- 
ties of the peach from time to time ; and in order to be perfect- 
ly au fait on the subject, I have concentrated in my spe- 
cimen grounds every variety of note, obtainable from France, 
Italy, England, and our own country, and have even obtained 
specimen trees of all the principal nursery and orchard col- 
lections throughout the Union, for the purpose of perfecting 
the synonomy of this estimable class of fruits. On investiga- 
tion, I reject every inferior variety, and the collection now 
oiTered, with the additional highly estimable varieties, which 
I shall announce in our catalogue for the ensuing autumn, 
comprise fruits of most admirable qualities, whose introduc- 
tion will form a new era in the peach culture. 

Linnoean Bot. Gard. afid Nurseries, Flushing, L. I. Feb. 1847. 

Art. IX. Hydrangea Japonica, its Cultivation, with an En- 
graving of the Plant. By the Editor. 

Since the earliest expeditions which have been sent out 
from Europe, in search of the Botanical or Floricultural 

Hydrangea Japonica. 


treasures of other countries, few, if any, have achieved greater 
results than that of Dr. Siebold, to Japan. For several years 
the choicest new plants which have, from time to time, been 
introduced to notice, have formed part of the gems which 
enriched his magnificent collection. 

The Japan Lilies are perhaps the best known, as they arc 
certainly the most gorgeous of his acquisitions. Hydrangea 
japonica, {jig. 14) the subject of our notice, though of less pre- 
tensions, is another fine plant ; and we have just seen an- 
nounced a most beautiful hardy spiraea, with flowers as white 
as snow and as double as the ranunculus, clothing the stems 
their entire length, which was brought home by this indefat- 
igable traveller. 

Hydrangea japonica, when it first flowered, was thought to 
possess less beauty than the old and familiar H. hortensis : 

Fig. 14. Hydrangea Japonica. 

but the plants were young, and Quly produced inferior flowers ; 
since the specimens have become older, and been grown with 
a view to show its elegance, it is acknowledged to far surpass 
the hortensis. A specimen from the garden of the London 
Horticultural Society was exhibited in IS-IS, from which our 
drav.'-ing is copied, and greatly admired ; but, the last season. 

124 Hydrangea Japonica. 

it was still more brilliant, having, at one time, upwards of 
twenty heads of its showy flowers expanded at once. 

In habit of growth, it much resembles the hortensis ; but it 
makes longer and rather more slender branches, longer jointed, 
with larger leaves, deeply serrated, and adhering longer to the 
branches. The flowers are produced at the ends of the shoots ; 
but, instead of being in globular heads, they appear in flat clus- 
ters or cymes, the sterile flowers occupying an outer row, 
while the fertile ones fill up the centre, contrasting prettily, by 
their bluish tint, with the white flowers of the circumference. 
Its broad and deep green foliage, and its numerous corymbs 
of blossoms, render it one of the most conspicuous and beau- 
tiful objects of the conservatory. 

In a previous volume, (III. p. 63,) we have given the mode 
of treatment of the Hydrdngea hortensis : H japonica requires 
similar management. It should b,e potted in a compost of 
peat and leaf mould, with very little loam, and, when in a 
flowering state, placed in a half shady situation, and be lib- 
erally supplied with water. Our plants, which are yet rather 
small, in consequence of cutting them for propagation, have 
received the same care as the common species, and both have 
been placed in a frame or under the stage of the green-house, 
until they commenced growing towards spring. 

It is readily propagated from cuttings or layers, which, if 
put in about April or May, in a slight heat, under good treat- 
ment, form fine blooming plants the second year : when about 
six inches high, they should be repotted; and if the plants are 
very vigorous, they may be shifted into pots 6 or 8 inches in 
diameter. The second spring, when they commence growing, 
they should be top-dressed, and in May, if growing rapidly, 
they may be potted into the next size ; stake up the shoots 
carefully, and in June it will commence flowering, and con- 
tinue in great beauty for several weeks. Every amateur col- 
lection should possess a plant of the H. japonica. 

It is of recent introduction to English collections, and first 
flowered, we believe, in the Horticultural Society's garden. 
In Belgium, it is common in most collections of plants. 

European Agriculture and Rural Economy. 125 


Art. I. European Agriculture and Rural Ecojiomy., from 
Personal Observation. By Henry Colman. Vol. 11. Part 
VIII. pp. 223 to 370. 

Mr. Colman has now thoroughly taken hold of the subject, 
and the present number possesses a value which could not attach 
to any of the preceding ones. The subjects discussed are few, 
but they are important and valuable to all. They are as fol- 
lows : — 

CVI. Crops (continued,) CVII. Flax ; CVIII. Live Stock ; 
CIX. Dairy Husbandry ; CX. Manures ; CXI. General Re- 

These subjects are treated upon with that minuteness of 
detail, which alone can make them useful to any farmer. 
Actual experiments are recorded, and results givdn. Under 
the head of crops, are enumerated all the improved varieties 
of wheat, &c., and, in the chapter on live stock, the best 
breeds are described, and a comparison of their value added. 
The number is illustrated with a fine drawing of a Leicester 

In the chapter on manures, which we wish we had room to 
copy, Mr. Colman adds the following to what he has previous- 
ly stated on Guano : — 

Guano still maintains its reputation. No new facts have transpired 
respecting it, but old ones have been confirmed. It continues to be applied, 
at the rate of two hundred pounds, and even four hundred pounds weight 
per acre, to various crops, with signal success, unless its efficacy is sus- 
pended or defeated by drought, or unless it comes in immediate contact with 
the plant, when it proves fatal. It is never safely applied alone, and the 
preferred mixture is a very liberal proportion of mould. Its mixture with 
ashes, strongly recommended by some farmers, is, as I have before observed, 
of questionable expediency. In Devonshire, I witnessed the most extraor- 
dinary effects from it, this year, applied at the rate of about three hundred 
ponnds per acre upon grass land. The extreme luxuriance and richness of 
the grass, where it was applied, were most remarkable, especially when 
seen in contrast with parts of the field not guanoed. Nor is its effecacy lim- 
ited to one year, but continues for a length of time as yet not determined. 


126 Young Gardener' s Assistant. 

But were its obvious effects limited to one year only, yet the increase of 
crops, growing out of its use, furnishes in itself the means of greatly enrich- 
ing the farm. (pp. 358, 359.) 

This is just what we predicted of thevalue of guano as test- 
ed by our own experience : the general cry was, and even now 
is, that its effects are only immediate, " leaving the land poorer 
than before," as some farmers have affirmed ; but Mr. Colman 
now confirms all that has been said of it; and we trust that 
we shall no longer have so groundless an argument brought 
up against its use. Two more numbers, we believe, complete 
the work. 

Art. II. 1. The Young Gardener^ s Assistant^ in three parts ^ 
containing catalogues of Garden and Flower Seed, with 
practical directio7is, under each head, for the cidtivation of 
Oulhiary Vegetables and Floivers ; also, directions for ctd- 
tivating Fruit Trees, the Grape Vine, S^c. 12th Edition, 
By Thomas Bridgman, 1 vol. 8vo. New York, 1847. 

2. The Florisfs Guide, containing practical directions for 
the cidtivation of annual, biejinial and perennial Flowering 
Plants, S^c. 1 vol. 12mo. pp. 174. 

3. The Fruit Cultivator's Manual, containiiig ample direc- 
tions for the cidtivation of the most important Fruits, ^c. 
1 vol. 12mo. pp. 189. 

4. The Kitchen Gardener's Instructor,' containing a cata^ 
logiie of Garden a?id Herb Seed, with practical directions, 
under each head, for the cultivation of cidiiiary Vegetables, 
Herbs, i^c. 1 vol. 12mo. pp. 181. New and improved Edi- 
tions. 1847. 

These are the titles of four books which the author has 
placed in our hands, the first containing the same information 
as the other three, but which are sold separately to those who 
only wish to acquire knowledge in one department. It is 
scarcely necessary for us to add any thing to what we have said 
in their favor in our reviews of former editions : the best evi- 
dence of their value is the fact, that the public have called 

Chemical Essays relating to Agriculture. 127 

for the 12th edition. This we are glad to add, however, has 
been greatly improved, and new lists of flowers, fruits, and 
vegetables added, to bring them down to the latest date. Mr. 
Bridgman is indefatigable in his exertions in the cause of 
Horticulture ; and it is gratifying to us to have an opportunity 
to commend the plain common sense, and practical work of 
the author, to all cultivators, and especially to those who wish 
for elementary information in the several departments of the 
gardening art. 

Art. III. Experimental Researches on the Food of Animals, 
and the Fattening of Cattle, with Remarks on the Food of 
Man, based upon expei'imeiits undertaken by order of the 
British Government. By Robert Dundas Thompson, M. D., 
Lecturer in Practical Chemistry, University of Glasgow. 
From the last London edition. 1 vol. 12mo. pp. 172. New 
York. 1846. 

This is the title of a very useful work, which should be in 
the hands of every individual interested in the breeding of 
stock, and, indeed, we might say, in the hands of every one 
desirous of obtaining a physiological and chemical knowledge 
of animal diet. It is the result of an extensive series of experi- 
ments undertaken at the instance of the British Government, 
the original object of inquiry having been to determine the 
relative value of barley and malt in feeding cattle. 

The volume is neatly republished, and we commend it to 
the notice of all who are interested in the health and comfort 
of mankind. 

Art. IV. Chemical Essays relating to Agriculture. By E. 
N. HoRSFORD, A. M. Pamphlet, 12mo. pp. 68. Boston. 

Since the publication of Liebig's valuable works, there 
have been several contributions to the chemistry of agriculture, 

128 Rural Register and Almanac. 

and, of the more recent ones, the essays which are now under 
notice. The pamphlet is an analysis of the grains and vege- 
tables, distinguishing the nitrogenous from the non-nitrogenous 
substances, for the purpose of estimating their separate value 
for nutrition. It concludes with a letter to Prof. Webster, on 
the action and ingredients of manures. 

Mr. Horsford has lately completed his studies in Geissen 
with Dr. Liebig, and has quite recently been elected Rumford 
Professor in Harvard University ; and we are gratified to learn 
that the services of one whose studies are so intimately con- 
nected with the progress of our agriculture have been selected. 
The work should be in the hands of every intelligent agri- 

Art. V. The Hasty Pudding ; a Poem i?i three Cantos, 
written at Chancery, in Savoy, January, 1793. By Joel 
Barlow, Minister Plenipotentiary to France. With a Me- 
moir on Maize, or Indian Corn. Compiled by D. J. Browne, 
under the direction of the American Institute. Pamphlet. 
12mo. pp. 56. New York. 1846. 

An amusing poem in flowing rhyme, depicting the delicious 
qualities of hasty pudding, — a favorite dish with the author, 
but not to be procured either in London or Paris, at the time 
it was written. To this poem, Mr. Browne has added a com- 
plete history of the Indian corn, in which he asserts and proves 
its American origin. Brief descriptions of all the principal 
varieties are given, and the pamphlet concludes with a great 
number of recipes for cooking it, in various ways, either green 
or dry. 

Art. VI. The Rural Register and Almanac for 1847. 
Pamphlet. 12mo. pp. 143. Philadelphia, 1847. 

A gardening almanac upon a new plan, in which, besides 
the usual calendarial information of the weather, upwards of 

Rotation of Crops. 129 

a hundred pages are added, upon the cultivation of fruits, ac- 
companied with engravings of several of the most approved 
kinds of apples, pears, cherries, plums, strawberries, &c. 

The plan is an exceedingly good one, and an almanac of 
this kind must prove an exceedingly good remembrancer to 
every amateur cultivator. 

Art. VII. Proceedings of the National Convention of Far- 
mers, Gardeners, and Silk Culturists, held i?i Mechanics' 
Hall, in the City of Neiv York, on the 12th, 13th, andlAth 
days of October, 1846, in connexion with the Nineteenth 
Annual Fair of the American Institute. Pamphlet. 8vo. 
pp. 50. New York. 1846. 

We are deprived of room, to notice this interesting pamph- 
let as we could wish. It is filled with the reports of commit- 
tees upon the great subject of diffusing Agricultural informa- 
tion, the culture of silk, &c., and we can only advise its peru- 
sal by all who have their interests and the good of the country 
at heart. 

Art. VIII. The Chemical Principles of the Rotatiofi of 
Crops. Pronounced before the American Agricultural 
Association, March 4, 1846. By D. P. Gardner, M D. 
Quarto Pamphlet, pp. 18. New York. 1846. 

Dr. Gardner is well known to the agricultural communi- 
ty, for his exertions in bringing before them information upon 
all subjects connected with the art of cultivation. But a short 
time since, we reviewed the Farmers' Dictionai-y, a very ex- 
cellent work, published under his supervision. We have now 
before us a most excellent essay of the rotation of crops upon 
chemical principles ; being an address pronounced before the 
American Agricultural Association, of New York. We need 
only add, that it is well worthy the attention of every intelli- 
gent farmer. 

130 Domestic Notices. 


Art. 1. Domestic Notices. 

Splendid Plantation of Pear Trees. — Edward King, Esq., of Newport, 
Rhode Island, planted, the last spring, an orchard comprising about four 
hundred pear trees, all of the choicest Belgian and other modern improved 
varieties. The trees were of extra large size, eight to ten feet in height, and 
suitable, therefore, to come into bearing the ensuing season, and many of 
them produced flowers the first season. Notwithstanding the drought, there 
were but six that failed in growing. These trees were obtained from the 
Messrs. Prince of Long Island, and this orchard is probably the most valu- 
able that has been formed in New England of this class of fruit. — Yours, 
P., January, 1847. 

Remarks on the Hog Artichoke. — I was very glad, Mr. Editor, to find, in 
the pages of your last number, the article of your correspondent. Dr. Ward, 
on the differences of variety, as he esteems it, of the two plants of Helian- 
thus, growing in his garden. Nor am I, for one, sorry, that his manifest 
" slip of the pen," or use of the corrective spirit of your several correspond- 
ents, in showing the artichoke to be no solanum, which every one knew 
before, called forth from Professor Ward the article with which he has filled 
a few of your pages. For my own part, I am bold to declare, that, could 
any thing induce him to give you an article occasionally, we should be no 
losers. Among the many curious native and introduced plants of his adopt- 
ed home, he might find much to tell us, in our boreal clime, on the varied 
subjects of horticultural lore, or floricultural experience. And as the Dr. 
is now infer it, especially in defence of the Hog Artichoke, I trust that he 
will favor us with some seeds, roots, or the like, by which we can judge for 
ourselves also, whether Torrey's and Gray's " determination" should be 
" quietly" received or no. I have always taken a fancy to the Jerusalem 
artichoke, on account of its fine head of flowers: I should like to cultivate 
an acquaintance with this variety for the better reason, too, that it is more 
showy in that respect. Agriculturally, its merits as a root would be bet- 
ter tested at the south than with us : but, as another sort of sunflower, why 
maj' not we hail it as an accession to our gardens, that it may show its hon- 
est disk among the several sorts of Helianthus, which are now cultivated 
with care. Will not the Dr. think of you, Mr. Editor, in a few seeds? 
— Turnsole. 

William S. Sullivanl, Esq., communicated to the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences (Boston,) through the Corresponding Secretary, a paper 
entitled " Contributions to the Bryology and Hepaticology of North Amer- 
ica," with drawings of some species: as Phyllogonium Norwegicum, {Brt- 
del,) a curious and rare moss, recently detected in Ohio : Fissidens minutu- 
lus {Sullivant) : Fissidens exiguus, {Sullivant) : singularly minute and del- 
icate species of mosses : Schistidiira serratum, {Hooker and Wilson,) not un- 

Domestic Notices. 131 

common in Massachusetts also, and a moss of interesting character: Aneura 
sessilis, (Sullivant,) Marchantia disjuncta, {Sulliv.) of the order Hepaticese; 
also, Notothylas valvata and N. orbicularis, (Sulliv.) the two latter singular 
hepatic plants of much interest. See Proceedings of Academy, p. 35, &c. 

Professor Gray (of Harvard University) communicated the characters of 
some new genera and species of Compositae from Texas, viz., Vernonia 
Lindheimeri (Gr. and Engelman, PI. Lindh. med.): Ageratum Wrightn, 
{Torrey and Gray^fi. ined.): Brickellia cylindracea {Gr, and Engel., PI. 
Lindh. ined.): Lindheimera texana, (Gray,): Keerlia bellidifolia ( Gr. and 
Engel., I. c.,) : Tetragonothica texana, (Gr, and Engel., I. c.,) : Barra- 
tia calva (Gray.) See Proceedings Amer. Acad., pp. 46, 48. — R, 

Pleasant Experiment with Andromeda calyculata. — It is well known, that 
the flower buds of many of our native shrubs, as well as of trees, are formed 
towards the end of the summer, and are in perfect readiness to expand early 
in the following spring. Especially is this the case with the Amentacese, a 
natural order, embracing plants furnished with aments or catkins: such as 
the alder, poplar, willow, and the like. These hardy and daring efforts of 
Flora seem to link, with an almost continuous chain, the autumn with the 
spring. The curious, crisped, threadlike blossoms of the witch hazel, in 
bunches of yellow flowers, appearing when nature is stripping the foliatre 
from the deciduous trees, and when the cold winds of November are remind- 
ing us of the snows and storms of winter, scarcaly wither on their parent 
branches, before we find these amentaceous plants pushing off their envel- 
opes, and making ready for the auspicious gales of April and May. Any 
one who may go into our swamps in midwinter will notice the white and 
silken flower buds of the swamp willow, with its black and loosened scale- 
like covering failing to protect what it seemed intended to cover ; and by 
every brook side, the already pendent aments of the black alder will attract 
attention not less than the similar aments of the hazel nut by every wall, or 
on the borders of ill cultivated fields. It seems to require but a moderate 
continuance of vernal heat to set free the constraint laid on these flower 
buds ; to loosen and elongate the spikes, and to shed in profusion , all around 
the golden farina with which they are charged. The beauty of the wil- 
low, when in blossom, is well known to every lover of wild nature ; and 
its agreeable sweetness is recognized by the bees and many wintred insects 
which, with a rare sagacity and instinct, know the times appointed for their 
renewed labors. 

Having frequently expanded these aments in winter, by cutting branches 
of the shrubs, and placing them in water in a warm room, I was induced to 
try what effect the same treatment would produce on the already formed 
flower buds of the andromeda. This plant or low shrub grows in every 
sphagnous swamp, and in overflowed meadows, and gives peculiar beauty 
to every spring by its unique and regularly set rows of white bells on its 
slender and leafy branches. Its leaves are sempervirent, and thus remain 
all winter, turning rather brown on approach of cold. Each flower sprino-s 
out from the axil of one of the smaller leaves, .which invest the terminal 
racemes, and is of an ovate, cylindrical form, and of delicate whiteness. 

132 Domestic Notices. 

Some twigs gathered this winter on December twenty-ninth, 1846, expand- 
ed their blossoms on January twelfth, 1847, and other fresh twigs, put into 
water on January twenty-third, are now in full beauty of expansion, (Feb- 
ruary 8lh). Thus those who are fond of winter bouquets need be in no lack 
of at least one sort of beautiful flowers, not inferior, in any degree, to many 
of the Cape heaths, which are so deservedly prized for their elegance and 
rarity. I have tried a similar experiment on the buds of i?hododendron 
maximum, but without success. Perhaps Rhod6ra canadensis may be made 
to expand in the same manner : a trial would do no harm. 

Some fresh tufts or plants of Lycopodium dendroideum, a few twigs of 
Prinos glaber, a bit of Kalmia latifolia, and, if possible, a piece of Lycop6- 
dium clavatum, and its more beautiful cospecies Lye. lucidulum, with 
straight handsome pieces of Andromeda calyculiita, (the little plant under 
our present notice,) and, if you like, a few of the silken amenls of S^\ix 
eriocephala, let us add also the scarlet berries of Prinos verticiHatus, will 
make up for you, reader, no mean mantel-ornament to remind you, as a 
bouquet to be kept in water for a few weeks, of those pleasanter days which 
are coming, when, from the lingering beauties of Flora in midwinter, you 
need no longer cull with so much effort or care. — An Admirer of all Seasons^ 
February 8, 1847. 

The Winter in Georgia. — The winter with us has been, thus far, mild. 
No very killing frosts till January 8th, when we had the thermometer down 
to 10°. On January 1, I noticed these in flower in the open garden ; — 
Irish whin in full beauty ; a few monthly roses and little chrysanthemums, 
the upper flowers and stems killed by previous frosts at 24° ; two or three 
varieties of narcissus polyanthus ; Fiola odorata and tricolor; purple and 
pink verbena ; sweet alyssum, dandelion, white and single hyacinths, Chi- 
nese pinks. — Yours, M. A. W., Athens, Ga., Jan. 12, 1837. 

Horticulture in Ohio. — There has, within the last few years, been awa- 
kened, within this region of country, the most intense interest on the sub- 
ject of Horticulture, and Ohio is yet destined to be a great fruit country. 
She has such a variety of soils, that there are situations congenial to almost 
every variety of fruit. The blight of the Pear tree is one of the most fatal 
diseases that aflHict her fruit. 

I wish you all possible success in improving the taste of the public. — 
Yours, very respectfully, C. Springer, Meadow Farm, Ohio, Feb. 1847. 
[We shall be glad to hear from our correspondent as often as leisure will 
permit. — Ed.] 

Maine Pomological Society. — We are glad to learn that our Pomological 
friends in Maine have recently organized a society under the above name, 
with the object in view of bringing into notice the new seedling fruits which 
abound in the orchards of that State. The first meeting was held on Wed- 
nesday, January 6lh, and quite a number of apples were exhibited by indi- 
viduals from different parts of the State. At the second meeting, a code of 
by-laws was adopted, and our friend, Dr. Holmes of the Farmer, chosen 
Corresponding Secretary. At this meeting, a variety of apples were exhib- 
ited. We hope, through our correspondents, to keep our readers informed 
of the doings of the association. — Ed. 

Domestic Notices. 133 

Genesee Valley Horticultural Society. — "We are happy to witness the in- 
crease of Horticultural associations in various parts of the country. In 
Rochester, one has been organized, which, we doubt not, will have a most 
beneficial effect in aiding in the dissemination of a better taste for Horticul- 
ture. Having been notified of our election as an honorary member, we 
have ordered our magazine to be forwarded for the Library ; and we trust 
we may, in other ways, serve the interests of the society. — Ed. 

Steubenville Horticultural Society, Ohio. — The Buckeye State is treading 
closely on the heels of New York and the Eastern States, Societies have 
been organized in Cincinnati, Cleaveland, and Columbus, and now we have 
to add to the list that of Steubenville. Our name having been enrolled 
among the honorary members, we trust that the offer of our Magazine will 
not be an unacceptable addition to the Library. — Ed. 

Helidnthus divarichtus and giganleus are both old and familiar acquaint- 
ances of mine. The Hog artichoke is far enough from either. The whole 
herbage approaches nearer to tuhtrbsus than to any of the commonly de- 
scribed species — but is not : the phrase should have been inversely, or ob 
"fusiform": I have never known it to fail of being decidedly tuberous, 
never "mere strings." — Yours, M. A. W., Athens, Ga., Jan. 1847. 

New Grape in Ohio. — We have a new grape in Ohio, of merit. — I say 
new, because only brought particularly into notice within a few years. It 
is growing on a Bog Island, which is in the Ohio River, below Wheeling, 
and on this Island can be found this kind of grape only, and nowhere else 
in the state or in the west, that we know of, is the same variety. Hon. 
Thomas Ewing told me this day, that he ate the grapes from these vines 
20 years ago, and thought them the best grapes he ever had tasted. They 
bear a comparison with the Catawba, but they are a red grape. The suppo- 
sition is, that they grevsr from seeds left on the Island by the French, proba- 
bly in 1800, or thereabouts, either from European grapes or raisins eaten 
there by them, (if the seed of a raisin will grow,) as the vines are tolerably 
thick set, or rather in what we may term a clump. 

We are getting a number of zealous Pomologists in our state. Ohio bids 
fair to stand No. 1, in all respects, with her sister states. — Yours, respectful- 
ly, A. Fahnestock, Lancaster, Ohio, Feb. 1847. 

Muskeet grass. — Enclosed I send you a few seeds of the Muskeet grass ; 
they look rather chaff-like, but they will come up. Sow them round the 
edge of a pot in your green-house, and prick them out in the spring. — 
Yours, M. A. Ward, Athens, Ga., Jan. 1847. 

Deean^s Superb Grape. — I have seen a report that the Deean's superb 
grape, exhibited by me before the Pennsylvanian Horticultural Society, was 
a black variety. It is a white large round fruit, very handsome tapering 
bunch, well shouldered and first rate flavor. 

Schargcs Henling is a black variety, round berries, medium size, long 
tapering bunches, very sweet spicy flavor. These two grapes are quite dis- 
tinct from any others I have cultivated. — Yours, R. Buist, Phila. January 21, 

VOL. XIII. — NO. in. 14 

134 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Art. II. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, January 23, I8i7. — [At this meeting, a portion of the doings 
of which we ga,ve in our last number, the Report of the Committee for 
establishing Premiums for 1847 was adopted, and ordered to be placed in 
the hands of the Committee of Publication. We now have the opportunity 
to present the list of Premiums to be awarded the present year.] 


SpEci.'i.L Prize List of Fruits, 

To be awarded in the year 1847, viz : Twenty Prizes of Five Dollars each. 

2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Apples. 
2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Autumn Apples. 
2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Winter Apples. 
2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Pears. 
2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Autumn Pears. 
2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Winter Pears. 
2 prizes for the best varieties of Cherries. 
2 prizes for the Lest varieties of Plums. 
4 prizes for the best varieties of Peaches. 

20 prizes, at $ 5 each=flOO. 

The specimens presented for the above prizes, shall consist of not less 
than three specimens of each variety of Apples, Pears and Peaches ; not 
less than one dozen Plums, and two dozen Cherries ; all of which shall be 
at the disposal of the Committee on Fruits. 


For the best and most interesting exhibition of Fruits, during the 

season, the Lowell Gold Medal, valued at . , $40 00 


Apples. — For the best exhibition, the Society's plate, valued at $25 00 

For the 2d best, the Appleton Silver Gilt Medal, . 10 00 

For the 3d best, a premium of . . . . 5 00 

Pears. — For the best exhibition, the Lyman Plate, valued at 25 00 

For the 2d best, the Lowell Silver Gilt Medal, . 10 00 

For 3d best, a premium of . . . . 5 00 

Gkapes. — For the best exhibited, three varieties, two bunches each, 

the Lyman Plate, valued at . . . . 25 00 

For the next best exhibited, . . . . 10 00 

For the next best exhibited, . . . . 5 00 

Assorted Fruit. — For tlie best basket of Fruit, of various kinds, 10 00 

For the next best, a premium of . . . 7 00 

For the next best, a premium of . . . 5 00 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 135 

For the best dish of Apples, not less than 12 specimens of one 

variety, a premium of . . . . §5 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . 3 00 

For the best dish of Pears, not less than 12 specimens of one 

variety, a premium of .... 5 00 

For the next best, a premium of . . . 3 00 

Assorted fruits in baskets shall not be entitled to any other than 

the premium for such. 
lOTAs above premiums to be awarded on the first day of the Exhibition. 


Apples. — For the best summer Apples, on or before the 1st Sept. 

For the next best, a premium of . 

For the best fall Apples, on or before the 1st Dec, 

For the next best, a premium of . 

For the best winter Apples, on or before the 1st March, . 

For the next best, a premium of , 
Pears. — For the best collection of new Pears, not exhibited before 
this year, the Society's Silver Gilt Medal, 

For the next best ..... 

For the best summer Pears, on or before the 1st September, 

For the next best, a premium of . 

For the best fall Pears, on or before the 1st December, 

For the next best, a premium of ... 

For the best winter Pears, on or before the 1st March, 1848, 

For the next best, a premium of . 
Cherries. — For the best specimen, not less than two quarts, . 

For the 2d best a premium of . 

Peaches. — For the best specimens grown under glass. 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . ' 

For the best specimens grown in open culture. 

For the 2d best, a premium of .... 
Apricots. — For the best specimen of Apricots, 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
Nectarines. — For the best specimen of Nectarines, . 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
Quinces. — For the best specimens of the best kind of Quinces, 

For the 2d best, a premium of .... 
Plums. — For the best Plums of the best flavor, not less than two quarts, 6 00 

For the next best, . . . . . -3 00 

Gooseberries. — For the best flavored and finest specimens, two boxes, 5 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . 3 00 

Currants. — For the best flavored and finest specimens, two boxes, 5 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . 3 00 

Raspberries. — For the best specimens of Raspberries, not less than 

two boxes, . . . . . . 5 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . 3 09 

























10 00 



















































h 5 




136 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Strawberries. — For the best specimens of Strawberries, not less 

than two boxes, . . . . . $6 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 

For the 3d best, a premium of . 
Water Melon. — For the best specimen of Water Melon, 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
Musk Melon. — For the best Musk Melon, a premium of 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
Figs. — For the best specimen of Figs, a premium of 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
Grapes. — For the best specimens and best varieties of Grapes, 
grown under glass previous to July 1st, 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 

For the best specimens and varieties of Grapes, grown under 
glass subsequently to July 1st, 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
Grapes, (Native.) — For the best spec'n and variety of Native Grapes, 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 

$450 00 

in? The Committee on Fruit will hold a session to award the premiums 
on Summer Apples and Pears, on the 1st Saturday in Sepetember. 

On Fall Apples and Pears, on the first Saturday in December. 

On Winter Apples and Pears, on the first Saturday in March. 

All gratuities for seedlings will be equal to the highest prize awarded to 
■that variety of fruit. 



For the best display of Green-House Plants in pots through the 

season, the AppletonGold Medal, valued at . . $40 00 

For the 2d best display of do., the Society's Silver Gilt Medal, 

valued at . . . . . . 15 00 

Provided, however, that whatever amount may be awarded during the 
season for the exhibition of Pot Plants, to the person who shall be entitled 
to said medals, shall be deemed as constituting a part of their value. 


To be exhibited at the opening of the Hall, on the 1st Saturday in May : 
Pelargoniums. — Class I. — For the best six new and rare varieties, 

grown in six-inch pots, a premium of . . . $6 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . 4 00 

Class II. — For the best six varieties of any sort, grown in 

large pots, . . . . . . 6 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . 4 00 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 


Roses. — For the best sis varieties of Tea, Bourbon, Noisette, or 

Bengal, a premium of . . . . . $6 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . 4 00 

For the 3d best, . . . . . 2 GO 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, a premium of . 3 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . 3 00 

Fuchsias. — For the best six varieties, a premium of . 6 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 4 00 

Cactus. — For the best six varieties, a premium of . . 3 00 

For the 2d best, . , . . . . 2 00 

Calceolarias. — For the best six varieties, a premium of . 3 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 2 00 

Cinerarias. — For the best six varieties, a premium of . 3 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 2 00 

Heaths. — For the best varieties, a premium of . . 3 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 2 00 

Various Sorts. — For tha best display of various sorts of Green 

House Plants, not less than twelve pots, a premium of 8 00 

For the 2d best display, . . . . . 5 00 

Hyacinths. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in May. 

For the best display not less than twenty varieties, . 5 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 3 00 

Tulips. — Premiums to be awarded the third Saturday in May. 

For the bast thirty distinct varieties, a premium of . 8 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 6 00 

For the 3d best, . . . . . . 3 00 

Pansies. — Premiums to be awarded the fourth Saturday in May. 

For the best twelve distinct varieties, a premium of . 4 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . . 3 00 

For the 3d best, . . . . . . 2 00 

Hawthorns. — Premiums to be awarded the fourth Saturday in May. 

For the best display, a premium of . . . 3 00 

For the 2d best, . . . . . , 2 00 

Hardy Azaleas. — Premiums to be awarded 4th Saturday in May. 

Fv">r the best display, a premium of . . . . 3 00 

lor the 2d best, . . . . . . 2 00 

Shrubby P.bonies. — Premiums to be awarded 4th Saturday in May. 

For the best six varieties, a premium of . . 5 

For the 2d best, ...... 4 

For the best display, ..... 3 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Premiums to be awarded 2d Sat'dy in June. 

For the best 12 flowers, having regard to the number of varieties, 5 

For the 2d best, ...... 4 

For the best display, ..... 3 

Pinks. — Premiums to be awarded 3d Saturday in June. 

For the best six distinct varieties, a premium of . . 4 00 





Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 


For the 2d best, . . . 

For the best display, 
Ranunculus. — Premiums to be awarded in June. 
For the best display a premium of 
For the 2d best, .... 

Anemones. — Premiums to be awarded in June. 
For the best display, a premium of 
For the 2d best, .... 

Roses, in Classes. — Premiums to be awarded 3d Saturday in June. 

Hardy Roses. 
Class I. — For the best thirty distinct varieties, a premium of 
For the 2d best, .... 

For the 3d best, .... 

For the third best display. 
Class II. — For ihe best twelve distinct varieties, a premium of 
For the 2d best, .... 

For the 3d best. 

Perpetual Roses. 
Class III. — For the best ten varieties, a premium of 
For the 2d best, .... 

For the best display, 

Prairie Roses. 
Class III. — For the best display, a premium of 
For the 2d best, .... 

Carnation and Picotee Pinks. — Premiums to be awarded 3d Sat- 
turday in July, 
For the best ten varieties, a premium of 
For the 2d best, ...... 

For the best display, ..... 

Magnolias. — For the best display through the season, a premium of 
For the 2d best, ...... 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — For the best display of the season, a 
premium of ..... . 

For the 2d best, ...... 

Double Hollyhocks. — Premiums to be awarded third Saturday in 
For the best display, a premium of . . . 

For the 2d best, ...... 

For the 3d best, ...... 

Double Balsams. — Premiums to be awarded 2d Saturday in Aug. 
For the best display, a premium of . . . 

For the 2d best, ...... 

For the 3d best, ...... 

Phloxes. — Premiums to be awarded 3d Saturday in August. 
For the best ten distinct varieties, a premium of . 
For the 2d best, ...... 

For the 3d best, ...... 




8 00 
6 00 

4 00 
3 00 

5 00 

3 00 

2 00 

5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

4 00 
3 00 



3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

3 00 

2 00 
1 00 

6 00 

4 00 

3 00 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 


German Asters. — Premiums to be awarded 2d Saturday in Sept 
For the best display, a premium of . . . 

For the 2d best, ...... 

For the 3d best, ...... 

Bouquets, Wreaths, Designs, &c. 
Premiums to be awarded at the Annual Exhibition. 
Vase Bouquets. — For the best pair suitable for the Bradlee Vases 
For the 2d best, .... 

For the best pair for the Society's Marble Vases, 
For the 2d best, .... 

Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair suitable for the parlor, 
For the 2d best, .... 

For the 3d best, . . , . 

Hand Bouqdets. — For the best pair, a premium of . 

Foi the 2d best, .... 

For the 3d best, .... 

Grass Bouquets. — For the best composed of grass. 
For the 2d best, .... 

Bouquets cf Indigenous Flowers. — For the best, a premium of . 

For the 2d, . 
Moss Vases, Baskets of Flowers, or any other neat, appropriate 
designs, suitable for the occasion. — For the best, a premium of 
For the 2d best, ...... 

For the 3d, ...... . 

For the 4th, ....... 

Wreaths. — For the best, not less than thirty feet in length, 

For the 2d best, ...... 

For the 3d best, ...... 

Dahlias. — Premiums to be awarded fourth Saturday in September. 

Division A. 
Premier Prize. — Forthe best twelve dissimilar blooms, the So- 
ciety's Silver Medal, . . . . . 

Specimen Bloom. — For the best flower. 

Various Colors. — For the best yellow, buff or orange ; purple 
or maroon ; crimson or claret ; very dark ; white ; edged or 
tipped ; scarlet ; pink or rose ; a premium of $ 1 each, 
Division B. 
Class T. — For the best twenty-four dissimilar blooms, 
For the 2d best, .... 

Class II. — For the best eighteen dissimilar blooms. 
For the 2d best, .... 

Class III. — For the best twelve dissimilar blooms, 
For the 2d best, .... 

Chrysanthemums. — Premiums to be awarded Nov. 13th 
For the best twelve distinct varieties, in trusses, 
For the 2d best, . , . . 

U 00 















































5 00 
3 00 

8 00 

. 8 


. 5 


. 6 


. 4 


. 5 


. 3 


. 3 


. 2 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Herbaceous Perennials. — For the best display through the sea- 
son, the Society's Silver Medal, 
For the 2d best, a premium of . 
For the 3d best, .... 

Annuals. — For the best display through the season, the Society's 
Silver Medal, .... 

For the 2d best display, a premium of . 

For the 3d best, .... 

Indigenous Plants. — For the best display of the season. 
For the 2d best, .... 

Camellias. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in Feb. 
For the best twelve varieties of cut flowers, with foliage. 
For the 2d best, ...... 

Chinese Primrose. — Premiums to be awarded 2d Saturday in Feb. 
For the best six varieties in pots, a premium of 
For the 2d best, ...... 

trREENHousE AzALEAS. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday 
in March. 
For the best six varieties in pots, .... 

For the 2d best, ...... 

Premiums to be awarded at the Weekly Exhibitions. 
For the best six Pot Plants, of different varieties, a 

premium of . . . . $2 00 

For the 2d best do., . . . . 1 00 

For the best large Bouquet for vases or parlor, com- 
posed of flowers gracefully arranged ,'_apremium of 2 00 
5'or the2dbestdo., . . . . 1 00 

For the best six hand Bouquets, . . . 2 00 

For the 2d best do., . . . . 1 00 

^5 00 

4 00 

3 00 

5 00 

4 00 
3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

8 00 

5 00 

3 00 
2 00 

6 00 
4 00 

5 00 

^650 00 
For this purpose, one hundred dollars have been appropriated. 
Asparagus. — For the earliest and best, not less than three bunches. 
Beets. — For the best, (pure blood beet,) during the season, not less 
than twelve roots, ...... 

Bkoccoli. — For the best three heads, a premium of 
Beans. — For the best and earliest peck of string beans, 

For the best and earliest Lima beans, not less than two quarts. 
For the best and earliest variety of shell beans, 
Cdcdmbers. — For the best pair under glass, previous to the first 
Saturday of June, ...... 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 

For the best and earliest, of open culture, a premium of 
Cauliflowers. — For the best and largest, during the season, not 
less than three heads, ..... 

For the 2d best a premium of . 



5 00 











3 00 





Massachusetts Hoj^ticultural Society. 141 

Corn. — For the best and earliest sweet corn, not less than 12 ears, $3 00 
Cabbage. — For the best drumhead cabbage, during the season, not 

less than three heads, . . . . . 5 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . . 3 00 

For the best Savoy cabbage, during the season, not less than 

three heads, . . . . . . . 3 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . • . . . 2 00 

Egg Plants. — The best display, during the season, . . 5 00 

Lettuce. — For the best six heads, before the 1st Saturday in July, 3 00 
Potatoes. — For the best, new seedling, of superior quality for the 

table, 10 00 

For the best and earliest peck, previous to Aug. 1, . . 3 00 

Peas. — For the best and earliest peck in June, . . . 3 00 

Rhubarb. — For the largest and best, previous to the first Saturday 

in July, not less than twelve stalks, . . . , 5 00 

Squashes. — For the best pure Canada squashes, not less than six 
in number, ....... 

For the greatest variety exhibited during the season. 
Tomatoes. — For the best and earliest, not less than one dozen. 
Vegetables. — For the best display and greatest variety at the week- 
ly exhibitions, during the season, .... 

For the 2d best, a premium of . 
For the best display and greatest variety at the ann'l exhibition, 10 00 
For the 2d best, a premium of . . • . . 7 00 

For any new variety of vegetables suitable for the table, and 

worthy of cultivation, other than seedling potatoes, . .6 00 

Celery. — For the best and largest blanched, not less than six roots, 5 00 

For the 2d best, a premium of . . . . . 3 00 











#150 00 
For the Committee to establish premiums, S. WALKER, Chairman. 

The Rules and Regulations are the same as last season. 

Feb. 6th. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day — the 
President in the chair. 

A report on a package of seeds, received from Prof. Fischer of the St. 
Petersburg Botanic Garden, was read by Prof. J. L. Russell, and the seeds 
were placed in the hands of Prof. Gray of Harvard University, with a re- 
quest to report upon such as prove worthy of cultivation. 

A letter was read from Dr. W. D. Brinkle, of Philadelphia, in regard to 
the origin and history of the Tyson pear. Dr. Brinkle states that he was 
first led to this inquiry, after reading our description of this fine variety, 
which we figured in our last volume (XH. p. 434), and he confirms the ac- 
count we gave of it. 

A letter was read from the lion. Theodore Lyman, enclosing an order 
for a copy of Prof. Gray's new work, to be placed in the Library. The 
thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Lyman. 

142 Answers to Correspondents. 

The Finance Committee reported that they had purchased twenty-two 
shares of the stock of the Worcester Rail-road, amounting to $2458 50. 

George C. Crowninshield, Boston, and Francis George Theiler, Dor- 
chester, were admitted members. 

Adjourned four weeks to March 6th. 

Feb. 13/A, Eihibiled. — Flowers : From the President of the Society 
Twenty varieties of Camellias, viz., Alb6rtus, Donckelaern, tricolor, ochro- 
leuca, Palmer's, Perfection, fimbriata, imbricata, F16y«, Gilesn, conspicua, 
exiraia, Fordu, Wilder^', William IV., Eclipse, Slogans, alba plena, Prattzi, 
Colvilh'i, Chandleri and Duchesse d'Orleans ; also, a fine cut specimen of 
Acacia spectabile, one of the finest of this showy family, and flowers of 
Chorizema v^rium. 

Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited fourteen varieties of Camellias, as fol- 
lows: — Floyu, alba plena, Henri Favre, elegans, Yauxn, Carswelh'cma, 
Landrdthit, corallina, tricolor, myrtifolia, conspicua, Goussoma, Doncke- 
laern and Chandleru ; also six pots of Chinese primroses, two of which were 
the rare and beautiful double white, with several trusses of flowers on each. 
From W. Quant, 12 varieties of Camellias, and six pots of Chinese Prim- 
roses, among which was a seedling of a peculiar tint of blush, very pretty. 

The Premiums for Camellias and Chinese Primroses were awarded to- 
day, as follows : — 

CAMELLIAS. — For the best twelve varieties of cut flowers with foliage, 
premium to Messrs. Hovey and Co., x)f $8. 

For the second best twelve varieties, to W. Quant, a premium of $5. 

A gratuity of $8 was also awarded to the President for a variety of Ca- 

Chi.^ese Primroses. — For the best six plants, a premium to Wm. Quant, 

of $3. 
For the next best, a premium to Messrs Hovey & Co., of $2. 

Art. ni. Answers to Correspondents. 
Root Pruning. — A. R. Pope. The best season for performing root 
pruning is in April. A trench should then be dug about three feet from the 
trunk of the tree, extending in a circle completely around it : All the vay 
large roots should then be cut clean off, either with a sharp spade or knife, 
being careful not to injure the small roots. The trench should then be 
-filled up, and the ground properly manured and cultivated ; the following 
year, the results of the operation will be perceived, or, if not so decidedly 
then, the second year ; some trees are so very vigorous, that even cutting 
oflFthe large roots does not check them at once. We should judge that the 
peach tree you speak of, however, was not the true kind ; perhaps it is a 
seedling, and that is the cause of its non-productiveness. 

Strawberries.— W. We stated, some time since, that the Black Prince 
was considered as worthless by the London Horticultural Society ; those who 
cultivate it will find it so, in comparison with better kinds. The Swain- 

Horticultural Memoranda. 143 

stone seedling is also quite unworthy of cultivation ; it is a very high fla- 
vored fruit, but only of medium size, and a poor bearer ; the vines quite ten- 
der in winter, and burnt by the sun in summer : in some situations, it may 
produce half a crop ; but all who cultivate it, will be greatly disappointed if 
they trust to the statements which have been made in regard to it. It has 
been caltivated around Boston six years, but we have never yet known a 
single box offered for sale, or but one box exhibited before the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society. 

Dahlias, /. P. — Dahlias have been so much improved, that the cata- 
logues do not now contain any really poor varieties : but there is quite a 
variety of excellence in the many kinds which make up the great number. 
The following are twelve fine kinds for show flowers : — Admiral Stopford, 
Antagonist, Duke of York, Cleopatra, Marchioness of Ormonde, Harlequin, 
Arethusa, Orlando, Punch, Sir E. Antrobus, Beeswing and Standard of 

Cinerarias. A Prize Exhibitor. — This beautiful tribe, which has recent- 
ly been so much improved, is of easy cultivation, either by seeds, cuttings, 
or offsetts, and excellent articles will be found in our two last volumes on 
their growth?. Raising from seeds, is the way to get new varieties, and if 
choice seeds are procured fins kincis may he expcete;!. The seeds should 
be sown immediately, in a pot, placed in a hot-bed, or the green-house, and 
in spring the plants can be pricked out into the open ground. Taken up 
and properly potted in the autumn, they will make beautiful plants for exhi- 
bition in the spring of 1848. 

Pelargoniums. C — Twelve fine pelargoniums, of such kinds as can be 
obtained of our nurserymen, are as follows : — Sjlph, Queen Phillippi, 
Celestial, Bridegroom, Priory Queen, Jenny Lind, Conservative, Sophia 
Matilda, Foster's Matilda, King John, Erectum and Medora. Beck's new 
seedlings are far superior to most of these, but they are yet rare, and none 
of them for sale in American collections till the next autumn. 




Grape Vines in the green-house will now have just broken their eyes, 
and will be pushing forward with vigor ; by the latter part of this month, 
if they have been properly treated, the shoots will be about ten inches in 
length, and will show their flower-buds ; syringings should be freely given 
in all good weather, until the eyes are all broken, and the usual attention 
given to bending down the shoots, should the upper eyes get the advance 
of the lower ones : the main object witli a good grape-grower, is, to break 
every eye. Vines in pots, which are now showing fruit, should be moderate- 
ly supplied with water. A temperature of 45 to 50 dcg. at night is ample 
for this month. 

144 Horticultural Memoranda. 

Apple Trees may now be root-grafted, and placed in boxes, where they 
may remain in a cool place till the season for planting out in April. 

Raspberry Plants and Strawberry beds may be uncovered the last part of 
the month, should the weather prove mild. 

Scions may now be cut, and placed away in a cool place till wanted. 

Pruning Trees may now be attended to where there are large quantities, 
in order to prevent the accumulation of too much work in April. 

Pear, Apple and Quince Seeds should be planted as soon as the frost is 
out of the ground. 


Camellias will now begin to make their new growth ; keep them well 
watered, syringing the foliage twice a week ; pick off all decayed flowers ; 
and prune off dead wood, or crooked branches; the Camellia bears the 
knife well, and its freer use would prevent the quantity of unsightly plants, 
which abound in every collection. Water once a fortnight with weak guano. 
Inarching may now be performed. 

Pelargoniums will now be coming forward in fine condition, if our remarks 
have been followed. If there are any plants which have not been potted, 
now is the time to do it ; and if any have not been properly trained, they 
should not be neglected any longer : keep down the green fly, and occasion- 
ally syringe the foliage. 

Japan Lilies will now have grown 6 or 8 inches, and will require moder- 
ate quantities of water, and a good airy situation on the stage. 

Gloxinias should now be potted and placed in a hot-bed, or warm situa- 
tion, to start them into growth. 

Calceolarias will require another shift into larger pots. 

Verbenas and Petunias will require repotting now. 

Fuchsias. The old plants may now be turned out of the pots, the earth 
partially rubbed off, and repotted again into a suitable compost. 

Roses will now be coming into bloom, and will now require occasional 
syringing over the foliage. 

Cinerarias should now be shifted into larger pots. 

Gesnera zebrina should now be placed in a hot-bed, to give the little corms 
a rapid start. 

Dahlias for early blooming may still be potted. 

Heaths which appear stunted for want of room should now be repotted. 

Hyacinths and Tulip beds will require attention the latter part of the 
month ; if the weather is very mild, part of the covering may be removed. 

Annual jlower seeds, such as 10-week Stock, Brachycome, Phlox Drum- 
mondii, A''eTbena, Petunia, Lotus jacolaeus, and other choice varieties, may 
now be planted, for early blooming in the open border. 

Plants in frames will now need airing every fair day. 

Veronica specibsa may now be propagated from cuttings. 

Cactuses hould be more liberally watered after they show their flower buds. 

Heliotropes, salvias, scarlet geraniums, and other showy plants, should 
now be propagated for a stock, for bedding out in spring. 




APRIL, 1847. 


Art. I. Horticulture of the Past, as compared with the Pres- 
ent. By T. S. Htjmrickhouse, Coshocton, Ohio. 

At this remote distance of time, it is very difficult for us to 
estimate justly what proficiency the Antients may have had 
in Horticulture. Evelyn did not rate it very high. In a let- 
ter to Mr. Wotton, he says : — " Concerning the gardening and 
husbandry of the Antients, which is your inquirie (especially 
of the first), that it had certainly nothing approaching the 
elegancy of the present age, Rapinus (whom I send you) will 
abundantly satisfy you. The discourse you will find at the 
end of Hortorum, lib. 4. capp. 6, 7. What they called their 
gardens were only spacious plots of ground planted with pla- 
tans and other shady trees in walkes, and built about with 
porticos, xisti, and noble ranges of pillars, adorned with stat- 
ues, fountaines, piscariae, aviaries, &c. But for the flowery 
parterre, beds of tulips, carnations, auricula, tuberose, jon- 
quills, ranunculus, and other of our rare coronaries, we hear 
nothing of, nor that they had such store and variety of rare 
exoticks, orangeries, myrtils, and other curious greens ; nor 
do I believe they had their orchards in such perfection, nor 
by far our furniture for the kitchen. Pliny, indeed, enume- 
rates a world of vulgar plants and olitories, but they fall in- 
finitely short of our physic gardens, books, and herbals, eve- 
ry day augmented by our sedulous botanists, and brought to 
us from all quarters of the world. And as for their husband- 
ry and moie rural skill, of which the same author has written 

VOL. XIII. — NO, IV. 15 

146 Horticulture of the Past 

so many books in his Natural History, especially lib. 17, 18, 
&c., you'll soon be judge what it was. They took great care, 
indeed, of their vines and olives, stercorations, ingraftings, and 
were diligent in observing seasons, the course of the stars, &c.; 
and doubtless were very industrious ; but when you shall have 
read over Cato, Varro, Columella, Paladio, with the Greek 
Geoponicks, I do not think you will have cause to prefer them 
before the modern agriculture, so exceedingly of late improved, 
for w^hich you may consult and compare our old Tusser, 
Markham, the Maison Rustic, Hartlib, Walter Blith, the 
Philosophical Transactions, and other books, which you know 
better than myself." 

If all this might well be said by Evelyn in his day, with 
how much more propriety now, by us in ours ; and with 
how much greater justice might we not also include his cat- 
alogue of the then Moderns. If we examine, however, more 
critically his remarks, so as to take in the whole scope of the 
premises he lays down, may we not doubt if his be not too 
severe a judgment ? In what consists the mighty difference? 
Evelyn goes into particulars ; and it cannot be doubted that, 
of many things, now the rarest and most admired ornaments 
of our gardens, and the most exquisite delicacies upon our ta- 
bles, they were entirely destitute ; of others, they possessed 
not the same nor the abundance of excellent varieties that we 
do : but our author is careful further to note, that " they took 
great care indeed of their vines and olives, stercorations, in- 
graftings, and were diligent," &c. : and Solomon, had he con- 
sulted him, would have refuted much that he advances about 
gardens ; and Virgil, had he borne him in mind, would have 
put to flight much more in reference to horticultural skill. 

Having mentioned Solomon, however familiar he may be to 
most readers, I must be indulged in one quotation from him 
— but one, out of many beautiful passages that occur in his 
Song. " A garden enclosed is my sister, my spouse ; a spring 
shut up, a fountain sealed. Thy plants are an orchard of pome- 
granates, with pleasant fruits ; camphire with spikenard, spike- 
nard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frank- 
incense, myrrh and aloes, Avith all the chief spices. A foun- 
tain of gardens, a well of living waters, and streams from 
Lebanon. Solomon had a vineyard at Baalhamon ; he let 

as compared with the Present. 147 

out the vineyard unto keepers ; every one, for the fruit there- 
of, was to bring a thousand pieces of silver. Let us get up 
early to the vineyards ; let us see if the vine flourish, wheth- 
er the tender grape appear, and the pomegranates bud forth. 
The mandrakes give a smell, and at our gates are all manner 
of pleasant fruits, new and old, which I have laid up for thee, 
O my beloved." 

If it were desired to magnify this subject, the object would 
be sufiiciently attained by referring to the Mosaic account of 
the creation of the world. " And the Lord God planted a gar- 
den eastward in Eden ; and there he put the man whom he 
had formed." 

That much of the skill, and many of the most approved 
appliances of the gardener's art have come down to him from 
a very remote antiquity is true beyond dispute. St. Paul 
seizes upon a figure, derived from this source, to enforce a 
sublime doctrine. '•' And if some of the branches be broken off, 
and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffedin among them, 
and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive 
tree, boast not against the branches : but, if thou boast, thou 
bearest not the root, but the root thee. Thou wilt say then, 
The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in. 
Well : because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou 
standest by faith," &c. 

To the Antients, then, are we indebted for the knowledge 
we possess of the art of grafting. This great fact must not 
be forgotten. And we have also derived from them our knowl- 
edge of the operation of budding, sister to the former. This 
demands from us redoubled acknowledgments. The precise 
period of the invention of these arts, like many of the most 
common and useful of our tools and implements of labor, is 
lost in remote antiquity. To go no further back than Virgil, 
we find him describing, in graceful hexameters, and not with- 
out hyperbole, the modes and the effects both of grafting and 
budding. Of grafting, he says : — 

" Et saepe alterius ramos impune videmus 
Vertere in alterius, mutatamque insita mala 
Ferre pyrum, et prunis lapidosa rubescere coma. 
Quare agite, 6 proprios generatim discite cultus, 
Agricolae, fructusque feros molite colendo. 

148 Horticulture of the Past 

Neu segnes jaceant terrae : juvat Ismaro Bacho 
Conserere, atque olea magnum vestire Taburnum. 
Tuque ades, inceptumque una decurre laborem, 
O decus, 6 famae merito pars maxima nostrse, 
Macenas, pelagoque volans da vela patenti. 
Non ego cuncta meis amplecti versibus opto : 
Non mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, 
Ferrea vox : ades, et primi lege littoris oram. 
In manibus terrae : non hie te carmine ficto, 
Atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo. 

Sponte sua quae se tollunt in luminis auras, 
Infoecunda quidem, sed laeta et fortia surgunt. 
Quippe solo natura subest. Tamen haec quoque siquis 
Inserat, aut scrobibus mandet mutata subactis, 
Exuerint sylvestrem animum : cultuque frequenti, 
In quascunque voces artes, baud tarda sequentur, 
Nee non et sterilis quae stirpibus exit ab imis, 
Hoc faciet, vacuos si sit digesta per agros : 
Nunc altae frondes et rami matris opacant, 
Crescentique adimunt foetus, uruntqueferentem. 
Jam, quas seminibus jactis se sustulit arbos. 
Tarda venit, seris factura nepotibus umbram : 
Pomaque degenerant succos oblita priores ; 
Et tnrpes avibus praedam fert uva racemos. 
Scilicet omnibus est labor impendendus, et omnes 
Cogendae in suleum, ac multa mercede domandae." 

Of budding, he says : — 

" Nee modus inserere atq ; oculos imponere simplex. 
Nam qu^se medio trudunt de cortice gemmas, 
Et tenues rumpunt tunicas, angustus, in ipso 
Fit nodo sinus : hue aliena ex arbore germen 
Includunt, udoque docent inolescere libro. 
Aut rursum enodes trunci resecantur, in alt6 
Finditur in solidum cuneis via : deinde feraces 
Planae immituntur. Nee longum tempus, et ingens 
Exiit ad coelum ramis felicibus arbos, 
Miraturque novas frondes, et non suapoma." 

Who can doubt, that, had the discovery of the arts of graft- 
ing and budding been reserved for the present age, the lucky 
individual who should be the first to find them out and make 
them known, would receive such applause as to place him in 
the same rank of geniuses with Franklin, Whitney, Fulton, 
and the host of worthies — names ever to be revered by sci- 

as cmrvpared with the Present. 149 

ence. In such case, would it not be considered one of the 
wonderful events of our time ? When should we get done 
talking about it ? 

But this subject is so fruitful, care must be taken that your 
pages be not overburdened with it ; if, indeed, too much has 
not been already said. Allow me, in addition, to tranfer to 
your pages the following extract from a letter of Evelyn to 
Dr. Wilkins, Feb. 17, 1660, which I do without remark : — 

" It is certain, as Dr. Goddard has shewed, that a section 
of any tree- made parallel to the horizon, will, by the close- 
ness of the circles, point to the North, and so, consequently, if 
a perpendicular be drawn through them for the meridian, the 
rest of the cardinalls &c., found out ; but this is not so uni- 
versall, but that, where strong reflections are made, as from 
walls, the warme fumes of dunghills, and especially if the 
southern side be shaded, &c., those ellipticall and hyperbol- 
icall circles are sometimes very irregular ; and I doubt not 
but, by some art, might be made to have their circles as order- 
ly as those which we find in Brazille, Ebene, &c., which, 
within a very little, concentre by reason of the uniforme course 
of the sun about them ; which is doubtless the cause of their 
greater dilatation on the South part only with us, where the 
pores are more open and lesse constipated. The considera- 
tion whereof (though nowhere mentioned that I know) made 
the poet, giving advice concerning transplantations, to cau- 
tion thus : — 

' Quin etiara Coeli regionem in cortice signant, 
Ut quo quoaque modo steterit, qua parte calores 
Austrinos tulerit, qua) terga obverterit axi, 
Restituant : ades in teneris consuescere mullum est.' 

And though Pliny neglect it as an unnecessary curiosity, I 
can, by much experience confirme it, that not one tree in 100 
would miscarry were it duly observed ; for, in some, I have 
made tryall of it even at Midsummer." 
Coshocton, February 13, 1847. 

Probably a portion of our readers will not be able to give a 
free translation to the above quotations ; and will think they 
might have been omitted : but we preferred to give our corre- 
spondent's communication entire. — Ed. 


150 Mr. Knighfs Seedling Pears. 

Art. II. Mr. Knight's Seedling Pears. By the Editor. 

It is well known that the late Thomas Andrew Knight, 
President of the London Horticultural Society, to whose la- 
bors the science of Horticulture is so deeply indebted, origi- 
nated several new fruits, of great excellence, more particular- 
ly cherries and pears. Of the former, all the varieties, we 
believe, are well known in our extensive nursery collec- 
tions, as well as in most amateur gardens, and specimens of 
the fruit have, from time to time, been presented for exhibition, 
fully sustaining their high reputation. But, of the pears, 
very little information has yet been obtained. It is true they 
have been described in the catalogues of the London Horticul- 
tural Society, but, to American gardens, they are not familiar 
acquaintances. Recently, nearly or quite all of the varieties 
have been introduced, but, owing to the errors which occurred 
in the dessemination of the scions from Mr. Knight's own 
garden, it is yet somewhat uncertain whether all the kinds 
are true to name, more particularly that finest of all his seed- 
lings, the Monarch. 

In the autumn of 1844, when we visited the garden of the 
society, at Chiswick, and looked over the collection of pears 
with Mr. Thompson, we were anxious to obtain all the infor- 
mation in relation to these seedlings, as the high character 
which Mr. Thompson had given to some of them, rendered 
them particularly desirable, more especially on account of the 
hardy character which was ascribed to the varieties, and, conse- 
quently, their peculiar adaptation to our climate. The Monarch 
we were most eager to possess, and when we left, Mr. Thompson 
placed in our hands one specimen out of only three or four, in 
his possession ; this we put into our trunk, and, after journeying 
to Scotland, and from thence home, occupying about twenty- 
five days, — we found the pear in good condition, and, upon tast- 
ing it, about the middle of November, fully coming up to Mr. 
Knight's and Mr. Thompson's estimate of the variety. 

The Dunmore, we have not yet seen in good perfection. In 
the autumn of 1845, we had one single pear, which ripened 
prematurely and dropped off — it promised well : the present 
year we hope to have many specimens, and fully settle the 

Mr. KnigMs Seedling Pears. 151 

question in regard to its qualities. In the mean time, before 
this and the other sorts come into fruit again, we have thought 
that the following article, from the Transactions of the London 
Horticultural Society, an expensive work, which does not, 
probably, find its way into the hands of many, would prove 
highly interesting to our amateur cultivators, and prepare 
them somewhat for what they may expect when they shall 
have specimens from their own trees : — 

The following account of some of the new fruits, raised at 
Downton, has been prepared from descriptions made in the 
society's garden, by Mr. Robert Thompson, to which notes 
have been added by Mr. Knight. As- these varieties appear 
of considerable importance, it was considered desirable that 
an early opportunity should be taken, of making the public 
acquainted with them. ,^ 

1. March Bergamot Pear. Fruit middle-size, in form and 
appearance resembling the Autumn Bergamot. Flesh buttery, 
a little gritty near the core, rich and excellent. Season, 
March, or later. 

Note. — Owing to its resemblance in form to the Autumn 
Bergamot, and its ripening chiefly in March (it may be pre- 
served later,) I have named this sort the March Bergamot. 
The sample sent was not favorable in any respect, the most 
perfect having been previously eaten, owing to my having 
erroneously supposed that I had sent a sample of the fruit in 
autumn. No pains were taken to preserve those that remained 
and which, it appears, were found to be excellent, after endur- 
ing the carriage to London in the beginning of March. It will 
be found a much larger and a much better pear when grown 
in the garden of the society. The fruit is, I think, quite as 
large as that of an old Autumn Bergamot tree was, which 
formerly grew in the same soil and chmate, and at the distance 
of a few feet only. Both this variety and the Pengethley 
Pear, would probably be greatly improved if grown upon a 
wall, and, so cultivated, I believe both would be found very 
valuable in cold and unfavorable situations, in Avhich the 
French and Belgic varieties could not be made to succeed. 

2. Pengethley Pear. Fruit middle-sized, obovate, a little 
curved at the stalk. Eye small and a little open ; stalk about 

152 Mr. Knighfs Seedling Pears. 

half an inch in length. Skin yellowish-brown and consider- 
ably russeted. Flesh yellowish, juicy and rich : a very good 
pear. Season, February and March. 

Note. — The Pengethley Pear remains in perfection quite as 
late in the spring as the March Bergamot ; and it is larger 
and more juicy, and its appearance more inviting. Some 
persons who tasted both in the present spring, thought it the 
best pear of the two. The very high price of pears in the 
spring, in the London and other markets, induces me to think 
that both these varieties might be cultivated with much ad- 
vantage. This first appeared in the autumn of 1831, and 
was then very fine. The tree is large, and its growth exces- 
sively luxuriant. 

3. Ross Pear. Fruit large, obovate. Eye open and slight- 
ly sunken. Stalk short, moderately thick. Skin yellowish 
green interspersed with russet. Flesh inclining to yellow, 
gritty near the core, but rich, juicy, and sugary throughout. 
Season, January. 

Note. — This first appeared in 1832. The fruit was all of 
large size ; and I suspect that, in a more favorable season and 
better climate, it will become very large. The growth of the 
original tree is extremely luxuriant. 

4. Oakley-Park Bergamot. Fruit middle-sized, roundish 
obovate, resembling a large swan's egg. Eye, partly open, 
in a regular formed cavity. Stalk an inch and a half in 
length, rather slender, and a little sunk at its insertion. Skin 
greenish-yellow, sprinkled with russet. Flesh buttery and 
melting, rich and excellent. Season, October. 

Note. — The tree is of free growth, and has borne in the 
three last years. 

5. Brougham Pear. Nearly of the middle-size, obovate. 
Eye open in a regular formed depression. Stalk short. Skin 
yellowish-russet. Flesh yellowish- white, buttery, a little gritty 
near the core, sugary and rich. Season, November. This 
sort is highly deserving of cultivation where flavor rather than 
size is the principal object. 

Note. — This is not a small pear, though the sample sent 
was small. It is at least as big as the Autumn Bergamot ; 
but I "had sent away to several friends the largest and best 
samples ; and I never saw ray pears so small as in this year, 

Mr. Knighfs Seedling Pears. 153 

(1833,) owing to what cause 1 do not know ; but probably to 
the drought in the early part of the summer : I have named 
it the Brougham pear, a sample sent by me to Lord Brougham 
having been approved by his lordship. 

6. Bringewood Pear. Fruit middle-sized, pyriform. Eye 
open, with the segments of the calyx prominent. Stalk long 
and rather slender. Skin yellowish-brown, almost covered 
with russet. Flesh yellowish-white, a little gritty near the 
core, the rest buttery, rich, and very excellent, with some- 
thing of the peculiar flavor of the Monarch Pear. Well de- 
serving of cultivation. Season, end of October till beginning 
of December. 

Note. — This variety did not prove nearly as good in the fol- 
lowing year, as in that in which the sample was sent to the 
society ; it was nevertheless a good pear, though inferior to 
others of the same season of maturity. 

7. MoccAS Pear. Fruit middle-sized, obovate, with a short 
stalk. Eye somewhat open and very slightly sunk. Skin 
brown. Flesh inclining to yellow, melting, juicy, rich, and 
high flavored, resembling, in this respect, the Monarch Pear, 
and almost equal to that very excellent variety. Season, 

Note. — This is, I think, a very fine pear, but the sample 
sent was not equal in quality to the former produce. It is 
somewhat singular that all my pears ripened much later, and 
less perfectly in the last (1831,) than in the three preceding cold 
and wet seasons : probably owing to the paralyzing effects of 
the very severe frost of the 7th of May, which destroyed almost 
sill the blossoms of the pears and apples in the surrounding orch- 
ards. Tree of excessively rapid growth, and very productive 
of blossom, which I have reason to believe capable of bearing, 
without injury, very unfavorable weather. 

8. Broom-Park Pear. Fruit nearly middle-sized, roundish. 
Eye in a moderate-sized hollow. Stalk about an inch in 
length, moderately thick. Skin entirely covered with cinna- 
mon-colored russet. Flesh yellowish, melting, juicy, with 
something of a melon flavor, sugary and rich Its very pecu- 
liar flavor may be said to partake of the melon and pine-apple. 
Season, January. A sort highly deserving of cultivation. 

Note. — The singular mixture of flavor in this pear was 

154 Mr. Knight's Seedling Pears. 

noticed here as well as in London. The tree is fine, and has 
borne well in two seasons in which alone its fruit has existed. 

9. Croft-Castle Pear. Fruit middle-sized, oval. Eye 
open in a shallow depression, with the segments of the calyx 
reclining. Stalk about an inch and a half in length, rather 
slender, and somewhat obliquely inserted. Skin pale yellow, 
not glossy, but rough with elevated dots, and partially rus- 
seted. Flesh whitish, a little gritty, but melting and very 
juicy, rich and sugary. An excellent pear. Season, October. 

Note. — A variety of dwarfish growth, but very productive 
of fruit. 

10. Eyewood Pear. In shape and size very similar to an 
Autumn Bergamot, but of a deeper cinnamon russet color. 
Flesh yellowish- white, melting, buttery, juicy, and very high- 
flavored. It is doubtful whether it would be exceeded by 
Gansel^ Bergamot in a better season for standards than 
that of 1831, when the above description was made. Season, 
October or November. 

Note. — In 1833, when other varieties of pears did not attain 
their usual excellence in Herefordshire, this was found to be 
very good. The tree is of a very free growth, and has borne 
well during the last four years, the period commencing with 
its existence, as regards a bearing state. The sample sent 
was below the average size. 

11. DuNMORE Pear. Fruit about the size of a Brown 
Beurre, obovate. Eye open, slightly depressed. Stalk about 
an inch in length, of medium thickness, rather fleshy at its 
junction. Skin brownish-red next the sun ; yellowish with a 
scattering of brown where shaded. Flesh yellowish-white, 
melting and extremely juicy, sugary and rich ; a little gritty 
near the core, but on the whole a most excellent pear. Season, 
end of September or beginning of October. 

Note. — This variety is as large, I think, as the Brown 
Beurre, and I have never tasted the last mentioned sort better 
than the Dunmore. When it has remained to ripen and grow 
yellow upon the tree, I have thought it the most melting and 
best pear of its early season. The birds are apt to destroy 
most of the crop prematurely. The tree is fine and perfectly 
healthy. Grafts of it, which were insterted into stocks two 
years only ago, afforded an abundant blossom in the last 

Mr. Knighfs Seedling Pears. 155 

spring, and are now bearing fruit ; though the weather in 
part of the spring was extremely unfavorable, and destroyed 
every blossom of the more delicate varieties. The trees are 
of a very rapid growth, and the varieties appear to be ex- 
tremely well adapted to cold and late situations. 

12. Monarch Pear. Fruit of large size, obovate. The stalk 
is, in all cases, remarkably short and thick. The eye is open, 
in a shallow depression. The general color is yellowish- 
brown, tinged with red next the sun, and everywhere inter- 
spersed with roundish pale gray flecks. Flesh yellowish, 
melting, buttery, and rich ; slightly musky, but not disagree- 
ably so, and this is the less perceptible in a dryer season than 
the last. The tree grows vigorously, and is a most abundant 
bearer as a standard, the fruit from which is much higher 
flavored than from a wall. January is its season for becom- 
ing fit for use. 

Note. — I had this year (1834,) a sufiicient quantity of the 
Monarch Pear to enable me to ascertain the specific gravity 
of its juice, which is 1096 ; that is, fifteen above the Stire 
Apple, and about that which a dissolution of 2 lbs. 6 oz. of 
sugar would give to 8 lbs. of water. I doubt whether the 
specific gravity of the juice of the grapes, which afford the 
best French wines, be much greater, and the taste and flavor 
of the expressed juice of the Monarch Pear appear to me to be 
very delightful. I am planting it very largely for Perry, in 
perfect confidence that sixpence per imperial quart of its ex- 
pressed juice will afford a very high remunerating price. I 
imagined, till the present season, that the excessively vigorous 
growth of the variety, would render it unproductive as a wall- 
tree, but grafts inserted three years ago are now bearing fruit, 
and have formed a most abundant blossom for the next year. 

From these descriptions, and the notes thereto, the Pomo- 
logist may form a good estimate of Mr. Knight's seedlings. 
Of the twelve, only five or six have yet fruited in American 
collections ; one of these was the Dunmore, which Mr. Knight 
thinks fully equal to the Brown Beurre. 

But the Monarch, which Mr. Knight so named, (in honor 
of William the IVth,) because he was " under conviction that, 
for the climate of England, it stands without an equal," has 

156 A Way to keep a Record of the Place of Trees 

not yet fruited — that is the true Monarch. Some two or three 
spurious varieties sold under this name, have borne a few pears, 
sufficient to decide their utter worthlessness, and it yet re- 
mains a matter of doubt, whether the true variety has been 
introduced. We have reason to beheve, that it has not, only 
in one or two instances, and that nearly all the trees which 
have been disseminated are incorrect. Our principal reasons 
are, that the trees sold for the Monarch, are of weak and slen- 
der growth, straggling habit, and with dark-colored wood. 
Now it will be noted that Mr. Knight says it is of " excessively 
vigorous growth," so much so, that he feared it would "ren- 
der it unproductive ; but grafts inserted three years are now 
bearing fruit, and have formed abundant blossoms for next 
year." Mr. Thompson states that the true Monarch may be 
known from the spurious one, by its " yellowish wood." 
These characteristics at once settle the question, that those trees 
with small wood and slender growth and dark-colored shoots, 
are not true. 

We saw the tree in bearing in the society's garden ; and 
from a nursery within three miles of Chiswick, we pur- 
chased trees, grown from scions received from Mr. Thompson : 
and they correspond in every particular with Messrs. Knight's 
and Thompson's descriptions. The trees are exceedingly vig- 
orous, of upright habit, and with yellow or pale yellowish 
olive- colored wood : They will, we hope, produce a few speci- 
mens this year, when we trust we may have the opportunity 
to show a pear, whose reputation ranks so high, but which, 
from a series of errors originating with Mr. Knight's gardener, 
has for so long time remained unknown to cultivators. 

Art. III. A Way to keep a Record of the Place of every Tree 
in an Orchard, by which Labels are dispensed with. By T. 
S. HuMRicKHOusE, Coshoctou, Ohio. 

Having observed that much has been lately said about la- 
bels for fruit trees, 1 send you herewith a map or plot of a 
section of my experimental orchard on Whiteyes Creek in Co- 
shocton County, Ohio, comprising about the one fourth of it, 

in ail Orchard^ by which Labels are dispensed with. 157 

to show the manner in which I keep the record of the place 
of each tree. The plat and list subjoined will sufficiently 
explain each other, and the whole plan — a plan which 
may be carried out to any extent. You will perceive that, to 
find a tree of any given variety in the orchard, you look at 
the number placed before its name in the list, and find the 
corresponding number on the plat. The number set after the 
name in the list denotes the number of trees of that variety : — 

OOOO 0000 000 

56 55 55 55 55 54 54 53 52 52 52 

OO 000000 ooo 

46 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 50 51 

000 o ooooooo 
45 44 44 43 43 42 42 41 41 40 40 


34 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 

ooo 000000 00 

33 33 32 32 32 31 31 31 31 30 29 

ooooooo 0000 

24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 

0000000 o ooo 

1 23 21 20 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 

00 oooooooo o 

1 15 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 11 10 


Trees. No. 


1. Hubbardston Nonsuch, 2 

10. Zoar Phoenix, ... 1 20. 

11. Red Everlasting, . .2 21. 

12. Cathead, 2 22. 

13. C. Down's large fall red, 1 23. 

14. Blickensderfier, . . .2 24. 

15. Pickman Pippin, . .2 25. 

16. Poland Red Winter, . 1 26. 

17. Seckel Pear, .... 1 27. 

18. Summer Golden Pippin, 1 28. 

VOL. XIII. NO. IV. 16 


Catharine Pear, ... 1 
Pound Pear, .... 2 
Jas. Taylor's Pear, . 2 
Borsdorfier, .... 1 
Black Apple, .... 1 
Sops of Wine, ... 2 
Knight's Grange, . . 2 
Romankirgger, ... 2 
Newtown Spitzenberg, 2 
Summer Queen, ... 3 

158 A Way to keep a Record of the Place of Trees, (^c. 

No. Trees 

29. Pound Royal, ... 1 

30. Juneatiug, .... 1 

31. Flushing Spitzenberg, 4 

32. Grey French Reinette, 3 

33. Yan Mons Reinette, . 2 

34. Cooper's Russett, . . 1 

35. Sweet Vandervere, . 2 

36. Blenheim Orange, . 2 

37. Zoar White Spitzenb'g, 2 

38. Kirk's Lord Nelson, . 2 

39. Zoar large Winter sweet, 2 

40. Court of Wyke, . . 2 

41. Foster's large strip'd fall. 2 

42. Zoar Striped Fall, . 2 


50. Dumpling Myers, . 

51. Laners Sweet, . . 

52. Summer Rose, . . 

53. Zoar Pippin, . . 

54. English Codlin, 

55. Zimmetartiger, 

56. W, Robinson's fall pip'n, 1 





43. Zoar Winter Sweet, 

44. Transparent, . . . 

45. Hugh's Golden Pippin, 

46. Sugar Loaf Pippin 

47. Crimson Nonpareil 

48. Zoar Gilliflower, . 

49. Green Newtown Pippin, 4 


Any man, who plants an orchard, can easily make a plat 
of it, with a list of the varieties, and their places and the cor- 
responding numbers attached, in the same manner as in the 
foregoing. Or, if he likes it better, he can make his plat upon 
a scale large enough to be enabled to write the name of each 
kind in full opposite its place, as the names of towns are upon 
maps. The following will illustrate this mode : — 

















After all, perhaps this will be nothing new to your read- 
ers. It is not original with me ; nor can I tell whence I derived 
it. Of course, it will be understood that the top of the map 
should be north, as mine is, or that the points of the compass 
should be in some other way ascertained. 

Should any of your Boston friends take a fancy to the or- 
chard, of which the section before described is a part, I will 
sell the farm upon which it is situated, containing one hun- 
dred and eighty-five acres of good land without a stone upon 

Descriptions of Three New Apples. 159 

it as big as your fist, at the exceedingly low price, as they 
would consider it, of four thousand dollars. But, as they can 
buy, in this neighborhood, any quantity of land equally good 
and well improved, but without the orchard, at much lower 
rates, I do not think any of them will be found to take me 
up, so that I may rest easy. These last two sentences, you 
will say, are not very germane to the subject. 
Coshocton^ Ohio, February 6th, 1847. 

Art. IV. Descriptions and Engravings of Three New Ap- 
ples. By the Editor. 

At page 70, we commenced a series of articles in which it is 
our object to describe and figure all the fine varieties of apples 
which appear deserving of cultivation, in the same manner 
in which we have figured upwards of seventy-five varieties of 
pears. The apple is the great staple fruit of our country, and 
it is to be regretted that so little has been done to make known 
the best kinds, or to set aright the numerous errors in nomen- 
clature which abound in our Catalogues and Treatises on ' 

To attempt this object will be our endeavor in this article : 
all the new and choice kinds which are. from time to time, 
brought into notice, will be accurately described and figured, 
while, at the same time, we shall not neglect a full account of 
the older and proved sorts, giving the synonyms under which 
many of them are cultivated, and other particulars relative to 
their growth, the soils to which they are best adapted, &c. 

We shall continue the numeral order of the varieties, com- 
mencing with the article referred to. 

IV. Early Joe. 

In our last volume, (XII, p. 474,) under our Pomological 
Notices, we briefly described this new apple, {fig. 15,) and 
we have but little to add now to the account we then gave of 
it, except a more full description. Mr. Bissell of Rochester, 
who sent us some fine specimens, gives us the following par- 

160 Descriptions of Three Neio Apples. 

ticulars: — " Some of the delicious seedling apples of the Yal- 
ley of the Genesee have been extensively noticed and dissem- 

Fig. 15. Early Joe. 

inated : a few yet remain to enrich the Pomology of less fa- 
vored regions among iis, at the head of which should stand 
the Early Joe. We send you herewith some specimens of 
fruit of the ordinary size for your opinion and notice, should 
you think it worthy. When neglected, the tree bears every 
other year enormous crops, of the size and quality of these, but, 
with proper care in trimming out, they will attain to nearly 
double the size. The tree grows slowly ; the wood is slim ; 
the bark dark-colored, and the green of the foliage is deep 
and rich. It was called the Early Joe, because a fellow 
named Joe for some time stole the apples early in the morn- 
ing, before the family that owned the orchard were up, and 
only desisted after the hired man had cut ' Early Joe' in the 
bark of every tree. The parent tree grew in the orchard of 
Mr. Oliver Chapin of Bloomfield, Ontario County, in the same 
orchard with the Northern Spy, and is, we believe, still alive.'" 
To this we have only to add, that the variety is really a very 
good fruit ; its only objection, if it may be called one, to its 
ranking among the best fruits, is its rather small size. It is a 
handsome apple, with a deep red skin and a very tender flesh. 
Size, medium, about two inches and a half broad, and two 
deep : Form, oblate, slightly rounding towards the crown : 
Skin, smooth, dull yellow, nearly covered with distinct stripes 
of dark purplish red, interspersed with numerous whitish 

Descriptions of Three Neiv Apples. 161 

specks : iSfe7n, medium length, about half an inch, rather slen- 
der, and deeply inserted in a round, narrowed cavity : Eye, 
medium size, closed, and considerably sunk in an open, rather 
broad hollow ; calyx, short : Flesh, white, slightly tinged with 
pink, fine, and very tender: Juice, plentiful, pleasantly 
acid and good : Core, rather large. Ripe in August, and keeps 
two or three weeks. 

V. Fall Jennetting. 

Another variety received from the same source as the above. 
It was brought into the vicinity of Rochester about twenty 
years ago, from Athens, on the Hudson, but it does not ap- 
pear to be described by any of our writers on Fruits. Mr. 
Bissell states that the trees grow very rapidly, and bear every 
alternate year enormously. The general appearance of the Fall 
Jennetting, {Jig. 16,) is much like the Rhode Island Greening ; 

Fig. 16. Fall Jennetting. 

but it is more regular in its outline, broader at the base, and nar- 
rows more to the crown. It appears to be a new and very de- 
sirable autumn apple. 


162 Desa'iptlons of Three New Apples. 

Size, large, about three and a half inches broad, and three 
deep : Form, roundish, flattened, somewhat ribbed at the base, 
and narrowing to the eye : Skin, fair, smooth, pale greenish 
yellow, broadly tinged with deep blush on the sunny side, 
and thinly and irregularly sprinkled with dark russety specks : 
Stem, short, about half an inch, slender, and deeply inserted 
in a rather contracted, funnel-shaped cavity : Eye, small, 
closed, and moderately sunk in a small, round basin : seg- 
ments of the calyx, long, twisted : Flesh, yellowish white, 
fine, very tender : Juice, abundant, pleasant and sprightly, 
with a fine perfume : Core, small, hollow : Seeds, small, an- 
gular, full. Ripe in November. 

VI. Marston's Red Winter. Kenrick's Amer. Orchardist. 

Mr. Kenrick, in his American Orchardist, briefly describes 
this new apple i^Jig. 17). It originated in Greenland, N. H., 

Fig. 17. Marston's Red Winter. 

and fine specimens were sent us in the winter of 1845 and '46, 
by Mr. Norton of that place ; those of the last year were not 
equal in size to those of the year previous, owing to the very 
dry summer, but they were equally high-colored and beautiful. 
At first sight, they somewhat resemble the Baldwin, but upon 

Brief Account of Three Varieties of Aj^ples. 163 

more particular notice, the difference, both in form and color, 
is quite apparent : there is less yellow than in the Baldwin, 
and the skin has a smooth and more glossy surface. In form, 
it is more oval than the Baldwin, narrowing little towards 
each end. The flesh is more tender, and not so crisp as the 
Baldwin. It deserves to rank among our best winter vari- 
eties. Tree vigorous and productive. 

Size, large, about three inches broad, and two and three 
quarters deep : Form, roundish oval, regular, slightly narrow- 
ing towards each end : Skin, fair, smooth, shining, yellow in 
the shade, bright red in the sun, and nearly covered with 
stripes of brilliant crimson, with a patch of russet around the 
stem : Stem, short, about half an inch in length, slender, ob- 
liquely and rather deeply inserted in a narrow, contracted cav- 
ity : Eye, medium size, partially open, and moderately sunk 
in a round, open, smooth, and* abruptly depressed basin : 
Flesh, yellowish, fine, soft, and very tender : Juice, plentiful, 
rich, and high flavored: Core, medium size, rather close: 
Seeds, medium size, dark brown. Ripe in January, and keeps 
till April. 

Art. V. A Brief Account of Three Varieties of Apples. By 

AsAHEL FooTE, Esq., Williamstown, Mass. 

I HEREWITH send you specimens of three varieties of the 
Apple, — known here as the Congress, the Redstreak, and the 
Vanderspeigle. I name them in the order of their size, begin- 
ning with the largest. 

The two former have been in cultivation here for fifty years : 
the latter is understood to have originated, within that period, 
on the grounds of John Yanderspeigle, Esq., in Lansingburgh, 
New York. 

The Congress Apple (of this neighborhood,) is a common 
and well known variety in Cayuga County, New York, and 
is probably the apple described by Downing, as the Twenty 
Ounce, or Cayuga Redstreak. It is in high estimation here, 
both as a cooking and eating apple, and, in our markets, 

164 Brief Account of Three Varieties of Apples. 

takes precedence even of the R. I. Greening, and ^^sopus 
Spitzenberg. The tree is of medium vigor, but a great and 
constant bearer. The size of the fruit may be judged of from 
the fact, that seventy-two apples^ taken seriatim^ last autumn, 
measured a bushel. Season November to March. The speci- 
mens now presented are scarcely medium. 

The Redstreak^ {fig- 1^0 is also a winter fruit, of large 
size, and high reputation, but very different in its character- 
istics from the former. Considering its excellence, I can hard- 

Fig. 18. Redslreak. 

ly suppose it to be wholly unknown to our cultivators ; yet 
my search has been in vain to find its accurate portrait in any 
of our pomological authors. The trees of this variety attain 
a large size, and produce abundantly in alternate years. On 
old subjects, and under poor cultivation, a rather large per 
centage of the fruit will be imperfect ; but, as a compensation 
for this, the refuse yields a finer quality of cider and vinegar 
than any other variety grown in this section. Season, Dec. 
to March. The specimens are above an average, but not of the 
largest size. 

Brief Account of Three Varieties of Apples. 165 

The Vanderspeigle, (not heretofore introduced to the pub- 
lic, I think,) has been in cuhivation here some years, and is 
highly esteemed by such as prefer a fruit of rather unusual 
tartness. The trees are strong growers, and constant 
and abundant bearers, and the fruit is uncommonly fair 
and perfect, and keeps as well as either of the preced- 
ing. From the figure, color, size, and flavor of this ap- 
ple, I have little doubt that it originated from a seed of the 
old " Red and Green Seek-no-further J^ It is, however, supe- 
rior to that variety in several respects, — being more prolific — 
more juicy — better for cooking — and a longer keeper. I think 
it well worthy of cultivation. 

I have purposely omitted saying any thing of the form, 
color, consistence and flavor of these apples, in order that these 
particulars (with drawings) might be supplied by yourself, in 
case you deem them worthy of notice in your Magazine. 

I am now engaged in investigating the history of the Con- 
gress and Redstreak, and, if my inquiries lead to any sat- 
isfactory results, you shall be apprised of them at an early 

P. S. Having a convenient opportunity, I send you 
three more Redstreaks, — a Pound Royal, — a Swaar, — and 
a Green Newtown Pippin. The Pippin is the smallest, the 
Swaar, yellow — the Pound Royal, conical and irregular. I 
send these as fair specimens of those varieties here, under 
ordinary cultivation which, I might add with too much truth, 
is no cultivation at all. The Pound Royal varies much in 
shape, and this specimen is among the most irregular. This 
and the Pippin have much more color than is usual. 

The Redstreaks now sent are fair specimens for color, and 
of rather unusual size. To what I said before respecting this 
apple, I can now add, that it is highly esteemed for cooking, 
and that the trees are among our very largest growers. 

Further investigation has pretty fully convinced me that 
this is the true Wine Apple, best described by Floy, in Lind- 
ley's Guide to the Orchard. 

The Pippin and Swaar are with us but moderate growers, 
and the crops of fruit not heavy. The Pound Royal trees 
are large, and fine bearers, and the fruit is much esteemed. 

Williamstown, Feb. 27, 1847. 

166 Brief Account of Three Varieties of Apples. 

We are greatly indebted to our correspondent, Mr. Foote, 
for the above communication, and also for the specimens of 
fruit which accompanied his letter. But, unfortunately for us, 
those which were forwarded with the first letter, by some 
mistake, fell into the hands of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, and, although we had the pleasure of tasting them, 
we had no opportunity to make drawings or accurate descrip- 
tions ; consequently, we are unable to say much respecting 
them, other than that the Congress, so called, is undoubtedly 
the same as the Twenty Ounce, which Mr. Downing has 
described under the latter name, from our account of it in the 
Magazine (Vol. X. p. 210). The specimens, though overripe, 
confirmed our good opinion of this large and superior fruit. 
The Yanderspeigle seemed to somewhat resemble the old 

The Redstreak is an apple of large size and much beauty, 
— indeed rather too large to become a popular fruit — and pos- 
sesses a rich, sprightly and aromatic flavor ; and to us it is 
quite new : after carefully examining the specimens, Ave com- 
pared them with several varieties described hy Coxe^ and though 
the engraving of the Wine Apple of the latter does not appear 
quite flat enough, the description of this author answers ex- 
ceedingly well for the specimens of the Red Streak ; and we 
agree with our correspondent that the Redstreak is the Wine 
Apple, first described by Coxe, and his description adopted by 
Messrs. Floy and Downing. We add our own description 
from the specimens received : — 

Fruity large, about three and a half inches broad, and two 
and three quarters, deep : Form, roundish oblate, flattened at 
both ends, and ribbed at the base : Skiii, fair, smooth, with a 
yellow ground, marked with bright red on the sunny side, and 
splashed with broken stripes of deep crimson, interspersed with 
a few rather large russet specks : Stem, very short, about quar- 
ter of an inch, slender and deeply inserted in a large, wide, open 
cavity : Eye, small, open and moderately sunk in a medium 
sized and ribbed basin ; segments of the calyx short : Flesh, 
yellowish-white, rather fine, breaking and tender : Juice, 
abundant, sprightly, and vinous, with a high aromatic fla- 
vor : Core, medium size, very broad, open : Seeds, medium 
size, plump. Ripe in December and keeps till March. 

Cultivation and Treatment of Cape Heaths. 167 

The nomenclature of our apples is in great confusion, and we 
think it will be almost impossible to do much towards clearing 
it up, until the numerous varieties can be collected together, 
the trees brought into bearing, their characteristics studied, 
and a careful examination made of the fruit. This we hope 
to do, having upwards of two hundred sorts, which will soon 
enable us to commence our labors. — Ed. 

Art. VI. On the Cultivation and Treatment of Cape Heaths 
{Ericas). By John Cadness, Gardener to Mr. J. L. L. F. 
Warren, Brighton. 

I SEND you an article upon the cultivation of that splendid, 
but, I am sorry to say, much neglected tribe of plants. Cape 
Heaths, a genus, all the species of which are eminently beau- 
tiful and worthy the most assiduous cultivation, if you should 
think my remarks worth a place in your magazine. 

Heaths are all of them especial favorites of mine, and 
wherever I have had opportunity, I have paid considerable 
attention to their cultivation, and I am greatly surprised that, 
when such good specimens of other green-house plants are 
grown in the neighborhood and exhibited in Boston, no 
attempt has been made to grow a collection of the finer vari- 
eties of this plant : there is, I know, some difficulty in manag- 
ing some of the best kinds, but I have not the least doubt, 
that, if proper provision were made for them, and proper care 
bestowed upon them, they could be sufficiently well grown to 
make them one of the greatest ornaments of the green-house. 
The great difficulty in cultivating these plants with success, 
is the extreme cold of winter and the extreme heat of summer; 
the consequence of which is, in the former case, the plants are 
exposed to a great degree of fire heat, and a too warm and 
variable atmosphere at a season when they should be kept 
cool and perfectly at rest ; for they, like all other plants, must 
have their dormant season or winter ; for they can never be 
expected to flower finely and as they should do, when they 
are growing more or less the year round. But in order to give 

168 Cultivation and Treatment of Cape Heaths. 

them proper treatment, a house should be devoted entirely to 
them, for they cannot be grown to perfection in a mixed green- 
house ; and I am convinced, they would amply repay for all 
the extra expense and trouble they require. All that is necessa- 
ry in winter, is merely to keep the frost from them, and most 
of them, if they have not been subjected to too much fire heat, 
will bear several degrees of frost. One cause of heaths 
not flowering well, in fact, the main cause, is because they are 
kept too warm in winter, for if they do not experience a sea- 
son of rest, they cannot have time to form and perfect their 
flower buds, which they should do at this time : but, instead, 
they are excited into an early, weak, and unprofitable growth, 
and such a course of treatment soon renders the plant worth- 
less. The next thing to be observed is to give them, at every 
opportunity, a free circulation of air, both in the winter, and 
in their growing season ; for heaths will not thrive well in a 
close confined atmosphere ; and, if they are drawn up, and 
weak, they will but poorly bear the heat of summer which is 
the most trying time for them. 

In summer, I believe it is generally thought necessary to 
shade heaths a great deal. I have seen them hid away under 
trees and stowed in frames, and shaded until they could not 
bear a ray of light to fall upon them. They soon become 
weak and sickly, and sufier far more than by being housed in 
winter, if they do not perish altogether, which is generally 
the case. My experience has taught me, that they will, if 
placed in proper circumstances, bear the sun a great deal bet- 
ter than is generally supposed ; in fact, naturally, the heath is 
never found growing in shaded places, but the contrary : 
they are always found growing on hill sides and open plains, 
and, allowing that they have been made more tender by arti- 
ficial treatment generation after generation, still in this, as in 
every other similar case, the nearer we follow nature the better 
shall we succeed. For the last two years, I have never made a 
practice of shading heaths at all in smnmer, only in extreme 
hot days. My summer management is this : as soon as the 
plants can be trusted in a cold frame, I remove the plants 
from the green-house. I choose, for the frame, an opensituation, 
giving it a northern aspect, I then plunge the pots to the rim 
in coal ashes at such a distance from each other as to allow a 

Cultioatloii. and Treatment of Cape Heaths. 169 

little for growth, but still so as to shade each other some. My 
object is to keep the roots moist and cool, and, whenever by 
their growth, which always happens, they begin to crowd 
each other, I take them up and replmige them at suitable 
distances again ; using the lights until all danger of frost is 
over. By that time, by giving a plentiful supply of air daily, 
and gradually inuring the plants to the open air, I dispense 
with the use of them altogether, except to protect them from 
heavy rains and stormy weather. In this manner, I keep 
them until it is quite necessary to remove them to the green- 
house in the fall, I am always particularly anxious to keep 
them in the frames as long as possible, so that they feel the 
effects of cold, (but not frost,) and their growth is entirely 
stopped, even if it be necessary to protect the frames by cover- 

By this treatment, I find that the plants acquire a hardy, 
robust habit, and are more easily kept over winter ; last sum- 
mer, I kept over 300 one year old plants in this manner, and 
they were never shaded the hottest day, and I never lost 
a single plant, and by plunging the pots, the young roots are 
protected and kept moist and cool ; whereas, when the pot 
is exposed to the action of the sun, the yOung roots are scorched, 
then the plant begins to suffer and is unable to bear the sun : 
they also require less water, which is a great thing, as too 
frequent waterings are hurtful to them. Great care is neces- 
sary that they shall not suffer for want of water, or that they 
be over watered ; in either case, they will suffer more or less, 
although they may not show it just at the time. 

It will be seen, then,'that, in order to grow these plants suc- 
cessfully, they must be placed in those circumstances, where 
they can acquire a bushy and healthy, robust habit ; this 
can be effected only by a free exposure to sun-light and 
air at all seasons, and due regard being paid to their period of 
rest or winter. A great deal also will depend upon the system 
of potting which is followed, for this is a very important part of 
their management, and requires both care and judgment. In 
order to have the plants flower finely, they must have well 
filled their pots with roots before their season of rest commen- 
ces ; it is a bad practice to over-pot them at any time, par- 
ticularly when young ; I like, rather, to shift them the oftener, 

VOL. XIII. — NO. IV. 17 

170 Cultivation and Treatment of Cape Heaths. 

never by any means giving them more than a size larger pot 
at a shift. Give them plenty of drainage, always placing a 
portion of coarse fibrous peat or moss over the crocks, to pre- 
vent the soil washing through them, and taking care to place 
the neck of the plant high up in the pot, so as to give a 
fall from the stem to the rim; this precaution, with good 
drainage, will prevent them from damping off at the neck, 
which they are very liable to do when kept too damp or over- 
watered, if potted too low. In repotting large specimens, it is 
a good plan, where they require a large pot, to place a pot re- 
versed in the bottom of the large one, and fill nearly to the 
top Avith crocks and coarse material ; for heaths do not require 
a deep soil, and it will give a better drainage. 

The soil most suitable for heaths, is a fibrous sandy peat, 
which is rather difficult to procure in this neighborhood ; at 
least I have found it so. The compost I have generally used 
has been well decomposed leaf-mould, with a portion of the 
most peaty soil I could procure, using more or less of the 
peat, according to its quality ; sometimes I have used nothing 
but leaf-mould, mixing equal parts of white sand, and rather 
coarse river or brook sand ; all the coarse fibrous lumps should 
be chopped small and retained in the compost, in order to 
make the soil porous. The soil by no means should ever be 
sifted for heaths, not even for young plants, as it becomes too 
compact and heavy ; the best sand for heaths is freestone 
sand, and a good portion of it used in small lumps, about the 
size, and some larger, than peas ; it is also the best for propa- 
gating when it can be procured. 

As to propagating, I need say but little upon this -head, as 
most of the varieties are increased with little difficulty ; most 
of them strike well from cuttings, made of half-ripened young 
wood ; and they can be propagated at any season that the 
wood is in that state. They should be covered with a bell 
glass, and be carefully watered, keeping them in a cool and 
shaded situation. Some of the varieties are more difficult to 
strike than others, and I find some will root better if the wood 
is perfectly ripe ; but it requires a greater length of time and 
they are not so liable to damp oft'; then again, there are some 
kinds that I have been unsuccessful with. I have tried cut- 
tings taken from the plant just at the lime that it is beginning 

Notice of Some of the Mosses of New England. 171 

to grow, and this way I have always succeeded with the 
most difhcult kinds : but tliey require to be kept very close 
for a great length of time. 1 send you a list of some of the 
best varieties : — 







ventricosa superba, 





vestita coccinea, 

Nonantum, Yale Gardens, March, 1847 

Coventry an a, 




a'rdens superbus, 





vestita alba, 



Art. VIL Notice of Some of the Mosses of New England. 

By Wm. Oakes, Ipswich, Mass. 

Mosses of the White Mountains. 

The alpine region of the White Mountains, though a per- 
fect garden of Lichens, is exceedingly unfavorable to Mosses, 
from the great and sudden changes of temperature, but prin- 
cipally from the great dryness which often prevails for sev- 
eral weeks. In the forests at the sides and base of the moun- 
tains are found many of the common mosses of New England, 
with others which belong to its nortliern regions. Their 
number, however, does not appear to be very great, though 
man)'- of the species grow in great luxuriance and profusion. 
The following list contains most of the interesting species, 
both of the alpine region and the base. Specimens of many 
of these have already been published in the magnificent vol- 
umes of the Musci Allefj^hanicnses of Mr. Sullivant, our ex- 
cellent American Muscologist. 

/fy'pnum denticulalum, L. Alpine. Case. 

stramineum, Dicks. Sullivant, Muse. Allegh. 38. Alpine. Base. 
moUe, Dicks. Alpine. 
var. alp^stre. H. alp^-stre, Swartz. Base. 

172 Notice of Some of the Mosses nf Nciv England. 

//y'pnum umbratum, Ehr. Muse. Allegh. 2. Base. Alpine. 

reflexum, Weber df Mohr. Base. 

subtile, Bruch. 4" Sch. Leskea subt. Hediv. Base. 

lagbsum, Hedw. Muse. Allegh. 13. Alpine. 

scorpioldes, L. Muse. Allegh. 27. Alpine. 

uncinatum, Hedio. Muse. Allegh. 24. Base. Alpine. 

adiincum, L. Alpine. Base. 

fluitans, L. Alpine. 
Climacium dendroides, Mohr. The European variety. Base. 
Anacamptodon splachnoides, Brid. Muse. Allegh. 82. Base. 
i?ry'um eapillare, L. var. coehlearifolium. Base. 

turbinatum, Swariz. Alpine. 

Duvahe'1 Voit. Alpine. 

Wahlenbergn", Schwaegr. Alpine. 
Bartranw'a ithyphy'lla, Brid. Alpine. 

eonostoma, Br. cj- Sch. Muse. Alleg. 120. Conostomumboreale, Swariz, 
-Splachnum mnioides, L. Alpine. Rare. Mr Greene found it many years 
ago on the summit of Mount Washington ; I have only found it in a 
single spot on Mount Franklin. 

angusiatum, Linn. fil. Base. I found only a single tuft with abun- 
dant fruit on the bones of some small animal. 
Poly'triehum juniperinum, Willd. var. alpestre. Muse. All. 113. Alpine. 

alpinum, L. Alpine. Base. 

urnigerum, Menzies. Muse. All. 114. Base. 
var. eapillare. Pogonatum eap. Brid. Muse. All. 115. Al- 
Orlhotriehum Ludwign, Brid. Base. 

speeiosum, Necs. Base. 
Zy^godon Lapponicus, Br. 4" "Scj^- Gymnostomum Lapp. Hedw. Alpine. 
Raeomitrium Sudetieum, Dry''ptodon Sud. Muse. A. 134. Alpine. Base. 

raicroearpon, Brid. Muse. All. 133. Alpine. Base. 

lanuginosum, Brid. Muse. All. 131. Alpine. 

faseieulare, Brid. Muse. All. 132. Base. Alpine. 

acieuliire, Brid. Base. 
Grimmfa obtusa, Schwaegr. Alpine. 

apocarpa, Hedw. var. livularis. Alpine.* 

eonferta, Fund. Muse. All. 139. On the sides below the alpine region. 
Auictangium eiliatum, Hedw. The common European variety. In bare 

gravelly soil. Base. 
Triehostomum vaginans, Sullivant. Muse. All. 176. Alpine. 
Dicranum Schradto', Web. <^ Mohr. Muse. All. 163. Alpine. 

elongatum, Schleich. Alpine. 

fulv<illum, Smith. Alpine. 
Weissm striata, Hook. 4- Tayl. Muse. All. 143. Alpine. Base. 
Sphagnum reeiirvum, Pa/. Je 5. Muse. All. 206. Base. 
Andrae^a rup^stris, i/erftw. Muse. All. 215. Alpine. Base. 

crassinervia, Bruch. Alpine. Base. 

Notice of Some of the Mosses of Neiv England. 173 

Other Mosses at the Base are ZA^'pnum Schreb^n, (also alpine,) cordifo- 
liuni, splendens, (also alpine, )tamariscinum, minutulum, pseudo-plumosum, 
salebrosum, ruscifolium, triquetrum, chrysophy'llum, confertum, hispidu- 
lum, recurvans, Crisla-caslrensis, Haldicmwm, &c. ; Neckera pennata, most 
abundant, and fruiting finely on the trunks of the trees ; Neckera viticulosa, 
very abundant, but rarely fruiting ; Neckera sericea, Pterigyrandrum hir- 
tellum and intricatum, Leiicodon brachypus, Mnium punctatum, most abun- 
dant and fine, both at the base and alpine ; Mnium afFine and hornum, 
^ry'um roseum, ventricosum, nutans, cespitosum, Aulacomnion palustre, 
Bartramz'a pomiformis, var. crispa, Bartramw fontana, most luxuriant, and 
sometimes a foot long ; f unaria hygrometrica, Poly'tiichum piliferum, juni- 
pirenum, commune, formosum, brevicaule, undulalum, Diphy'scium lolio- 
suni, abundant and fine, Orthotrichum crispum, Hutchinsiae, strangulatum, 
Drummond/a clavellata, Tetraphis pellucida, Fontinalis antipyretica and 
squamosa, fruiting abundantly, Grim'mza apocarpa, Anictangium ciliatum, 
(the common American rock variety,) Trichostooium tortile, Dicranum 
glaiicum, undulatum, scoparium, cong6stum, heteromallum, (also alpine,) 
Ceratodon purpureus. Sphagnum cymbifolium, acutifolium and squarrosum, 
fruiting most luxuriantly, &c. 

Of the above, ^y'pnum splendens and Crista-castrensis are 
most abundant, the former fruiting finely in many places, and 
the latter almost every where covering the ground, and the 
fallen trunks in the forest, and fruiting most abundantly. 

JungerManniace^ of the White Mountains. 
(Species of Jungermannia of Linn. Hooker, &c.) 

Plagiochila porelloides, Lindenb. Muse. All. 220. Base. 

spinulosa, Nees. 4" Mont. Muse. All. 219, Base. 
Scapania undulata, Nees. 

nemorosa, Nces. Base. Alpine. 
Jungermannea obtusilblia, Hook. Muse. All. 230. 

barbata, Schreb. var. quinquedentata. Base, 
var. Floerkii. Alpine. 

setiformis, Ehr. Muse. All. 238. Alpine. 

inflata, Huds. Alpine. 

Taylorz, Hook. Muse. All. 227. Alpine. Base. 

Schrader?, Mart. Muse. All. 235. Base. Alpine. 

ventricosa, Dichs. Base. 

curvifolia, Dicks. Muse. All. 242. 

Michauxu, Weber. Muse. All. 237. Base. Alpine. 

pumila? With. Base. 

divaricata. Smith, var. rubricaulis, Nees. Base. 

bicuspidata, L. Muse. All. 211. Base. 

connivens, Dicks. Muse. All. 246. Base. Alpine. 

trichopliy'lla, L. Muse. All. 245. Base. 

174 Notice of Some of the Mosses of New England. 

GymnomitTium concinnatum, Corda. Muse. All. 217. Alpine. 

Sarcoscyphus Ehrharti, Corda. Muse. All. 216. Base. Alpine. 

Triehocolea tomentella, Nees. Muse. All. 255. Base. 

Ptilidium cijiare, Nees. Muse. All. 256. 

Radula pallens, Sidlivant, Muse. All. 261. Base. 

Madotheca platyphy'lla, Z)w7Ho?-/. Muse. All. 263. 

Fruiknia dilatata, Nccs. Muse. All. 267. Base. 

Tamarisci, Nees. Base. 
Herpetium reptans, Nees. Muse. All. 254. Base. 

trilobatum, Nees. Muse. All. 251. Base. 

deflexum, Nees. Base. 
Pellia epiphy'lla, iVees. Muse. All. 284. Base. Alpine. 
Aneura multifida, Dumorl. Muse. All. 278. Base. 

The following additional species I have collected in Ips-« 
wich and its vicinity : — 

Jungermannia sphagni, i)jc^s. Muse. All. 229. 

setacea, Weber. Muse. All. 243. 
Lophocolea bidentata, Nees. 

Cheiloscyphus asc^ndens, Hook. <^ Wils. Muse. All. 247. 
Geocalyx graveolens, Nees. Muse. All. 249. 
Radula complanata, Dumorl. Muse. All. 259. 
Calopogeia Trichomanis, Corda. Muse. All. 257. 
Hollia Lyelln, £n«?Ztc/ier. Muse. All. 281. 
Aneura palmata, i\^ees. Muse. All. 279. 
Metzg6ria fureala, Nees. Muse. All. 283. 

The following species of the White Mountains, I have found 
near Ipswich : — 

Plagiochila porelloides, Seapania nemoiosa, Jungermannta Schraderi, 
bicuspidata, connivens, triehophy'lla, Sarcoscy'phus Ehrhartj, Triehocolea 
tomeni611a, Ptilidium eiliare, Madoth^ca platyphy'lla, Frullania dilatata, 
Tamarisei, P611ia epiphy'lla, Aneura multifida, Herpetium trilobatum, Jun- 
germannta curvif61ia, divarie^ta. 

In Ipswich and its vicinity, I have collected the following 
Mosses not recorded in Mr. Russell's Catalogue of the Mosses 
of Massachusetts : — 

//y'pnum denticul^tum, scitum, and virium,L6skea ol)scuraand rostr^ta, 
.Bry'um ventricosum, Racomitrium sudetieum andacicul^e,Grimm2'a Penn- 
sylvanica, Dier^num varium, Poly'trichum gracile, Menzies, Orthotrichum 
Ludwigu' and strangulatum. (A Iso Buxbaumia aphylla in great abundance 
in many places.) 

Ipsivich, March, 1847. 

Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 175 


Art. I. A Report on the Trees and Shrubs, graving natur- 
ally in the forests of Massachusetts : published agreeably to 
an order of the Legislature. By the Commissioners on the 
Zoological and Botanical Survey of the State. 1 Vol. 8vo. 
pp. 547. Boston. Button &. Went worth, State printers. 1846. 

This long anticipated and very valuable document, pre- 
pared by George B. Emerson, Esq., has fulfilled the expec- 
tations of those, who, more or less familiar with the subject, 
yet needed the information therein contained, in a condensed 
and plain form ; in such a form, indeed, as Avould render it 
useful to the man of practical business, and as a reference to 
him of more studious habits. Knowing the method employed 
to render this report as practical and as acurate as possible, we 
awaited in patient expectation its publication, feeling that 
nothing would be lost by delay. Considering the circumstan- 
ces under which it has issued, we can only be surprised that 
so much has been done, and done so well. The author is a 
gentleman of most assiduous habits of life, and engaged, for 
the most part, in instruction of a very high order, demanding 
his undivided attention while so employed. He is favorably 
known as engaged in many popular schemes of education, 
and as the patron of sound learning in its every department, 
through his personal influence, as well as by his ready pen. 
Amidst the variety of reading, which now presents itself to 
the scholar, and besides these other and primary pursuits, he 
has found some brief moments in which nature, in her many 
departments of study, has been also regarded. With an ever 
open eye and a finely cultivated, as well as natural taste for the 
beautiful and the grand, for objects minute or great, he has 
rendered himself not only an amateur, but in no small mea- 
sure, a practical naturalist. A familiarity with such studies 
is not to be obtained merely from books, but from observation 
and personal inspection ; of such a kind as the volume before 
us bears ample record. To collect and to condense the mass 
of information laid before the public on this subject, is in itself 
no small labor. To simplify, classify and render it delight- 

176 Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 

fully interesting and instructivp, is something still greater. 
In these respects, the report most happily coincides with the 
practically scientific report on " Insects injurious to vegeta- 
tion," prepared by Dr. Harris, itself also a State document, 
and connected with the general subject of the State survey. 
Mr. Emerson, in his letter to Governor Briggs, tells us that 

" The accompanying Report concludes the work of the Commission- 
ers on the Zoological and Botanical Survey of the State. It has heen 
prepared with especial reference to the instructions of Gov. Everett, accom- 
panying his commission, and directing the Commissioners ' to keep care- 
fully in view the economical relations of every subject of their inquiry.' 
I trust it may do something ' to promote the agricultural benefit of the Com- 
monwealth,' by leading citizens who are land-owners to a consideration of 
the importance of continuing, improving, and enlarging the forests of the 

" It is due to the Legislature, and to yourself, that I should make some 
apology for the tardy appearance of my Report. It is well known to your 
Excellency, that ever since the commission was issued, in 1837, I have been 
occupied, for ten months of every year, in a pursuit which left me no leisure 
for the Survey, and little for reading, on subjects connected with it. I have, 
therefore, been able to give to it only the summer vacation, and of that a con- 
siderable portion has, every year, been necessarily taken up with other 
things. Under these circumstances, it was hardly possible for me to give 
to the Survey the attention it deserved, and let my Report appear at an 
earlier period." p. 1. 

We hinted at the method of arrangement : and of the facil- 
ity aiforded to the reader in making the treatise of practical 
value : 

" In order that this Report should answer the ends for which the Survey 
was ordered, the descriptions of the Trees and Shrubs are arranged accord- 
ing to the Natural System. This has been done, not from undervaluing 
the artificial system of Linnaus, which must still continue of use in aiding 
to find the name of a plant and its place in the Natural System, but from a 
conviction of the incomparably greater value of the latter. The artificial 
system is based essentially on distinctions drawn from the stamens and pistils 
alone. The Natural System, on the contrary, takes into consideration not 
one part only, but every part and whatever relates to it, — the seed, from the 
development of its embryo to its germination, the growth, formation and 
arrangement of the wood, bark, buds and leaves, and the flower and fruit. 
It is found that plants which resemble each other in the external forms of 
their more essential parts, have a similar resemblance in properties and 

Trees and Shnihs of Massachusetts. 177 

uses, and require similar modes of management and culture. The adoption 
of the Natural System is, therefore, particularly important in a compara- 
tively new country like ours. 

" The uses of the natural arrangement in abridging the labor of acquisi- 
tion and aiding the memory of the learner are most important, and its ad- 
vantages to cultivators, to physicians, — to all who are seeking to enlarge 
their knowledge of the useful or dangerous properties of plants, that they 
may be able to avail themselves of the one, or counteract the other, to gain 
materials for the arts, or remedies or antidotes in medicine, — are too many to 
enumerate and too obvious to be further insisted upon." p. 3. 

The reader will perceive at once the vahie of the observa- 
tions found in this volume, when he is made acquainted with 
the means to obtain them : 

" The descriptions of the species of all the trees, and nearly all the shrubs, 
are my own, except where I have expressly given credit to others. 
To collect my materials, I have scoured the forests in almost every part of 
the State, from the western hills of Berkshire to Martha's Vineyard, and 
from the banks of the Merrimack to the shores of Buzzard's and Narragan- 
sett Bays. The leisure of several summers was first spent in ascertaining 
what the ligneous plants of Massachusetts are, and how they are distributed. 
If I have not discovered new species, I have found new localities for several 
oaks, willows, poplars, pines, and birches, and some others of less impor- 
tance, and have thus enlarged the Flora of the State. That some species 
have escaped me is altogether probable, as, even in the summer of 1845, 1 
found the Red Birch growing abundantly on a branch of the Merrimack, 
some hundreds of miles farther north than it had previously been noticed by 
any botanist. 

" After having become familiar with the trees and their localities, I be- 
gan to collect materials for their description ; and every important tree and 
shrub has been described from copious notes taken under or near the grow- 
ing plant itself. A point with which I have each year been more and more 
struck, is the beauty of our native trees and of the climbing vines and under- 
growth associated with them. I have thrown aside much which I had writ- 
ten upon this point. Utilitarian readers will perhaps find too much still re- 
tained. My apology for not pruning more severely must be found in my 
sincere conviction, that associations with the beauty of trees about our coun- 
try homes enter deeply into the best elements of our character ; and a hope 
that what I have written may induce some of my readers to plant trees, for 
the purpose of increasing the beauty, and the appearance of seclusion and 
quiet, of the homes of their wives and children. 

" A Report upon the Botany of the State is certainly very incomplete, 
without even an enumeration of the Algae, the Mosses, the Lichens, and 
the Fungi ; and, with a hope to prevent this omission, I furnished myself, 
at the commencement of this Survey, with several somewhat expensive 

178 Trees and Shrubs of Massac/uisells. 

works upon these departments of botany. But I am obliged to confess, that 
I have been able to do very little in regard to them. Since the commence- 
ment of this Survey, my friend. Rev. J. L. Russell, ofHingham, has care- 
fully prepared a catalogue of the mosses in the eastern part of the State, 
whicli he was kind enough to place at my disposal. I was not willing that its 
publication should be delayed till the appearance of this volume, and it has 
been published in the Boston Journal of Natural History. Mr. Edward 
Tuckerraan also prepared, at ray request, a catalogue of the lichens found on 
the bark of trees in this Slate. As it is to be hoped that he will soon give 
us a complete account of the lichens of New England, for which work he 
is amply prepared, it would be doing him injustice to publish an imperfect 
catalogue. The deficiency in the history of the Algae is likely to be soon 
supplied, by Prof. Bailey, of West Point, in the thorough manner of which 
he has given evidence in the Scientific Journal." p. 8. 

Through the kindly cooperation of many friends of the 
author, and to the general subject, by personal inquiry and 
inspection in various manufactories, ship-yards, saw-mills, on 
farms, and in wood-lots, amidst primitive forests, and on 
mountain ranges, Mr. E. was thus enabled to present a mass 
of information, which will be received with that interest, 
which it demands. The labor of preparation, it is to be seen, 
must have been great, and the pursuit profitable as well as 
interesting, in giving opportunities for personal acquaintance 
with scenery, and also with habits of social life, to be found 
in our State ; it remains for us to express our conviction that, 
in a scientific or more practical point of view, this concluding 
report will serve the noble purpose for which it was intended, 
and help, with the aid of others of the entire series, to fulfil 
the idea, which originally projected the Zoological and Bo- 
tanical Survey of Massachusetts. 

To the lover of nature, to the highly cultivated taste, there 
is scarcely any object so attractive as forest scenery, when 
considered in all its merits, proportions and parts. At all 
times of the year, the forests are objects of interest. When 
full of leafy honors, their masses of vegetation afford indescri- 
bable charms ; when the summer heats have abated, and 
quiet autumn steals on apace, the innumerable tints of foliage 
render so peculiar the American autumnal landscape, as to ap- 
pear to those unfamiliar with the fact, in foreign countries, as a 
pleasing tale, as some fancy of the painter or imagination of 
the poet. When denuded and bare, their contour, outline or the 

Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 179 

sober colors of their spray, render them no less interesting 
amid tiie snows of winter : and when spring awakens her 
floral beanties to renewed life, the new-born garniture of the 
forests, from the delicate and pleasant green of its infancy to 
the rapidly changing verdure and dark foliage of its matured 
vigor, is full of wondrous charms. The great variety of 
woody plants found in the United States of America, and 
even in our own little State of Massachusetts, affect most ma- 
terially the diversified scenery of the country. The most 
rugged and bleakest hills, whether on our own sea-coast or 
more inland, if covered with forest growth, are interesting 
objects at all seasons of the year, and equaUy, according to their 
peculiar merits, the deciduous forests, or the evergreen woods, 
are full of sylvan charms. Stretching for many a mile, the 
craggy and precipitous range of low hills inSaugus and Lynn 
are picturesque in winter or summer, for their black forests of 
Juniper and Red Cedar, clinging among the fissures of the 
rocks, and disputing with struggling pertinacity with each 
other, or with some chance species beside, for food and nutri- 
ment ; while, in the lighter and more sandy soils, the rich and 
towering White Pines give an air of comfort and elegance to the 
surrounding country. The little village in which we reside, 
seems surrounded almost, with a belt of this fine tree ; and 
now, while the lingering snow of winter is lying about us, the 
different colors and tints of the masses of spray, branches and 
groups of trees, afford pleasing subjects for observation. In 
the distance and background, two or three shades and varia- 
tions of green, from the evergreen woods: nearer, the grey 
branches of a young copse of some species of oak, surmounted 
with the reddish hue of the last summers growth, relieves 
agreeably the dull and prim drab color of the dead grass, 
where the absence of the snow allows it to be seen. One 
familiar with the appearance of trees and shrubs finds, in 
his mid- winter walks, more tints and even strongly expressed 
colors in the twigs, branches and trunks of the forests, than 
the skilful painter could imitate : and, from the "hybernal 
vestiges" of some tall annual, to the sempervirent or con- 
tinued vital beauty of stronger and more enduring forms of 
vegetable life, he can find many pleasing subjects, which escape 
the careless eye. 

180 Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 

But, besides being objects of admiration, the forests afford 
other subjects, of which let the author speak in the following 
fine passage : — 

" The immense variety, the many and important uses, and the great 
beauty of our forests, must, naturally, attract the attention of an obser- 
ver ; and, as the preservation and improvement of the forests, in their 
highest degree, are above private effort, require joint action, and must 
be effected on a large scale, on a system wisely begun and long continued, 
by the men of one generation for those of the next ; and by the application 
of science, taste and skill, not by one but by many men, not in one village 
or town, but in a county and state ; it is wise in a government, not acting 
merely for the present, but extending its forethought generously onwards, 
making its knowledge and wisdom an invested capital for future use, and 
desiring to do for coming generations what they, when looking back, shall 
wish it had done, — it is wise, prudent and patriotic for such a government 
to order a survey of the forests, among its other domains, that the people 
may know the sources of their wealth and its extent, and learn how to value, 
enlarge and enjoy it. The conception and ordering of this general survey 
was worthy of the descendants of those who established free schools, free 
courts of justice, and freedom in religion. The idea was a noble one, with 
whatever success the work may have been executed." p. 1. 

In a journal devoted, as is this, to one of the most useful and 
important branches of agriculture, the important uses, which 
forests subserve, in the great enonomy of nature, should find 
place. We feel that it is benefiting and advancing the sub- 
ject of Horticulture, by our presenting to our readers the follow- 
ing valuable facts : — 

" Forests protect a country from the violence of winds. The lively au- 
thor of ' Life in Mexico ' writes : 'M. de Humboldt, who examined the will 
of Cortes, informs us that the conqueror had left sugar plantations near 
Cuyoacan, in the valley of Mexico, where now, owing, it is supposed, to 
the cutting down of the trees, the cold is too great for sugar-cane or any 
other tropical production to thrive.' And a most intelligent gentleman in 
Worcester tells me, that he attributes the greater difficulty now experienced 
in the cultivation of the more delicate fruits in that town, to the fact, that 
the encircling hills, formerly crowned with trees, are now, to a considerable 
degree, laid bare. The laws of the motion of the atmosphere are similar to 
those of water. A bare hill gives no protection. The wind pours overitas 
water pours over a dam. But if the hill be capped with trees, the windy cas- 
cade will be broken as into spray. Its violence will be sensibly diminished. 
We are not aware, on the now protected and irregular surface of New 
England, how important are the screens furnished by the forests. Travel- 

Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 181 

lers from Illinois tell us, that, on the vast prairies in that and some of the 
other western States, the wind is almost always fresh, and often blows a 
gale, before which men can hardly stand. The new settlers are glad to 
shelter their habitations under the lee of the spurs of forest which stretch 
like promontories into the prairie lands. A forest near the coast, in any 
part of New England, protects those farther inland from the chilling east 
winds ; and, while such winds prevail, a person passing towards the 
sea, experiences a marked change of temperature, upon crossing the last 
wood and especially the last wood-covered hill. Ore who would have his 
house screened from the northerly winds, must take care to have behind it 
a hill crowned with trees, or at least to have a wood stretching from the 
northwest to the northeast. A garden surrounded by tall trees admits the 
cultivation, even in our severe climate, of plants almost tropical." p. 6. 

And while on this subject, let us introduce to notice a some- 
what novel material for clipped hedges, and its proved utility, 
in the hemlock, (Abies canadensis.) Michaux, 

" It bears pruning to almost any degree, without suffering injury ; it is 
well suited to form screens for the protection of more tender trees and plants, 
or for concealing disagreeable objects. By being planted in double or 
triple rows, it may, in a few years, be made to assume the appearance of an 
impenetrable evergreen wall, — really impenetrable to the wind and to do- 
mestic animals. A hedge of this kind, seven or eight feet high, on a bleak, 
barren plain exposed to the northwest winds, gave Dr. Greene of Mansfield 
a warm, sunny, sheltered spot for the cultivation of delicate annual plants. 
When I saw it, the annuals, several of which were rare exotics, were beau- 
tiful, but the hemlock screen was much more so." p. 79. 

Until within a few years, very little, if any attention has 
been paid to the preservation or reproduction of forests ; a 
want of prudence and foresight very remarkable for so calcu- 
lating a people as are New Englanders in general. With some 
rare exceptions, we are not aware that any thing has been effect- 
ed in restoring old and barren lands to utility. There are thou- 
sands of acres in every town in the state, where scarcely any 
thing can grow as they exist now, and which might be ren- 
dered productive of distant indeed, but of almost certain value. 
The simplest kind of labor oftentimes produces this ; and we 
know of instances where, in about twenty years, a return of 
marketable White Pine, useful for wooden- ware manufacture, 
was obtained from simply ploughing up the land, from which 
operation alone, innumerable young plants of that tree instant- 

VOL. XIII. — NO. IV. 18 

182 Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 

ly sprang. We know of knobs, so to speak, of the most rocky- 
land, rendered productively valuable by the careful preserva- 
tion and pruning of the Red Cedar, which sprang up sponta- 
neously upon them, and which would have remained as 
shrubs, if browsed by cattle, and have continued to be as use- 
less for food, as unsightly to the eye. From the success which 
has attended the experiments in France, on the most barren 
sands, and in Scotland, on the bleakest highlands, as well as 
from our actual knowledge of what humbler and more limited 
operations have effected in this vicinity, we are persuaded 
that the sterile and mossy ridges of grave], stretching around 
some of our maritime towns, for instance, Duxbury, which is 
particularly in our mind now, and the sandy plains of Hing- 
ham, and of the more interior towns, could become of a future 
value, which scarcely can be calculated now. The impor- 
tance of forests, and indeed of every tree and shrub, in im- 
proving the soil, is too great to be overlooked, while their own 
intrinsic value is by no means small. This is effected by the 
decomposition of the original soil through the roots ; by the 
gradual decay of the foliage, and through the prevention of 
the winds carrying the particles of soil from spot to spot. 
Many an acre would resemble the moving sands of an Arabian 
desert, were it not for the thick carpet, of pine leaves which 
lie under the trees, which such a shifting soil bears : and not 
a few such we know, where entire days are required to dig 
out the walls and fences, buried, year by year, by the drift 
sand; a species of husbandry of most improvident character, and 
an evil which soon could be remedied, by the judicious plant- 
ing of various species of pine. De Candolle tells us that he 
herborized for a whole day, in similar artificial " forests sown 
by Brementier on sand completely arid, and on which, before, 
scarce a trace of vegetation could be seen." It is well known, 
too, that the shade of the yellow Locust, (Robinia psuedaca- 
cia,) is most favorable to the growth of nutritious grass, even 
on spots where, before the planting of this tree, it was impos- 
sible to make it grow, and numerous such facts only tend to 
exhibit the facilities, as well as advantages, which this kind 
of agricultural pursuit offers. 

Those who are fond of vegetable statistics, whether in the 
economical employment of the various kinds of woods, or in 

Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 183 

the more pleasing but less useful details of size, form, propor- 
tions, of trees, will find much information in this report. Mr. 
Emerson is evidently a connoisseur in this branch of taste, 
and speaks with much felicity of many noble specimens of 
Oaks, Elms, Pines and other trees. Every body admires the 
Elm, and all are struck with their occasional extraordinary 
sizes. Of these 

" In Springfield, in a field a few rods north of the hotel, is an elm which 
was twenty-five feet and nine inches in circumference, at three feet from the 
ground, when I measured it in 1837. This magnificent tree divides, not 
many feet from the ground, into several large branches. This is near the 
place where the enormous Celtis, which was usually taken for an elm, once 
stood. There are many other elms, not far from this, some of which make 
a greater show at a distance. 

" The Aspinwall elm, in Brookline, standing near the ancient house 
belonging to that family, and which was known to be one hundred and 
eighty-one years old in 1837, then measured twenty-six feet five inches at 
the ground, or as near to it as the roots would allow us to measure, and 
sixteen feet eight inches at five feet. The branches extended one hundred 
and four feet from southeast to northwest, and ninety-five from northeast to 

" The great elm on Boston Common was measured by Prof. Gray and my- 
self, in June of 1844. At the ground, it measures twenty-three feet six 
inches ; at three feet, seventeen feet eleven inches ; and, at five feet, six- 
teen feet and one inch. The largest branch, towards the southeast, stretches 
fifty-one feet. 

" The classical elm, opposite the gate of the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, 
raeasured fourteen feet nine inches at four feet, in 1838." pp. 290, 291. 

A fine large specimen of Celtis crassifolia Mr., or Hack- 
berry, is thus mentioned : — 

" I have found it in only two places : — in Springfield, on the east side of 
the Connecticut River, and in West Springfield, on tlie west. Some of 
the trees are, I hope, still standing. The most remarkable one has been 
destroyed. It grew a few rods north of the Hampden House, in the broad 
county road, in Springfield. When I measured it, in September, 1838, its 
girth, at three feet from the ground, was sixteen feet ten inches ; at four, 
it was fourteen feet three inches ; at six, thirteen feet. It had gnarled, 
projecting roots, putting out on every side till nearly three feet from the 
surface. It diminished, gradually, to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, 
and there had several broad, irregular protuberances, where it had lost large 
limbs. Above this, it tapered rapidly, dividing into three branches, which 
formed a small, round, rather dense top, fifty or sixty feet high. It was 
covered with a very rough, brownish gray bark, and had, altogether, so 

184 Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 

much the aspect of an elm, that it was, almost universally, taken for one. 
I was informed that a still larger tree of the same kind had formerly grown 
near it. Within two years, this noble tree has fallen, like its brother, be- 
fore the axe of improvement.'" pp. 309, 310. 

Here is a description of a picturesque tree, and an instance 
of enthusiasm not, happily, rare among lovers of plants : — 

" There is a tree of this kind at Cohasset, which was first pointed out to 
me by the Rev. Dr. Greenwood, a man of taste, who was a lover of trees, 
and which we rode twenty-five miles expressly to see. It is richly worth 
a much longer journey. It stands in a lone pasture, half a mile or more 
eastward from a place called the Gulf. At the surface, just above the roots, 
it is eleven feet in circumference, and it is nine feet and two inches, up to 
the larger branches, which begin at about seven feet from the ground. The 
trunk loses little of its diameter for near twenty feet, although, in that space, 
twenty large branches, and many small ones, put out. These are very 
large, and project horizontally on every side, to a great distance, with an 
air of mighty strength and power of resistance. The bark is cleft into 
long prismatic ridges, nearly two inches high, which, on the larger branches, 
are broken into hexagons, with an approach to geometric regularity. It is 
of a mouse color, or purplish ashy gray, with white clouds of pertusaria, 
and greenish and bluish ash parmelias. The height is forty or fifty feet ; 
the average breadth of the head sixty-three feet, its extreme breadth sixty- 
six. The whole head is of a broad, irregularly hemispherical shape, flat at top. 
A striking circumstance in this tree is the fact that the enormous horizontal 
branches push out as boldly seaward as in any other direction, though the 
north-east wind sweeps from the Bay in this quarter with a violence which 
has bent almost every other tree towards the land. I have observed many 
other instances of the vigor with which the tupelo stands out against the 
sea breeze." pp. 316, 317. 

A picturesque ruin of a White Oak, * we are told, 

" Is standing in Brighton, where the road called Nonantum Street 
crosses that from Boston to Newton Corner. At the surface of the 
ground, it measures, this first of October, 1845, twenty-five feet and 
nine inches in circumference ; at three feet, it is twenty-two feet four 
inches ; at six feet, fifteen feet two inches. It tapers gradually to 
the height of about twenty-five feet, where the slump of its ancient 
top is visible, below which point four or five pretty large branches are thrown 
out, which rise twenty or thirty feet higher. Below, the places of many 
former limbs are covered over by immense gnarled and bossed protuber- 

* [This old specimen has always commanded our admiration : we have known it 
for nearly thirty years, and it seems now as it did when we first saw it.]— Ed. 

General Notices. 185 

ances. The trunk is hollow at the base, with a large opening on the south- 
west, through which boys and men may easily enter. It had, probably, 
passed its prime, centuries before the first English voice was heard on the 
shores of Massachusetts Bay. It is still clad with abundant foliage, and, 
if respected as its venerable age deserves, it may stand, an object of admi- 
ration, for centuries to come." p. 131. 

Trees become objects of affectionate interest, and their un- 
timely loss we properly deplore. An instance to the point, 
in the case of a beautiful sassafras (Sassafras officinale Nees 

" The sassafras never grows to the size of a tree of the first class. One 
was growing in 1842, in West Cambridge, which measured more than 
three feet through at the base, and rose without a limb more than 
thirty feet, with a trunk very straight and slightly diminished, above which 
it had a somewhat lofty and broad head. It was nearly sixty feet high, 
and had been long growing by itself. It was felled and its roots dug up, 
to alloiv a stone wall to run in a right line. Such pieces of barbarism are 
still but too common. A tree so beautiful and lofty, and of such rare dimen- 
sions, such an ornament to a bare hill-side, sacrificed to the straightness of 
a wall!" p. 323. 

[^To he continued.'] 


Art. I. General Notices. 

Cultivation of Annual Flowers. — " Well grown Annuals contribute 
much to the gaiety of the garden ; and although not quite so well adapted 
for masses as some of our half-hardy plants, yet they are extremely eligible 
for borders and mixed beds. They are frequently treated with too much 
kindness, sown in soil of too rich a character, and, of course, ' run too much 
to leaf.' We would advise all those, who can spare the means, to devote 
two little frames to their especial cultivation at this period, the one with 
bottom-heat, the other without it. That with bottom-heat would be better 
with a plunging material, possessing a permanent heat of 70°, the pots 
placed very close to a clear glass roof, and matted up at night. The other 
frame, without bottom-heat, should be raised a foot above the ground level, 
where water cannot possibly stand, and should be filled to within a foot of 
the glass with cin'der ashes. They should be both well watered with boiling 
water previous to placing the pots to destroy all insects. We would raise 
both the tender and hardy kinds in the frame with heat ; managing the 
sowings in a successive way, according to the period in which they were 
required to blossom. The hardy, however, would have to be removed to the 

186 General Notices. 

cold frame as soon as an inch high ; they wguIcI there harden down in a 
couple of weeks, and be ready for turning out into the borders. The ten- 
der annuals, if drawing in the warm frame, might be removed to warm and 
light shelves, in the greenhouse or other structures. The soil for the hardy 
kinds should be chiefly plain loam ; this will be found to produce a sturdier 
plant than rich vegetable matters ; and much blossom, in proportion to the 
amount of foliage. We would raise all our hardy annuals in pots through 
the summer, in cool frames, turning them out when slightly pot-bound. 
How often have we seen annuals, in rich borders, of immense size yet con- 
tributing little to the decoration of the garden ; and, in a wet and dull sum- 
mer, actually rotting in the ground." — Gardeners^ Chronicle, 1847. p. 119 
and 120. 

Pruning the Pear Tree. — A series of short articles has lately appeared in 
the Gardeners^ Chronicle, upon the pruning of the pear tree, which we may 
presume are from the pen of Mr. R. Thompson. As they are just nowin good 
season, we extract the following upon the mode of pruning standards, equal- 
ly applicable, also, to dwarfs, and, at another opportunity, we shall endeavor 
to find room for that portion upon espaliers. We commend it to the atten- 
tion of all cultivators : — 

" We broke off, in our last"number, with the Pear Tree, supposed to be 
stopped, at the time of winter pruning, to three buds above the desired 
height of clear stem, which was assumed to be 6 feet. These three buds 
will in all probability break into shoots. In the course of the summer there 
is also great probability that the said shoots will grow at unequal angles of 
elevation ; the shoot from the uppermost bud tending most to a perpendicular 
direction, and, from this circumstance, it will generally be the strongest. An 
equality of growth is now, however, desirable. This maybe secured by 
bending the strong shoot from the upright direction, by means of a strip of 
matting before midsummer ; and if in July it should still exhibit great 
superiority in vigor, stop it by cutting or pinching off its point. 

" At the end of the season, the three shoots will be tolerably equal, and 
may be shortened to about a foot in length. Two shoots should be allowed 
to grow from each of these three primary ones ; and thus six principal limbs 
will be originated. These should, of course, be as nearly equi-distant as 
possible. In order to secure this, care should be taken always to cut 
above a bud pointing towards the direction which it may appear desirable for 
the shoot from it to proceed. For example, if two branches are likely to 
approach, or ultimately to cross each other, the leading shoots of such 
branches should be cut to buds pointing in opposite directions. If, on the 
other hand, there is too great a space between two branches, let these be 
cut to buds situated on the respective sides of the branches or shoots next 
the opening. If a branch has taken a direction too upright, cut to a bud on 
its under side ; if too pendulous, shorten more than in the preceding case, 
and to a bud on the upper side. 

"The formation of shoots to form the principal branches of the top having 
been effected, it will next be necessary to shorten the leaders of these where 

Domestic Notices. 187 

side branches from them are required ; or, on the contrary , where too many 
shoots proceed from near the same point, they should be duly thinned, other- 
wise confusion will inevitably ensue. As has been already observed, when a 
shoot is cut back, three buds will generally break ; but nothing like tridents, 
or what may be represented by the Greek letter ip, should now appear ; one 
shoot should be left for the prolongation of the branch ; another for a side 
branch next the greatest opening, and the third should be cut clean away." 
— Gard. Chron., 1847, p. 67. 

Art. II. Domestic Notices. 

Pittsburg Horticultural Society, Penn. — We have been gratified to learn 
of the organization of a society in this place : there are many zealous ama- 
teurs in the vicinity, and, among the number, we may name our corre- 
spondent, B. W. Fahnestock, Esq., whose collection contains all the choice 
plants to be found in metropolitan nurseries. We hope, ere long, to have 
the pleasure of accepting the many polite invitations which have been ex- 
tended to us to visit Pittsburg. The new society having enrolled our name 
among the honorary members, we have directed our Magazine to be for- 
warded for the Library, and, should our time allow, we hope to serve its 
interests in other ways. — Ed. 

PimeUa spectahilis has been superbly in flower in our collection, with up- 
wards oi twenty-five heads of flowers on plants not more than'a foot high. 
It is one of the richest acquisitions to greenhouse collections. 

Phillips Sweeting Apple. — There seems to be some doubt whether the 
variety, known under this name, is a seedling, or an old kind under a new 
name. In the absence of authentic information, it maybe considered a new 
Ohio fruit of much excellence; but we hope to be able, next autumn, to 
give a full account and description of it. — Ed. 

Supposed Influence of the Sun upon the Slock. — Have you ever noticed, in 
removing nursery trees — apples for instance — which were budded or grafted 
when quite small, a remarkable similarity in the form, size, and general ap- 
pearance of the roots of those of any one variety, and as remarkable a dis- 
similarity between those of different kinds; one kind, for example, being 
furnished with numerous small roots, another with few large and branch- 
ing ones? and so of many other peculiarities? It may be all fancy, but I 
think I have noticed such differences, and am inclined to think that the 
scion exerts an influence on the stock not as yet known or appreciated. As 
the season for transplanting is at hand, I wish you would bear the subject 
in mind, and give me, some time, the results of your observation. In 
a note to Mr. Downing, part of which he published in the Horticulturist for 
December, I mentioned a peculiar appearance of some plum roots, hoping to 
elicit, from him or some correspondent, some remarks, but have not as yet 
noticed any. I think it a subject worth attention. — Yours, S. L. G., Saco, 

188 Domestic Notices. 

Me., March, 1847. [We have not, ourselves, directed particular attention 
to this subject, but the coming month, when vpc shall see the roots of many 
hundred trees, we will endeavor to note the peculiarities our correspond- 
ent alludes to.] — Ed. 

Colmar d'Aremberg Pear. — This new variety, which has been stated to 
be " the largest dessert pear known," the fruit having been grown to the 
size of 18 inches in circumference, fruited the last year in the collection of 
J. P. Gushing, Esq., Watertown, and proved to be not only handsome, but 
of excellent quality. Our specimen trees are full of flower buds, and we 
hope to have the pleasure of giving our readers a full account of it the 
coming autumn. — Ed. 

The Grosse Calabash Pear, which has recently attracted much attention 
among English Pomologists, is stated by M. Langelier, who raised fine 
specimens last autumn, to measure 8 to 8^ inches in length, and weigh from 
20 to 24 ounces. We had a tree of M. Langelier in the spring of 1844, 
and it has now the appearance of bearing the coming season. Its quality is 
stated to be first-rate. — Ed. 

Beurri Langelier has, after the trial of the last year, (1846,) proved to be 
one of the finest kinds known. 

Doivning's Mammoth Rhubarb. — Some five years since, (Vol. VII, 
p. 373,) we noticed this most superb variety of rhubarb : a ftera trial of three 
years, it has proved to be far superior to any European variety — bearing as 
early as the Tobolsk, as large as the Victoria, and more tender and better- 
flavored than either. We are not sure but what we may say with truth, 
it is the greatest improvement which has been made since the introduction 
of rhubarb as a culinary plant. — Ed> 

New Horticultural Societies. — We perceive, by the legislative reports, 
that two new societies have just been incorporated, viz : the New Bedford 
Horticultural Society, and the Hampden County Horticultural Society. 
This speaks well for the growing taste in rural pursuits. — Ed. 

Horticultural Society in Montreal, C. W. — A new association has recent- 
ly been organized in Montreal, and a paper which has been sent us con- 
tains an account of the first meeting, with the names of the officers. We 
notice the names of several of our readers on the various committees, especial- 
ly those of our friends, Henry Case and John Frothingham, Esqrs. We do 
not doubt great good will be accomplished through the exertions of the 
members. — Ed. 

Tom Thumb Geranium. — This miniature and truly splendid variety of the 
scarlet family of geraniums of which almost as much has been said in the 
gardening papers, as of the veritable Tom Thumb in the Journals of the 
day, is now beautifully in flower in our collection ; its entire habit is ex- 
tremely dwarf, and an old plant, only about 6 inches high, has several fine 
clusters of flowers which stand erect above the tiny foliage. When 
bedded out in summer, the groups form one mass of glittering scarlet. 
Compared with Smith's Scarlet, would be like comparing Tom Thumb with 
the Kentucky Giant. — Ed. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 189 

Art. III. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, March 6, 1847. — An adjourned meeting was held — President 
in the chair. 

The Committee, to whom was entrusted the publishing of the Transac- 
tions of the Society, reported verbally, that their duty had been accom- 

Voted, — That the report of the Committee of Publication be accepted, 
and copies placed upon the table for distribution among the members of 
the Society. 

Voted, — That the President be requested to petition the Legislature now 
in session, to extend the same patronage to the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society that it does to the various Agricultural Societies of the State. 

A Committee was appointed to set the days of the next annual Exhibition 
of the Society, and Messrs. Sam'l. Walker, E. M. Richards, C. M. Hovey, 
were appointed. 

John Washburn, Jr., Plymouth, was elected a subscription member, and 
George B. Emerson, Esq., a corresponding member. 

Adjourned one week, to March 13. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From Messrs. Hovey & Co., six fine varieties of 
Azaleas in fine bloom, as follows : Speciosa, Remingtonw, Copew, Herb6r- 
tii purpurea, Large Cherry, and a new seedhng white ; also, 8 varieties 
of seedling verbenas, and the following roses, — Noisette Similor,Lamarque, 
and Solfitaire ; Bourbon Souchet, Madame Angelina, Gloire de Paris, 
and Moss Celinse : and a superb plant of the rarePimelea spectabilis, and 
one of P. hispidae. 

Premiums for Azaleas were accorded as follows : — 

Azaleas. To Messrs. Hovey & Co. the Society's premium of six dol- 
lars for 6 plants of azaleas in pots. 

Plants in Pots. A gratuity of three dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., 
for Pimelea Spectabilis. 

March 13. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day, the 
President in the chair. 

C. M. Hovey, Chairman of the Library Committee, made a report, and 
it was Voted, that the report be accepted to the full amount of the appro- 
priation, viz., $300. 

Voted, — That the Recording Secretary be requested to send acopy of the 
Transactions of the Society to every member, and to such Agricul- 
tural, Horticultural and Literary Societies as may be deemed advisable. 

Adjourned for one week to March 20. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From Messrs. Hovey & Co., — a fine plant of the 
new and superb Hybrid Moss Rose Princesse Adelaide, about 5 feet high, 
with from 25 to 30 buds and blossoms : also cut flowers, of Tea, Rose, Nisi- 
da, Car(^ine and Bourgere ; Hybrid Perpetual Indigo, Dutchess of Mont- 
morency, Mrs. Elliott, Lilacee, and various others. From P. Barnes, a 

190 Obituary. 

fine plant of Cytisus racemosus ; also seedling Cineraria and Verbena, and 
rose Caroline Mignonne. 

Fruits : From S. W. Cole, Marston's Red Winter, Jewett's Red and 
^sopus Spitzenberg Apples, — the former, a fine new kind, which we have 
described in a previous page. From S. Downer, Pomme de Neige apples. 

March 20, 1847. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to- 
day, — the President in the chair. 

The Committee of Publication submitted a report in reference to the pub- 
lishing a new series of the " Transactions of the Society," and it was ac- 

Meeting dissolved. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From M. P. Wilder, Tea, Princess Adelaide, 
roses, and other sorts. 

Art. IV. Obituary. 

Death of M. Soulange Bodin. — It is with feelings of pain that we 
announce the death of this distinguished horticulturist, which took place 
last July, at his residence at Fromont, near Paris, at the age of 72 years. 

In our notes on the Gardens and Gardening of Europe, as gathered in our 
recent tour (Vol. XI. p. 283,) we have given a very full account of M. Bo- 
din's beautiful residence at Fromont, on the Seine, and, at the same time, 
recorded our admiration of the taste in which the grounds were laid out, — 
the extreme neatness prevailing in every part, — and the skilful arrangement 
of the nursery department. The day we passed at Fromont was one which 
will live long in our memory — and we shall ever feel grateful that we had 
the pleasure, not only of a long and interesting correspondence with the intel- 
ligent and accomplished proprietor, but the still greater gratification of par- 
taking of the hospitalities of his home, where, after a life spent in the ser- 
vice of his country, he had sought retirement, and devoted his fortune to 
the planting and picturesque embellishment of his grounds. 

Some years since, we had the pleasure of sending M. Bodin several vols, 
of our Magazine, and recently received in exchange, a complete set of the 
Annals of Fromont, in 6 vols., a work of great value, issued under his su- 
perintendence when Fromont was the Royal Institution for the promotion 
of Horticulture. 

We need add but little to what we have said at the page referred 
to. M. Bodin died, as he had lived, universally beloved and esteemed. 

Mr. S. Girling, the celebrated dahlia-grower and nurseryman of Stow- 
market, near London, died during the past winter. For some years, he has 
been one of the leading cultivators of the dahlia, petunia, and other florist 

Death of R. Arthur, Esq. — Our readers will probably recollect our an- 
nouncement, in the early part of our last volume (XII,) of a new correspon- 

Horticultural Memoranda. 191 

dentin Scotland, in the person of Mr. Arthur, travelling agent of the extensive 
nurseries of Messrs. Dickson, of Edinburgh; we have just learned, by a friend 
■who recently returned from a visit to his native city, that his death took 
place in the early part of last autumn. Mr. Arthur was a man of great 
business activity, and also a ready writer, and in his death our readers have 
not only lost a valuable correspondent, but an upright and honorable man, 
and a zealous lover and promoter of gardening pursuits. 



Grape Vines, in the green-house or grapery, will now be coming rapidly 
forward, and will need constant, or at least careful, attention. The shoots 
which spring from the spurs should be looked after and regularly tied 
down ; for, if neglected, there is danger of breaking them off : this work 
should generally be done in the middle of the day, when the sun has ren- 
dered them more pliable ; if done too early in the morning, there is greater 
danger of injury. The growth may also be pinched off two eyes beyond 
the fruit buds, and rub off superfluous buds at the base. Syringe carefully 
€very morning and evening in good weather. Give air early, and keep the 
temperature rather low, in order that the branches may not be drawn out 
■weak ; 50° to 55° is ample during the night. Cuttings may now be put in 
hot beds. Vines in pots should be liberally watered, and, if the fruit is 
set, occasionally with guano. 

Raspberry beds should be uncovered as soon as the frost will admit ; new 
plantations may be made this month. 

Strawberry beds should also be uncovered, the coarse litter raked off care- 

Currant and Gooseberry bushes may be set out, and old plants carefully 
trimmed, manured, and the ground dug around them. 

Apple, Pear, Plum and Cherry stocks may be set out this month. 

Scions of trees may still be cut. 

Grafting may be commenced this month, beginning with the cherries. 

Fruit Trees of all kinds should now be transplanted. 


Pelargoniums will now begin to open their blossoms, and, to preserve 
them in beauty, they should be shaded in the middle of the day — or the glass 
whitened to prevent the powerful rays of the sun from injuring their deli- 
cate tints : if the shoots grow too upright, let them be tied down again, as 
far as their pliability will allow : but do not let the sticks project above the 
base of the flower-stems : keep them near the glass where they can have 

192 Horticultural Memoranda. 

an abundance of air and light, and water freely ; discontinue syringing after 
the buds open. Fumigate, if the green fly appears. 

Japan Lilies, managed as we have directed, will now be 2 feet high, and 
will require a shift into the next size. 

Achimenes of the several kinds should now be potted off carefully. 
Camellias will now be making their new growth, and will require very 
liberal supplies of water, and repeated syringings over the I'oliage ; old 
stunted plants should be headed in, and they will soon push out vigorous 
shoots. Inarching may still be performed. 

Hyacinth and Tulip beds, owing to the late cold weather, could not be un- 
covered ; they should now be looked after without delay. 

Calceolarias should be repotted again. 

Dahlias will now be coming forward when they have been potted, and 
if a stock is wanted, the cuttings may be put in. 

Verbenas may now be propagated from cuttings, for a stock for planting 
out in summer. 

Gloxinias which have started well, should now be shifted into larger 

Pansies, raised from seeds last month, should now be potted off into boxes 
or pots. 

Salvia splendens and fulgens should now be propagated for a young 
stock for summer. 

Fuchsias will now need shifting into larger pots if fine specimen plants 
are wanted. 

Chrysanthemums should be propagated from cuttings, or the roots divided 
to make a good stock. 

Hydrangeas may now be propagated from cuttings. 

Dwarf Rocket Larkspur seed should be sown as soon as the ground can 
be made ready. 

Gladioluses, tuberoses, and other summer bulbs, may now be potted for 
early blooming. 

Oxalises done flowering should be sparingly watered. 

Pceonies should be removed this month. 

Carnations and picotees, in frames, should be aired every fine day. 

Choice annuals, such as we recommended last month, with other new and 
choice kinds, should now be planted in pots and placed in the hot-bed or 
green-house. Such as are already up may be potted off" into small pots. 

Herbaceous plants, of all kinds, may be successfully transplanted this 


Tomatoes, Egg plants, dfc. raised from seeds sown either in February or 
March, should now be potted off into small pots, preparatory to their remov- 
al to the open ground in May. 

Lettuce, Radishes, Cabbages, Celery, &c. may be sown for a succession. 

Cucumbers [already hilled out will need attention and liberal supplies of 




MAY, 1847. 


Art. I. On the Cultivation of the Arrow Root in the United 
States as an Article of Commerce. By Dr. A. J\Jitchell, of 
Portland, Me. In a Letter to Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. 
Communicated by Gen. Dearborn. 

Dear Sir. — I enclose you a letter from Doct. Mitchell of 
Portland, one of our most distinguished naturalists, with a 
small package of seeds of the Arrow Root. 

I hope you will make an experiment in cultivating that 
valuable plant, although it is of a southern clime. If it is 
brought forward in a hotbed, it is possible you may mature 
the plant. 

You can publish the letter in your Magazine, if you think 
proper. With sincere esteem, your most obedient servant, 

H. A. S. Dearborn. 

Hawthorn Cottage^ Roxhury, April 5, 1847. 

My dear Sir, — I here enclose you a small specimen of the 
Indian Arrow Root, sent to me by Dr. Henry Bacon, of St. 
Mary's, (South Georgia). The article was cultivated by him 
on his plantation in Florida. I will here call your attention 
to the cultivation of this plant, and briefly state that the suc- 
cess has met the most sanguine wishes of the cultivator, and 
bids fair to form one of the articles, as an American product 
of commerce, both for export and import. 

The specimen which I send was derived from the root of 
the (Maranta arundinacea :) there are three species of this 
genus, viz., the arundinacea, Galdnga^ com6sa ; they are 
natives of the Indies, a herbaceous and perennial exotic, which 

VOL. XIII. — NO. V. 19 

194 Cultivation of the Arrow Root in the United States. 

have been, a long time, cultivated in the West India Islands. 
The specimen which I send you appears to be the most supe- 
rior article that I have ever seen of the kind, abounding in an 
excess of nutritive qualities, and purity of appearance, sur- 
passing that of the West Indies. 

An intelligent gentleman, Col. Halloes, and a favorite offi- 
cer of Bolivar, has the honor, I believe, of being the first cul- 
tivator of this plant, on a large scale, in our Union. He was 
driven from his location in Florida by the Indians, after re- 
ceiving a severe wound in the head by a rifle-shot ; he then 
removed to Camden County, South Georgia, and entered at 
once into the cultivation of this plant on a large scale : thus 
you perceive this plant is gradually becoming acclimated in 
our country, and I have no doubt but a few years will elapse 
when we shall find it cultivated with success in latitude 36° 
north. It grows well in a siliceous soil, on a light sandy loam, 
resists the drought well, with more certainty of a crop than 
either cotton or corn. 

I will take the pains to enter into a more minute detail of 
the facts connected with the cultivation of this article, as 
proven, amount per acre, &c., and have them reported through 
you in the agricultural department. 

The Arrow Root obtains its name from the fact of the In- 
dians using it to extract the virus communicated by their poi- 
soned arrows. 

With great esteem, I am, dear sir, your obedient servant, 

Portland^ April 2, 1847. Augustus Mitchell. 

We acknowledge our indebtedness to General Dearborn for 
the communication of Dr. Mitchell's Letter, and also for the 
package of seed accompanying the same, which we shall make 
a trial of, and report upon its growth at a future time. It will 
give us great pleasure to publish the intended communication 
of Dr. Mitchell in relation to the mode of cultivating the Ar- 
row Root, the produce per acre, the process of manufacture, 
and the probable profit as compared with cotton, corn, or 
tobacco. Gen. Dearborn deserves the thanks of every friend 
of agriculture for bringing this subject before the public, and 
we trust his eflforts to introduce a new and important article 
of commerce will be seconded by every intelligent cultiva- 
tor.— £rf. 

Mr. liumrickhouse^ s Explanations, 4*c. 195 

Art. II. Explanations i?i reference to Two or Three West- 
ern Apples; with a Note upon a New Variety called the 
Butter Sweet. By T. S Humrickhouse, Coshocton, Ohio. 

I AM induced to offer a few additional observations, includ- 
ing a correction or two, upon some items contained in Mr. 
Fahnestock's article, March number of your Magazine, and 
in your remarks thereunder, in order to guard against mis- 
conceptions, which, if left unnoticed, might grow out of them. 

First : — Hart's Orange Sweeting, or, as it may be better to 
call it simply. Hart's Sweeting. Scions of this apple were 
first obtained by me from Mr. Isaac B. Hart, of Tiverton 
township in this county, in the spring of 1841. On referring 
to ray note-book, I find that, on the 6th day of April, lb41, I 
grafted, by the method of root-grafting, and placed in the 
nursery, six trees of it ; and that I did not extend its cultiva- 
tion further till 1845, when having, in the preceding winter, 
examined and eaten of the fruit from the original tree, I, on 
the 24th of March of that year, grafted seven more trees of it, 
by the same method, and planted them in the nursery. One 
of the last-mentioned trees I sent to you last fall, numbered, 
if I mistake not, LI. ; and from another of them the scions 
were taken which I gave to Mr. Mathews, who sent them to 
Mr. Fahnestock. 

The fruit is of a clear yellow ; of the size of the Green New- 
town Pippin ; nearly round ; sweet, juicy, tender, and good ; 
keeping till April. It is a seedling raised by Mr. Hart, as he 
informed me. 

Second : — Red Pearmain, often called Long Pearmain. This 
is, in my estimation, a first-rate apple, in this climate, for 
November and December. It is not, iiowever, a seedling 
of Ohio, but is one of the varieties originally brought to Mari- 
etta from Connecticut ; and the name of Red or Long Pear- 
main has obtained for it here from its color and shape. It is 
the English Pearmain of Mr. Bateham's list. 

Third: — American White Winter Calville. This fruit was 
first oftered to the notice of pomologists by myself I obtained 
the scions from trees in the orchard of Mrs. Foster, which 
she had raised from sprouts taken from the tree (since dead) 

196 Mr. Humrickhouse' s Explanations 

at Mr Daniel Miller's. Respecting its origin, Mr. Miller in- 
formed me that his tree was brought from Virginia about forty 
years ago, and was a sprout taken from a tree in an old or- 
chard on the south branch of the Potomac ; that it was not 
a grafted tree, and that they had no grafted fruit in the or- 
chard, with which he was well acquainted, where the sprout 
was obtained. I first saw and ate of the fruit in the winter 
of 1838-9, and grafted nineteen trees of it in 1841. In Jan- 
uary, 1843, I sent a description of it to Wm. Kenrick, accom- 
panied with scions. Last spring, I sent scions to yourself, 
which you have since informed me were growing. 

Mr. Miller and Mrs. Foster called this apple the " White 
Pippin" and knew it hij no other name. The name of Amer- 
ican White Winter Calville was first given to it by myself. 
So you see it cannot be the White Winter Calville of the 
French, after which I named it, on account of its resemblance 
to that old variety ; else, in naming, as I thought, a new vari- 
ety, I unconsciously hit upon its old name with the errone- 
ous prefix of "American," a thing little likely to take place. 
It cannot be the same with the French variety, because this 
apple has been propagated by means of sprouts time out of 
mind, as I may say ; a thing impossible unless root-grafting 
had been employed upon the first tree in the series, and 
that tree had established itself upon its own roots, and threw 
up sprouts from them to be taken and reared into trees. At 
the time at which this must have happened, had it happened 
at all, I believe that root-grafting the apple was not practised; 
and there was, moreover, little or no grafted fruit of any kind 
in the part of Virginia from which the family of Mr. Miller 
removed. Nor would the slightest suspicion now exist of 
its being the French variety, if I had not unfortunately re- 
named it. 

My reasons for giving it the new name I believed to be suf- 
ficient at the time ; they were briefly as follows : — There are so 
many apples called " Pippin," with various prefixes and adden- 
da, as to have already brought in great confusion in relation to 
some of them. The prefix " White" might come at some time to 
be omitted, since the difference between white, green and straw 
color, as descriptive of the color of an apple, is often very slight 
indeed; and we have already "Green Pippins" and "Golden 

in reference to Two or Three Western Apples. 197 

Pippins" and " Yellow Pippins" without number. It bore a 
very striking resemblance to the French variety, and evidently 
belonged to the same class. And lastly, inasmuch as the fruit 
would be first introduced to the notice of pomologists by the new 
name, I conceived that no inconvenience could result from it. 

Upon the whole, this case is a good one to exemplify the 
propriety of the principle of the Fifth Rule as set forth in 
my article upon the subject of the Uniform Nomenclature of 
Fruits, (Vol. XII. p. 47), which is, — 

" That the names given to new seedlings be sufficiently 
distinctive to guard against and prevent their being confound- 
ed with previously named sorts." 

Had I adhered to it in this case, no doubt would ever have 
arisen, as I believe there is no foundation for any, of this be- 
ing a new and distinct variety. 

Fourth : — The varieties before referred to, as well as the 
Early Pennock, Crimson Nonpareil, Belle de Witt, and Zoar 
Large Green, have been already widely disseminated among 
nurserymen by myself and others, chiefly by Mr. Mathews. 

Coshocton, March 16, 1847. 

Note. Allow me to call your attention to a very fine 
red apple of medium size, called Butter Apple or Butter 
Sweet, the origin of which is unknown to me further than 
that it was first cultivated, as I am informed, in the neighbor- 
hood of Wooster, Ohio, whence I obtained two trees in 1839, 
which are now bearing. It is hardly a sweet apple, very 
juicy and sprightly, with an exceedingly high musky flavor 
such as I never found in any other apple. It keeps well into 
winter. T. S. H. 

If, as we may infer from the remarks of our correspondent, 
in whose opinion we place the greatest confidence, the Amer- 
ican White Winter Calville is a native variety, his explana- 
tion in regard to the name is especially valuable to prevent 
mistakes hereafter. After our remarks, appended to Mr. 
Fahnestock's article, had gone to press, it occurred to us that 
we had received some account of the variety in ques- 
tion before, and, in turning to a former volume, (XL p. 448,) 
we found we had done, what is not usual with us, overlooked 
his communication, and also the fact that, through the kind- 


198 Oswego Beun^e, or ReicTs Seedling Pear. 

ness of Mr. Humrickhouse, we have a tree of the Calville 
raised from scions received from him last spring. It ap- 
pears, however, that the origin of this variety is yet rather 
obscure, and though, from the facts he adduces, we can 
scarcely doubt that it is an American seedling, still it may 
be an error. We are well aware that the best proof of a 
seedling variety is its propagation from suckers. So much 
did the late Mr. Manning rely upon this, that he highly offend- 
ed a gentleman who had produced a fine seedling cherry, 
when he expressed his doubts about its native origin, and, to 
test its not being some European variety, asked the posses- 
sor of the original tree to give him a sucker, Avhich would 
at once settle the question. 

We shall, therefore, rely upon the information of our corre- 
spondent in regard to the native origin of the American White 
Winter Calville, and deem it an entirely new variety. When 
our own trees come into bearing, we shall make a careful 
comparison of the fruit as well as of the wood and leaves, and 
give our readers the results of our inquiries. — Ed. 

Art. III. So77ie Account of the Oswego Beurre, or Raid's 
Seedling Pear. By the Editor. 

The past year has brought to the immediate notice of cul- 
tivators several new and excellent pears, and among them 
some native varieties which promise to excel the best Belgian 
or French kinds. Among the latter, may be named the 
Swan's Orange, or Onondaga, and the Reid's Seedling, or the 
Oswego Beurre. The first we have a very full and complete 
account of, as well as a drawing and description of the fruit, 
and shall soon give them to our readers as we promised last 
December (Vol. XII. p. 492). The last we are now gratified 
in bringing to the attention of cultivators, by the kindness of 
our correspondents, in Western New York, who have sent us 
the particulars which follow in regard to the history and ori- 
gin of this pear. 

We have not time now to enter into a defence of the correct 

Osivego Beurre, or Reicfs Seedling Pear. 199 

name of the variety, but if the brief account which has been 
given of it is correct, its proper title should be " Reid's Seed- 
ling," for Mr. Downing has stated that it was raised from 
seed by Mr. W. Reed, of Oswego, New York, and as that has 
been its name for some time previous to its introduction to 
notice by Mr. Allen, we do not see how his becoming proprie- 
tor or possessor of the stock, should give him any authority 
to re-name it. This is the practice of some French nursery- 
men, in order to increase their catalogues of new varieties, 
but we hope it is not about to be adopted by our cultivators. 
If the facts are as we suppose, and we see the Genesee Farmer 
states they are, the legitimate name is Reid's Seedling ; though, 
until we are more fully informed on this point, we shall prefix 
both titles. Of the great impropriety of calling Swan's 
Orange, the Onondaga, we shall speak when we describe that 
fine pear. If every author or cultivator is at liberty to lay 
aside old and established names, all efforts to arrive at a cor- 
rect nomenclature may be abandoned at once. 

The Oswego Beurre was raised by Mr. Walter Reid, of 
Oswego, New York, and the original tree is now growing on 
the farm, now, or late, in his possession. The tree is now of 
large size, and cannot be removed with safety : last year, it 
bore fifteen barrels of fruit, and, what is remarkable, it has 
continued to bear annually ever since it first fruited, which 
was when the tree was only eight or nine years of age. The 
tree has, we believe, passed into the possession of Mr. Allen, 
nurseryman of Oswego, from whom these facts have been 
gathered, and who intends to keep it for propagation, and 
raise a fine stock of young trees to supply the trade. 

The fruit is of large size, not quite as large as the Brown 
Beurre, but larger than the White Doyenne, of regular, oval- 
obovate form, with a greenish-yellow and smooth skin, traced 
more or less with russet, and with a short stout stem. The flesh 
is very melting and juicy, and the flavor sprightly, saccharine, 
rich and high-flavored. It ripens, Mr. Allen states, early in No- 
vember, and is fit for the dessert from that time until January. 
The tree is remarkably thrifty, hardy, and an early bearer. 

This variety is probably a cross between the Brown Beurre 
and the White Doyenne, as it partakes to some extent of the 
merits and characteristics of both, and as these two varieties 

200 Mr. Ernsts Remarks on the Cooper Apple. 

were the only kinds known in the vicinity, at the time the 
seed of this tree was sown, or accidentally dropped where the 
tree now is. The tree is now growing in grass land, and is, 
of course, not as vigorous as if standing in a highly cultivated 

Our correspondent, who has communicated these facts, in- 
forms us that it is a variety which, he does not doubt, will be 
sought after with great avidity, as soon as its merits become 
better known ; we hope, therefore, Mr. Allen will be success- 
ful in rapidly bringing forward his young trees. 

Art IV. Some Remarks upon the Cooper Apple, and its Iden- 
tity with Other Sorts. By A. H. Ernst, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

I HAVE read with instruction many of the articles from the 
pen of your enthusiastic correspondent, Mr. Humrickhouse, 
and always look them over with an expectation of meeting 
something new and interesting. In his last, in your March 
number, on the Cooper Apple, he says : — " The Cooper is 
indeed, a most superior apple." This is true ; but he is in an 
error in supposing it identical with the Drap d'Or, or the 
Fall Harvey. After reading his supposition, I immediately 
resorted to my trees, and compared the wood and their growth. 
This I found to be decidedly different. I obtained my Fall 
Harvey from the late R. Manning, and my Drap d'Or from 
Capt. Lovett of Beverly. I therefore feel confident of their 
genuineness. The Cooper, I obtained from Mr. George Dana, 
Jr., a nurseryman of Belpre, Ohio, where it has been culti- 
vated most, and is known best. The growth of the tree I 
find to be upright, stiff, throwing out from its body thorny 
spurs, much like a native or uncultivated tree. The wood is 
yellowish red, and very much disposed to canker, showing 
decay and tenderness. This is not the case with either of the 
others. For specimens of the fruit, I am also indebted to the 
same source. These were very fine, of a lightish yellow 
color, slightly, but indistinctly streaked with red on the sunny 
side ; globular form, but depressed at the base. It is not de- 

Mr. Ernsfs Remarks 07i the Cooper Apple. 201 

cidedly sweet, yet very pleasantly so and rich ; flesh white 
and tender. 

The Dyer, I have not, to compare the growth with. Mr. 
Downing's description of that fruit is very applicable to the 
Cooper, Had he given us the description of the growth of 
the tree, its habit, and color of the wood, we could then have 
judged of their identity. 

I thought, Mr. Editor, this explanation, in the moment and 
sudden excitement which has sprung up in regard to this 
fruit, might allay some of the anxiety about its identity 
with this or that apple. One Western editor gravely sur- 
mises that it would be found identical with the Fall Pippin. 
He might, with greater propriety, have supposed it the Maiden's 
Blush. The growth and appearance of the wood of the Coop- 
er is so decidedly marked and distinct from most others, that 
any common observer who has seen it once will know it again 
among a hundred sorts. Hoping, sir, I shall not be viewed 
as impertinently intermeddling with this matter, but that this 
description of the tree, with its habit, which I have not seen 
alluded to by any of the writers on its fruit, may lead you, 
or some of your readers, to identify it, is my apology for thus 
troubling you. 

Spring Garden, near Cincinnati, March 20, 1847. 

Mr. Ernst has our thanks for the above remarks, and we 
are sure we may speak for our correspondent, to whom he 
alludes, that he will have his also. Such is the information 
we need, and such is the information we must have, if we 
would ever arrive at a correct nomenclature of our fruits. 
Mr. Ernst, as well as other of our correspondents, knows how 
much importance we attach, not only to the habit of growth 
of a tree, in identifying fruits, but even to the color of the 
wood, the shape of the buds, the form of the leaves, &c. This 
we have set forth in the prospectus to our proposed new work, 
the first number of which will probably be in the hands of 
both Mr. Ernst and Mr. Humrickhouse before they see these 
remarks. Without regard to these particulars, and without 
the most careful observation, we never can arrive at any cer- 
tain and satisfactory results. With a hope to do something 
to aid in the good work, we have, at great expense and labor, 

202 Cultivation of the Currant, Sfc. 

commenced The Fruits of America, and shall leave its read- 
ers to judge how much we have contributed to attain the end 
in view. We trust Mr. Ernst's remarks will call out the opin- 
ions of those who have the Dyer apple under cultivation ; our 
own trees being yet too young to show their true habit ; and 
one great object will be attained if the identity of the Cooper 
can be settled before it is spread throughout the country, as it 
is likely to be from its excellence. — Ed. 

Art. V. The Currant, its Cultivation, 6^c. By J. H. Watts, 
Rochester, New York. 

An excellent article upon the Grape, and its culture in 
America, appeared in the Albany Horticulturist, page 397, 
from the pen of W. R. Prince, Esq., in which he showed 
the importance attached to that fine fruit, not only as a des- 
sert, but its use when manufactured into wine. As a pro- 
moter of temperance, there can be no doubt but the grape 
and currant can be made powerful auxiliaries in that impor- 
tant cause. Some substitute for strong drinks is needed, and 
a harmless and pleasant beverage can be made from both, 
which our temperance friends would not forbid. 

Of the currant, I now wish to speak. It is so common a 
fruit, that almost all who have a garden cultivate it. 

The large red Dutch bushes are preferable, being such 
abundant bearers, and I know of no more useful ornament on 
the borders of a garden than well shaped currant bushes. — 
Trimmed as the English do them, they become an upright 
tree, which keeps the fruit from the ground, and gives the 
sun and air a good chance upon them. 

Their early blossoming gives food to swarms of bees, and 
their hum amongst the bushes is their rejoicing that spring 
has again come. 

1 have grown large quantities of the red currant, and, after 
a bountiful use of them on the table, my family tried the ex- 
periment of making wine, in the year 1844, at which time we 
made 18 gallons. Having had such good success, in 1846 we 

Cultivation of the Currant^ 6fc. 203 

made 40 gallons. I send you a bottle, a sample of that made 
in 1844. The wine remained in the half-barrel one year on 
the "/ee5," and was then bottled and sealed. Its color is as 
high as any grape wine. I never please my friends more than 
when it is produced, and the strongest advocate of temper- 
ance need not fear abusing his or her pledge in its use. One 
pint of alcohol was all that was put in the 18 gallons. 

I shall leave you to speak of its quality : — It is as pleasant 
as a cordial, and, for summer drink, mixed with water, it is as 
choice as claret. 

I subjoin a recipe for any one who may wish to make it. 
" Pick the currants when fully ripe, and, after obtaining the 
juice, either by use of a wine-press, or by squeezing through 
a cloth with the hands, — to each gallon of juice add six 
quarts of water, three and half pounds of common brown 
sugar, (to cost 6 to 8 cents per pound,) and put it in your 
keg or barrel (according to quantity made,) minding that the 
keg be full, and let it thus stand, until it has gone through the 
necessary fermentation, then add the alcohol, one pint to 18 
gallons, and close the barrel for one year at least, letting it 
stand in the cellar. After this time, it is fit for use, and may 
be bottled, and should be sealed. Age tempers it, and makes 
it as it does other wines. 

Rochester, March 30th, 1847. 

The currant, of all the small fruits, is the most valuable. 
To them, it holds the same relation as the apple to the large 
fruits. Like the apple, it may be used for every culinary 
purpose, or take its place among the dessert fruits. We are, 
therefore, glad to present any article which shall extend its 
cultivation ; for no garden should be without at least a dozen 
bushes, which may be purchased for a small sum, and afford 
an abundance of wholesome and delicious fruit. 

The manufacture of currant wine was, some years ago, 
carried on very extensively by the father of our friend W. 
Kenrick, and the grounds which he and his brother now occu- 
py, were covered with thousands of bushes, from which many 
barrels of wine were annually made. Those Avere the days, 
however, when King Alcohol stalked abroad, and the pleasant 
beverage of currant wine had to give way to stronger drinks : 

204 Cultivation and Treatment of the Peach Tree. 

In these times of temperance reform, to recommend the use of 
any other beverage than cold water might subject us to the 
charge of opposition to this philanthropic cause ; but, as a 
drink to take Ihe place of alcohol, such a specimen of wine 
as Mr. Watts has sent us would do no one harm, and if it 
could be made to take the place of alcoholic liquors, it would 
be the most efficient aid in the promotion of temperance. A 
light and pleasant drink of some kind is necessary in our warm 
climate, and an article like this could be easily and cheaply 
made by every one who has a spare rod of ground. We re- 
commend the recipe of Mr. Watts for manufacturing the wine 
to those who would like to make a trial of it. — Ed. 

Art. VI. On the Cultivation and Treatment of the Peach 
Tree, in Cold Houses. By Thomas B. Cowan, Gardener 
to Dr. Durfee, Fall River, Mass. 

The peach has, for a long time, occupied a conspicuous 
place among other fruits, and ranks as one of the most deli- 
cious, for summer use. It was first introduced into Europe 
from Persia, which is said to be its native country. 

The following account of its introduction into Europe is 
given by Loudon, in his Eiicyclopedia. The peach tree, in 
its natural state, is under the middle size of trees ; of quick 
growth, and not long duration. Sickler considers Persia as 
the original country of the peach, which, in Media, is deemed 
unwholesome ; but, when planted in the alluvial soils of Egypt, 
becomes pulpy and delicious. The peach also, according to 
Columella, when first brought from Persia, into the Roman 
Empire, possessed deleterious quahties; which Knight con- 
cludes to have arisen from those peaches being only swollen 
almonds, or imperfect peaches ; which are known to contain 
Prussic acid which operates unfavorably on many constitu- 
tions. The tree has been cultivated from time immemorial 
in most parts of Asia ; when it was introduced into Greece is 
uncertain ; the Romans seem to have brought it direct from 
Persia duruig the reign of the emperor Claudius. The peach 

171 Cold Houses, 4*c. 205 

was introduced into England about the middle of the six- 
teenth century, and, owing to the unfavorableness of the cli- 
mate, it is always there cultivated against walls or under 

Practical men have, at all times, found it difficult to culti- 
vate the peach to perfection ; that is, having its peculiar rich 
and delicious flavor ; for, in a great many instances, where the 
trees are grown in houses, the flavor of the fruit is poor and 
insipid, and little better, if the expression may be used, than a 

It is my intention to give as correct an idea as possible, in 
regard to the making of the borders, planting, training, pruning, 
general management, &c. The formation of the border, I 
consider the most difficult part ; for, if it is not made properly, 
it is quite useless to expect to raise good fruit ; and it matters 
not how much care, time or expense may be spent afterwards, 
it will never make up for this defect ; and it is always best to 
do the work thoroughly at first, sparing no pains or expense, 
as the trees will amply repay for all the extra trouble. 

The border should commence at the back wall inside of the 
house, and extend outside under the arches, to the dis- 
tance of twelve feet from the front of the house. The soil 
should all be taken out to the depth of two feet six inches, 
sloping the bottom gradually, so that the front will be one 
foot lower than the back : a drain should run along the front 
of the border one foot deep, with small cross-drains leading 
into it, so as to have a perfect command of draining off" all 
superfluous water, particularly where the bottom is spongy 
and wet. There should then be laid, on the bottom thus 
formed, about six inches of stones and rubbish, leaving the 
depth for the soil two feet. 

TIic soils and manures which I consider best suited to the 
peach, are three parts of the top sod of good old pasture land. 
dug up about six or eight inches deep, and laid up in a 
pile, with the grass side down, for about a year, and never 
turned ; one eighth part street manure, and the other eighth 
part decomposed horse or cow dung. I do not approve of 
turning over and mixing the materials promiscuously together, 
as I think such repeated intermixture is very injurious to the 
soil, and, by often turning the compost, it becomes too heavy. 

VOL. XIII. — NO. v. 20 

206 Cultivation and Treatment of the Peach Tree 

When the soil is in readiness, commence filhng up the bor- 
der, mixing the materials in proportion, and turning them in 
as rough as possible. After allowing a sufficient time for the 
compost to be well settled, nothing remains to be done, but to 
begin to plant the trees, in their respective places. As regards 
season. I consider the fall the best time, if the trees can be pro- 
cured, but, if not convenient at that season, they should be plant- 
ed as early in the spring as possible. A good selection of trees 
is important, for many individuals think large are prefer- 
able to small ones. For training, no tree should be more 
than one year from the bud, and should have a straight clean 

Proceed now to open the holes about twelve feet apart, 
along the inside front of the house, allowing them to extend 
outside under the arches. Then proceed to plant the trees, 
keeping the roots as near the surface as possible, spreading 
them out with great care under the arches, in the fan 
shape, so that the roots, when the tree begins to grow, will 
run into the outside border. The planter must also bear in 
mind, that he is planting trees which will last for years, and, 
if some extra pains are taken, even if it occupies a little more 
time to perform the work, he will be amply repaid in the end 
for his trouble. As soon as the operation of planting is com- 
pleted, each tree should receive a moderate watering, to settle 
the earth about the roots. This done, commence setting out 
the trees along the back wall, in the same manner, only that 
those at the back of the house, should have all their roots 
spread out towards the front, and if the house is very wide, 
there can easily be a neat half-circular trellis put down, to 
train another row of trees to, having the front posts of it 
about two feet from the front row of trees. Though the fruit 
will never be so fine, on such trillises, as that from the trees 
trained on the rafters of the house, being rather too far from 
the glass, and shaded partially by the other trees, yet I have 
often known them to produce very fine fruit. 

The planting all completed, which I shall suppose to be 
done early in spring, the next and principal work will be the 
pruning. The trees should now be headed down to three eyes, 
above the lower part of the trellis, from where it is wished to 

in Cold Houses, ^'c. 207 

commence training the trees, rubbing off all eyes below these 
three, if it is deemed desirable to have handsome shaped spec- 

Fan-training, I think, is the best adapted to the peach, and 
though most gardeners adopt this plan, few of them seem to 
carry it out in a proper manner ; for, in a great many instances 
which have come under my observation, a great portion of 
the trees are unsightly objects, having lost their centre stem 
before they have grown three or four feet from the bottom of 
the trellis, and all shoots are laid in, whether they happen to 
be front or lower, spoiling the regular and beautiful appear- 
ance which a well trained tree always presents. 

Commence training the top eye as it starts to grow, per- 
pendicular, and the side ones in rather an oblique direction, 
and, when the centre shoot has grown about two feet, it should 
be stopped again to cause it to start out lateral shoots. The 
first year I think it is as well to tie in nearly all the wood 
the tree makes, as it encourages the roots to lay in a good sup- 
ply of food, to support the tree another year, while, on the 
other hand, if there was not much foliage to elaborate the sap, 
the roots would remain partially inactive, not exercising half 
the functions they would otherwise have to perform where the 
tree was covered with foliage, and growing vigorously. I 
think it is of vast importance to try to establish the trees the 
first year. The trees will have to be examined once a month 
through the growing season, to tie in all shoots to the trellis that 
require it, and be particular to give plenty of air through the day, 
shutting up close at night, unless the weather is warm ; in 
that case, air may be left on night and day. Syringe freely 
twice a week with pure water, and water the house inside so 
that the earth will not look dry or parched. 

About the first of January will be the time to commence 
pruning the trees for the next or second season, cutting down 
the centre shoot to within eight eyes from where it started 
from the last season. 

The side shoots should also be cut in to two or four eyes, 
according to their strength : during the summer, all laterals 
which spring from these, on either the front or loicer side, should 
be cut close in as soon as they appear, laying in only those 
which spring from the upper side, and these at regular dis- 

208 Cultivation and Treatment of the Peach Tree 

tances, say about a foot apart; being careful to err on the 
right side, and lay in too little rather than too much: select- 
ing such shoots as will give the tree a systematical and hand- 
some appearance. 

The pruning all done, and the shoots tied in their proper 
places, give air every warm day, in order to keep the buds 
from starting too early. The trees should be syringed with 
the following preparation, before they begin to grow, in order 
to destroy any insects, especially the red spider, which, in our 
dry climate, is always a great pest, and, if the trees are not 
examined very minutely, and attended to early, it will be dif- 
ficult to exterminate them without considerable trouble, and, 
perhaps, injury to the crop. This preparation, if applied as di- 
rected, will stop their ravages, and, if continued once a week, 
will effectually destroy them : — 

To ten pounds of flour of sulphur, add four pounds of quick 
lime; put them into a tight cask, and then pour boiling water 
over them just sufficient to slake the lime, adding altogether 
about twelve gallons, then stir the whole well together, and, 
as soon as they appear well mixed, cover the top of the cask 
over with a tight mat, to keep the steam in; then let it stand 
for a day or moie, when it will be well settled and ready for 
use. Then proceed carefully to turn off" the water as clear 
as possible, and put it away into some other vessel for use, 
as occasion may require. A pint of this mixture will be suf- 
ficient for four gallons of water. 

It is also probable, that when the trees are in a growing 
state, they may be troubled with the aphis, or green fly, which 
;may be easily detected by the curling up of the leaves; they 
I may be easily destroyed by a strong fumigation of tobacco, or 
by syringing with whale oil, soap and water, but the former 
imode is greatly preferable. 

The treatment for the third year will not differ much from 
■ that of the last season. The trees will have to be looked 
over regularly throughout the summer, divesting them of all 
superfluous wood, and tying in all shoots that require it. 

As soon as the wood begins to ripen, let down all the 
sashes, so that there shall be a free circulation of air all 
through the house night and day, until the frost begins to be 
.rather severe. This will cause the trees to ripen their wood 

m Cold Houses, <^c. 209 

thoroughly, and form strong prominent buds. The winter 
pruning should be done in November or December, and this 
finishes the labor for this year. 

Presuming that all has gone on favorably thus far, a small 
crop of fruit may be expected the coming season. But I cau- 
tion the amateur not to try to produce too much fruit, as he 
will injure his young trees by so doing, unless they are very 
thrifty ; a few specimens only should be suffered to remain, 
looking rather to the furnishing of the trellis, for a crop the 
next year, when he may reasonably expect some fine fruit. 

As soon as the trees begin to show flowers, the temperature 
will have to be kept very even through the day, allowing the 
thermometer to range from 75° to 85°, and at night from 50° 
to 60°, or even ten degrees lower, without injury, if the night 
is cold, but it is always best, if there is danger of a sharp and 
frosty night, to shut the house up early, as a preventive. All 
syringing should be discontinued till the fruit sets, keeping a 
rather dry atmosphere, or the blossoms will not set well. As 
soon as the flowers begin to drop, commence syringing regu- 
larly, until the fruit begins to ripen, and then discontinue it 
till after the fruit is gathered. 

When the fruit is done stoning, and the weather begins to 
be warm, the sashes back and front should be opened, as 
much as possible, through the day, and as soon as the weather 
averages a good temperate heat, the sashes should be left 
open, both day and night, till the fruit is gathered ; unless this 
is attended to, the fruit will . have but little flavor. Closing 
up the house in case of heavy rains, or cold east winds, is of 
course an exception ; but, as soon as the fruit is gathered, the 
sashes should be removed from the house altogether, and not 
put on again till frosts set in, when the trees will require 
some protection from their severity. After the fruit appears 
to be well stoned, considerable attention should be given to 
thinning the crop : only a single fruit should be left, at distan- 
ces averaging six or eight inches apart, all over the surface of 
the tree : as soon as the fruit has taken its last swelling, such 
leaves as shade it too much should be partly removed, so that 
part of the fruit may be exposed to the free action of the sun, 
which, L think, adds greatly to its flavor. 

210 Propagation of Greenhouse Exotics. 

The fruit being gathered, the routine of culture already de- 
tailed should be continued. 

The varieties which I think best suited for house cultiva- 
tion, are the following : — 

Peaches :— Royal George, Royal Kensington, Gross Gal- 
lande, Grosse Mignonne, Malta, Noblesse, Old Mixon Free, 
Early York, and Crawford's Late Melaca. 

Nectarines :— Elruge, Broomfield, Murray, and Red Ro- 

Fall River, Mass. March 17, 1847. 

Art. VII. On the Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse 
Exotics ; in a Series of Letters. By James Kennedy, Gar- 
dener to S. T. Jones, Staten Island, New York. 
Letter I. Propagation ly Seeds, 

I PRESUME that the design of your valuable Magazine is 
the improvement of Flora and Horticulture ; and, therefore, 
I consider it the duty of every practical gardener to contribute 
occasionally the results of his experience, for the benefit of 
his younger brethren. With this view, however, I take up 
my pen, to give the results of my experience, on the various 
modes of propagating greenhouse and stove exotics, and 
shall embody such observations as are calculated to render 
comprehensive the whole subject to even the most inexperi- 
enced. I shall arrange the various modes under the follow- 
ing respective heads, and treat of each separately : — 

1, Seeds ; 2, Cuttings; 3, Offsets ; 4, Layers ; 5, Inarching; 6, 
Root Divisions ; 7, Leaves ; 8, Suckers; and 9, Plant divisions. 

1. Seeds. — When an exotic is in flower that will yield 
seed, it ought to be placed in a situation where it can com- 
mand the full benefit of the sun's rays, and, if the weather is 
favorable, it should be abundantly supplied with air and water, 
in order that the seeds may &well off" to their proper size, and 
get thoroughly ripened ; for, on these two points, depends their 
.future germination when placed in the soil to produce new 

Propagatio7i of Greenhouse Exotics. 211 

individuals. Should the plant, at any time, be exposed to the 
open air, as is not an infrequent occurrence with inhabitants of 
the greenhouses in summer time, it should be placed in a 
situation where showers cannot reach to injure the impregna- 
ting and fertihzing part of the frutification. When the seed is 
ripe, it will rattle in the seed-vessel or pod, and should be 
gathered in a perfectly dry state, after which let it be exposed 
to the air, in a shady place, for a few days, that it may still 
get further hardened, when it may be put up in separate par- 
cels, labelled, and put up in a dry place till required for sow- 
ing, (which time varies according to the object in view.) 
Spring sowing, however, is the most favorable for all seeds, 
(except in case of imported ones, a quantity of which should 
be sown as soon as received,) for sometimes seeds will grow 
when first received, that will not, if kept a few months longer, 
and the remainder can be sown with those saved at home ; 
but spring sowing is preferable to any other season ; the plants 
get a long season for growth, and consequently must be bet- 
ter prepared to stand the severity of the coming winter. 

The sized pots I have always been in the habit of using as 
seed pots, are those of five inches diameter, and three and a half 
deep, a quantity of which I always get ready previous to the 
time of sowing. 1 first have them thoroughly washed, out- 
side and inside, and, when dry, I prepare them in the follow- 
ing manner : — Over the hole in the bottom of the pot, I place 
a large piece of broken pot or oyster shell, and over this about 
an inch of finely broken potsherds, about the size of garden 
peas ; and then fill my pot to within an inch or so of the top, 
according to the size of the seeds to be sown, with compost pre- 
viously prepared, composed of two thirds heath soil, and one 
third fine friable loam, rather light than otherwise. The sur- 
face on which the seeds are sown as well as the covering soil, 
should be sifted very fine. The seeds sown and covered, the 
whole should be settled with a slight sprinkling of water, from 
a fine rose watering-pot, when they should be removed to the 
propagating house, or to a previously prepared hot-bed, when 
the burning heat is over. Keep the frame-lights pretty close 
at night, but allow a little air in the middle of fine days, that 
any rank steam may escape ; the pots should be plunged up 
to the rims in sawdust, or some such material, and shaded, 

212 Propagation of Greenhouse Exotics. 

during bright sunshine, by means of mats. Due care mnst 
be taken to supply them with water when required, but not 
till it is really needful. 

When the rudiments of the second leaf are formed, the pots 
should be removed to a shaded part of the stove, there to 
remain till the second leaf is perfectly formed, and the rudi- 
ment of the third leaf is visible, when they must be carefully 
potted oif into thumb pots, in compost according to their na- 
ture, and again put in a shaded place till- they have taken 
root; when they should be finally but gradually exposed to 
their respective departments, — the greenhouse sorts to the 
greenhouse, and the stove kinds to the stove ; — and, in con- 
clusion, I beg to say, that the sooner seedlings are potted 
oif the better, as they do not miss their moving so much when 
potted young. 

The young gardener must bear in mind, that the grand 
feature to be attended to, in propagation by seed, is, that 
it must fully reach maturity previous to gathering, for on this 
depends its vigorous and healthy germination. The second 
condition necessary to successful germination, is heat, and 
this must be supplied by artificial means. The third condi- 
tion necessary to insure success, is moisture ; therefore water 
or some equivalent is indispensable ; but the quantity given is 
a matter of importance, as there may be too much or too 
little. In the first case, the seeds will burst and rot, and, in 
the second, they will remain inactive in the soil. The fourth 
condition necessary is air, and this must be regulated by the 
state of the weather, still bearing in mind, that shading is 
necessary in bright sunshine. 

I think I have extended these remarks to the full legitimate 
length of one article, and, if considered worthy of a place in 
your valuable Magazine, they are much at your service, and 
I shall continue the subject in a future number. 

Staten Island^ N. Y., April 7, 1847. 

Mr. Kennedy may be assured his article is most opportune 
and valuable. Indeed, we view such articles as this, and that 
upon the heath, in our last number, by Mr. Cadness, as the 
very essence of practical knowledge. Could all gardeners, 
who are able to impart information, but have the same liberal 

Descriptions of Eight New Seedling Vei'benas. 213 

and expansive views, how much more rapid would be the 
progress of science among us ! We shall look forward to the 
letters which Mr. Kennedy proposes to write, illustrative 
of the title of the article, with great pleasure, and do not doubt 
but that every amateur, or young practitioner, will be impa- 
tient to treasure up the practical experience with which his 
articles will be replete. — Ed. 

Art. VIII. DescriptioJis of Eight Neiv Seedling Verbenas. 
By the Editor. 

Few flowers, in the same space of time, have attained that 
popularity which attaches to the Verbena. Scarcely ten years 
have elapsed since the introduction of the few original species, 
and now our gardens abound with varieties of every tint and 
shade, from the purest white to the deepest purple. During 
this period, we have described, in our several volumes, every 
really fine seedling originating in various collections, num- 
bering in all upwards oi fifty ^ and we now have the gratifica- 
tion of describing eight entirely new seedlings, selected last 
year from a bed of some hundred plants, some of which are 
remarkably brilliant and showy, and quite distinct from any 
of the older ones. 

Now that the verbena is brought to such perfection, in 
regard to the color, as well as size, of the flowers, new 
and distinct varieties are not produced with the facility of 
former years; but, like the dahlia, pelargonium, fuchsia, 
pansy and other flowers, the selection must be made from 
hundreds or thousands of plants, so small is the chance of 
success in a less number. That many new, very distinct and 
splendid varieties will yet be added to our collections, there is 
no doubt, and, to those who wish to make the trial, there is a 
fair field for that object. Unquestionably, edged, tipped, 
mottled and striped varieties will yet be produced as two-col- 
ored ones have already been, and, as less patience is required, 
in raising seedlings of the verbena than in most other plants, 
the zealous florist should continue his eflbrts yearly, until 
some new and unique tints are obtained. 

214 Descriptions of Eight New Seedling Verbenas. 

Gejn. — Flowers, fine deep rose, with a distinct cherry cen- 
tre, and a yellow eye : petals slightly undulated, and little 
starry : umbels, medium size, compact, and of a good form : 
habit moderately vigorous : foliage good. This is a most 
marked and brilliant variety. The numerous heads of flow- 
ers which cover a large plant sparkle with all the brilliancy 
o^ gems. If the flowers Avere as large, and the petals as smooth, 
as some varieties, it would be difficult to produce its equal. 

Suzette. — Flowers, large, and of the snowiest white, with 
a pure white eye : petals large, broad, finely formed, and 
slightly cupped : umbels, large and rather loose, but of hand- 
some form : habit vigorous : foilage thick and good. Until 
the production of this variety, Feast's white stood at the 
head of this class : but this excels it, not only in the purity of 
the white and its clear eye, but in the form of the umbel and 

Q,ueen of the Lilacs. — Flowers, medium size, clear lilac, 
with lilac eye : petals smooth and flat : umbels, good size, 
compact, and of a handsome globular form : habit moderately 
vigorous : foliage good. A good lilac verbena has been a desid- 
eratum, and although not so showy a color as some others, 
it makes a most desirable variety. This is the best we have 

Rosy Cluster. — Flowers, very large, clear fulgent rose, with 
a yellow eye : petals undulated : umbels very large, rather long 
and compact : habit very vigorous : foilage thick and good. 
This variety is remarkable for its very large and showy heads 
of blossoms, which are so compact from the undulation of the 
petals as to appear as of one large flower. For bouquets, it is 
a valuable variety. 

Variabilis. — FloAvers, large, pale blush, tinted at the edges 
with rose, with a blush eye : petals somewhat undulated : 
umbels large, compact and of fine form : habit good. This 
is an exceedingly delicate, and exquisite variety, its blush 
flowers often assuming a pearly shade, beautifully tinted with 

Caroline. — Flowers, very large, bright glossy pink, with 
a yellow eye : petals broad, well formed and perfectly smooth : 
umbels very large, rather loose, and of handsome form : habit 
good : foliage good. None of the rearlly pink verbenas that 

FloricuUural and Botanical Notices. 215 

we have seen possess the dehcacy of this : its large and 
satiny flowers nearly hide the small and neat foliage, and 
give the plant the appearance of one mass of blossoms. 

Dove-Eyed. — Flowers, large, of a peculiar rosy lilac, with 
a deep and very distinct violet eye: petals large, Avell 
formed, and cupped : umbels good size, rather compact, 
and of handsome shape : habit, moderately vigorous : foli- 
age thick and good. This is a variety quite as distinct in 
its way as Gem : the peculiar dove-colored tinge of the flow- 
er, and its fine dark eye, are entirely new, and have suggest- 
ed a name which is strikingly applicable to this really beau- 
tiful variety. 

Othello. — Flowers, medium size, deep maroon purple, with 
pale purple eye : petals slightly starry but nearly flat : umbels 
very large, full and compact : habit good : foliage small and 
good. Feast's purple and Gazelle have hitherto been among 
the best deep purples. This variety has much larger umbels 
than Gazelle, and thicker petals which resist the hot sun bet- 
ter. The habit is also stronger and the foliage better. 

Several other seedlings have been selected, but these are the 
most distinct, though several are quite new in their way. If 
further trial should show their merits to be worthy of a name, 
we shall hereafter describe them. 

Art. IX. FloricuUural and Botanical Notices of New and 
beautiful Plants figured in Foreign Periodicals ; with De- 
scriptions of those recently introduced to, or origiiiated in. 
American Gardens. 

Beck's Neio Pelargoniums. — It is with much pleasure that 
we announce to amateurs of this most beautiful plant the 
flowering, in our collection, during May and June, of nearly 
all Mr. Beck's seedling pelargoniums, a descriptive catalogue 
of which we have given, with his excellent article on their 
cultivation, in our January nimiber, (p. 34.) Some of the 
kinds are now opening their blossoms, and the improvement 
over even what have been considered as new and fine kinds 
is, indeed, most remarkable. All are so splendid that one 

216 FloricuUural and Botanical Notices. 

scarcely knows which most to admire ; but the most striking 
are Aurora, Hebe's Lip, Competitor and Isabella : no descrip- 
tion can do justice to these ; they must be seen to be fully ap- 
preciated. They will be in the highest state of perfection the 
latter part of May. 

8. Gaede^nia Devonia^a Lindl. The Duke of Devonshire's 
Gardenia, (Cinchonaceae.) 

A stove plant ; growing two feet high ; with white flowers ; appearing in summer ; a native of 
Sierra Leone ; increased by cuttings ; grown in leaf mould and peat. Bot. Reg. 1846, p. 63. 

In our last volume, (XII p. 28), we described the new and 
splendid G. Stanleyd^za, and the present plant is one intro- 
duced at the same time, and by the same indefatigable col- 
lector of African plants, Mr. Whitfield. "This glorious plant 
is a native of Sierra Leone, and is, perhaps, the finest of its 
noble race, and is, we trust, worthy of the name which we 
have ventured to confer upon it. Handsome as Lord Derby's 
gardenia certainly is, it is as far removed from this as an earl- 
dom from a dukedom." The flowers are described as eleven 
inches long, "pure white at first, but, after a time, changing 
to a light straw color, and look much like then a huge white 
lily." The plate certainly represents a most magnificent plant, 
and the two species which are here mentioned must be to the 
hothouse what the beautiful Japan lilies are to the conserva- 
tory, the greatest ornaments throughout the summer and au- 
tumn. The foliage is large, broad and handsome. 

Mr. Glendenning, who furnished the plant from which the 
drawing was made, states, that these species can be made to 
bloom at a variety of seasons, as freely as the Cape Jasmine. 
To do this, it is only necessary to place them, after flowering, 
m a high temperature of at least 80°, with moisture, plunge in 
bottom heat, and syringe freely. Afterwards expose them to a 
lower temperature, and plenty of light, and the bud.s will be 
set. They may then be removed to the greenhouse, where 
their blossoms will freely expand. {Bot. Reg. Nov.) 

9. iEscHYNA'NTHUs MiNiA^TUS Lindl. Vermilion Eschynanth. 


A stove plant ; growing two feet high ; with vermilion flowers ; appearing in summer; a native 
of South America ; increased by cuttings ; grown in peat and leaf mould. Bot. Reg. It>46. p. CI. 

This is another of the brilliant -^Eschynanthuses, introduced, 
through the exertions of Messrs. Veitch's collector in Java. 

Notice of Some of the Plants of New England. 217 

It is a fine companion to JE. Ijohbidnus, and " much finer " 
than Vanden Bosch's iEschynanth, noticed at p. 79. The 
flowers are vermihon colored with a yellow star in the throat, 
and they are produced at the axils of the leaves in short clus- 
ters. It is of the easiest cultivation in a damp stove, where it 
produces flowers abundantly. {Bot. Reg. Nov.) 

Art. X. Notice of Some of the Plants of New England. 
By William Oakes. 

Parony'chia argyrocoma Nutt. Gen. 1. 160. Torrey & Gray, 
1. 171. 

This beautiful plant was probably first collected in the Notch of the 
White Mountains, by Drs. Chapman and Alexander, in the summer of 1843. 
In the same year, I found it in the gravel of many of the recent slides of the 
Notch, and Mr. Tuckerman has since found it in unmoved soil on a flat 
rocky knoll, near the summit of Mount Crawford, several miles distant from 
the Notch. It has not been found elsewhere north of Virginia. 

Sibbaldia procumbens Linn. Torrey & Gray, 1. 433. var. 


In the alpine region of the White Mountains, 1846. Of my abun- 
dant and luxuriant specimens, almost all the leaves have five teeth, the 
two outer ones nouch smaller. The petals are generally obovate and 
obtuse, sometimes oblong-elliptic and acute. The flower is sometimes 
six-parted, with six stamens and nine or ten ovaries in two irregular circles. 
6reuni macrophy'Uum Willd. Torrey & Gray, 1. 421. 

Borders of woods at the base of the White Mountains, not in the alpine 
Gnaphalium supinum Linn. Torrey & Gray, 2. 429. 

On the sides of Mount Washington, and other places in the alpine region 
of the White Mountains. 1843. 
Solidago humilis Herb. Banks. Torrey & Gray, 2. 206. 

The dwarf alpine state of this species, (alpina,) common in the alpine 
region of the White Mountains, is S. Virga-aiirea, var. alpina of Bigelow, 
and Torrey & Gray, 2. 207. 
Veronica alpina Linn. var. Wormskioldii Hook. Bor. 2. 201. 

Alpine region of the While Mountains. Pickering & Oakes, 1825. 
Euphrasia ofiicinalis Linn. D C. Prod. 10. 552. 

Stem dwarf, simple ; leaves roundish, with obtuse teeth; flowers "very 
pale, and extremely minute. It is probably E. micrantha Rcichenbach, Fl. 

VOL. XIII. — NO. V. 21 

218 Notice of Some of the Plants of New Englajid. 

exc. p. 358. See Koch Fl. Germ. 2d. ed. 2. 628. In the alpine region of 

Ih3 While Mountains. 1844. 

Festuca ovina, var. vivipara Linn. F. vivipara Smith. 

In the alpine region of the White Mountains, 1843. 
Luzula arciiata Hook. Fl. Lond. t. 153. Jhncus arcuatus, 

In the alpine region of the White Mountains. 1843. 
Senebiera Coronopus Poiret. Torrey & Gray, Flora, 1. 115. 

Abundantly naturalized about Newport, Rhode Island. Robbins, Sept. 
Z>r^ba caroliniana Walter. Torrey & Gray, 1. 109. 

Salem, Massachusetts. Pickering. 1824. 
Stellaria iiliginosa Murray, Gott. 55. S. aquatica, Pollich. 

Torrey & Gray, 1. 186. 

In Chester, New Hampshire. Dr. Robbins, June, 1829. 
Arenaria squarrosa Michx. Torrey & Gray, 1. 179. 

In Block Island. Dr. Robbins. Sept. 1829. 
O'xalis corniculata Linn. Fries, Novit. 2d. ed. 136. 

Block Island, Dr. Robbins. Sept. 1829. Stem strongly pubescent, dif- 
fuse, with many procumbent branches at base. Stipules well developed. 
Root not stoloniferous, apparently annual. There is some confusion among 
authors with respect to 0. corniculata and slricta. According to De Can- 
dolle and Torrey, corniculata is perennial, and stricta is annual. Accord- 
ing to Linneeus and Fries, the reverse is exactly true of both. Our com- 
mon American slricta is sometimes troublesome in gardens with its abun- 
dant stoloniferous perennial roots. 
Melilotiis leiic^iitha Koch. Torrey & Gray, 1. 321. 

Partially naturalized in Rowley and in Shirley, Mass., and in other places 
in New England. 
Ammaniii« humilis Michx, Torrey & Gray, 1. 480. 

Danvers, Massachusetts. Dr Nichols. 1818. 
/S'axifraga Virginiensis Michx. Torrey & Gray, 1. 571. 

Var. chlorantha. Petals pale green, instead of snow white, as in the 
common variety. The margins and backs of the petals are also sprinkled 
with short hairs like those of the rest of the plant, but paler, and not so 
uniformly glandular. Topsfield, Mass. 1842. 
Archangelica peregrina Mitt. Torrey & Gray, 1. 622. 

This species was first found in Salem, by Dr. Pickering, in 1824. I have 
since found it in many places on the coast of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire, and also in the alpine region of the White Mountains. 
C'ariim Cariii Lin?i. D C. Prod. 4. 115. 

Naturalized by road sides in many places in Massachusetts and New 

Notice of Some of the Plants of New England. 219 

Lonicera flava Sims. Torrey & Gray, 2. 6. 

Monroe, Connecticut. Dr. H. C. Beardslee. 1829. 
Cy'nthia virgi'nica Don. Torrey & Gray, 2. 469. 

In Monroe, Connecticut. Dr. H. C. Beardslee. 1830. 
Erythroe^a spicata Persoo7i. D C. Prod. 9. 60. 

Erythrae'a Pickeringu Oahcs, Hovey's Mag. Vol. 7. p. 179. Soon after 
this species was published, I obtained specimens of the European E. spica- 
ta, and ascertained by comparison that it was identical with my own. Per- 
soon erroneously states that E. spicata growsjn moist meadows in Europe, 
which induced me to consider it different from our salt marsh plant. 
Halen«a deflexa Griscbach, in Hook. Fl, Bor. 2. 67. 

Svi^rtia deflexa Smith. S. corniculata Michx. In Orono, (Indian Old 
Town,) Maine. 1828. 
Convolvulus panduratus Linn. Torrey, Fl. 1. 225. 

New Milford, Connecticut. Dr. Rohbins. 1829. 
Cuscuta epilinum Wei/ie. D C. Prod. 9. 452. 

On flax in fields in Rowley, Massachusetts. 1826. 
i^inaria elatine Miller. D C. Prod. 10. 268. 

Naturalized in Ipswich, Massachusetts. 1825. 
J/imulus alatiis Solander in Ait. Hort. Kew. D C. Pr, 10, 369, 

New Haven, Connecticut. Dr. Robbins. 1828. 
Pedicularis Janceoiata Michx. Hook. Bor. 2. 107. P. pallida 


New Haven, Connecticut. 1828. 
iS^achys palustris Linn. Curtis. Fl. Lend. 

Naturalized in Ipswich and other parts of Essex County, Mass. Exactly 
the European plant. 
<S'tachys arvensis Linn. Curtis, Fl. Lend. 

Naturalized abundantly along the road-side from Kittery to York, Maine. 
Also in Cambridge, Mass. 1818. 
Scutellaria parvula Mich.T. Benth. Lab. 410. 

In East Haven, Connecticut. Dr. Robbins. 1828. 
J.maranthus pumilus R<if. Nutt. Gen. 2. 201. 

At Gay Head, Martha's A^ineyard, Mass. 1829. 
<S'alic6rnia ambigua Michx. 1. 2. 

At Gloucester, Mass. Pickering. 1825. At Martha's Vineyard and 
Plymouth, Mass. Oakes. 
Poly'gonum glaucum Nutt. Gen. 1. 254. 

At Martha's Vineyard, Mass. Oakes, 1829. At Block Island. Dr. Rob- 
J5uph6rbia E'sula Linn. Eng. Bot. 20. t. 1399. 

In Newbury and other towns in Essex County, Mass. A pernicious 
weed, thoroughly naturalized, and not easily to be exterminated from the 
places in which it is once introduced. 1828. 

220 Notice of Some of the Plants of Neio Englatid. 

Z(iquidambar styracifliia Linn Michx. f. Arb. 3. t. 

In Greenwich and Stamford, Conn. Dr. Ives. Dr. Robbins. 
Aristida gracilis Elliott. Fl. 1. 142. Gray, Gram. & Cyp. 1. 9. 

At Danvers, Mass. 1819. At New Bedford, T. A. Greene, Esq. At 
Sandwich, Mass. 
Aristida tuberculosa Nutt. Gen. 1. 57. Gray, 1. c. 1. 10. 

At Plum Island, Mass. Oakes. 1829. At Milford & Stratford, Conn. 
Robbins. 1829. 
Aristida purpurascens Poiret. Gray, 1. c. 1. 8. 

At Nantucket, Mass. Oakes. 1829. At New Haven & Lyme, Conn. 
Westfield, Mass. and Block Island. Robbins. 1829. 
Selaria italica Pal. de B. Torrey, Fl. 1. 153. 

Uxbridge, Mass. Robbins. 
Paiiicum amarum Elliott. Fl. 1. 121. 

At Milford, Conn., Robbins, and at Stratford in the same state, Dr. H. 
C. Beardslee. 
Tripsacum dactyloides Linn. Gray, Gram. & Cyp. I. 40. 

Bridgeport, Conn., Dr. H. C. Beardslee. 1829. 
Cenchrus echinatus Lin7i. Torrey, Fl. 1. 68. 

East Windsor, Conn. Robbins. 1829 
Festuca fascicularis Lamarck. Torrey, Fl. 1. 122. 

Greenwich and Bridgeport, Conn. Dr. H. C. Beardslee. 1829. Block 
Island. Robbins. 
Andropogon Virginicus Linn. Torrey., Fl. 1. 156. 

Nantucket, T. A. Greene, Esq. In Killingworth, Connecticut, and North 
Providence, Rhode Island. Robbins. 1829. 
Andropogon macrourus Michx. Torrey, Flora. I. 156. 

At Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 1829. 
Cyperus Grayi Torrey. Cyp. 268. 

In Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. 1829. Also at Plymouth Beach 
and Plum Island, Massachusetts. 
Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. Torrey, Cyp. 280 

Nantucket, Mass. 1829. 
^Scirpus O'lneyi Gray., in Boston Journal Nat. History. 

On the borders of a small brackish pool in Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 1829. 
>S'cirpus Robbinsu'. Eleocharis Robbinsri Oakes in Hovey's 
Mag. Vol. 7. 178. 

In Uxbridge, Mass. Robbins. This species is, as I supposed, found in 
almost every part of New England. 

Ipswich, Mass., April, 1847. 

Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 221 


Art. I. A Report on the Trees and Shrubs growing nat- 
ural/}/ in the Forests of Massachusetts. Published, agree- 
ably to an Order of the Legislature, by the Commissioners 
on the Zoological and Botanical Survey of the State. 1 Vol. 
8vo. pp. 547. Boston, Dutton and Wentworth, State Print- 
ers. 1S46. 

[ Concluded from -page 185. ] 

The many fme native woody shrubs, and some of the more 
delicate forest plants, or the useful medicinal ones, are duly 
noticed in portions of the Report, with suggestive remarks. 
In the opinion of Drs. Torrey and Gray, there is no essential 
difference between our High Cranberry (Yiburnumopulus^ L.), 
and the European Guelder Rose, a variety of which latter is 
propagated by gardeners as the well known snow ball tree. 
Some other fine species of Viburnum are thus closely related : 
and, doubtless, experimental sowing of the seed might produce 
as remarkable results as in the snow ball tree. And while on 
the improvement of varieties by successive sowing of seed, we 
are reminded of some very just and valuable remarks of this 
Report on the subject of the Currant family : — 

" This family includes only one genus, which comprehends the Currants 
and the Gooseberries. They are either spiny or unarmed shrubs, natives of 
the mountains, hills, woods and thickets of the temperate regions of Amer- 
ica, Europe and Asia, but unknown within the tropics, or in any part of 
Africa. They are fouftd particularly about mountains. Most of the spe- 
cies produce agreeable, refreshing, subacid fruits. The Black Currant, 
Rihes nigrum, a native of Siberia and northern Europe, is cultivated for the 
pleasant tonic and stimulant properties possessed by a jelly made of its ripe 
fruit. The Red Currant, Riles rubrum, found wild in the mountainous 
woods of Britain and other northern countries of Europe, and in the north- 
ern part of America, and the White, which is a variety produced from this 
by cultivation, are, in most places, justly valued for their uses in cookery, 
as a dessert, and as affording a cooling and wholesome drink. The com- 
mon Gooseberry, R. uva crispa or grossularia, a native of the same regions, 
but hardly known in gardens on the continent of Europe, while the size and 
richness of its fruit are the pride of English, especially Lancashire horti- 
culture, is generally but rather unsuccessfully cultivated here for its use in 

222 Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 

tarts and pies, and sometimes as a dessert. The Missouri Currant, B. 
aureum, has been introduced on account of the luxuriance of its growth, and 
the beauty and fragrance of the flowers ; and another from California, i?. 
specibsum, which has been erected into the genus Robsonia, deserves to be 
introduced." — p. 419. 

The Round-leaved Gooseberry, (Rlbes rotundifoliimi, L.) 

" No native gooseberry promises so much as this. The introduced spe- 
cies often refuses to flourish in our gardens, even with careful cultivation. 
It is not perfectly adapted to our soil and climate. But this native one is ; 
and, if the art of cultivation can make as great a difference in it as has been 
made in the wild European gooseberry, the fruit will be the finest of the 
kind in the world. The cultivated species, on its cold, northern, native 
mountains, is small, hard, hairy and acerb. Cultivation points at its large, 
beautiful, firm, sweet, delicious fruit, as the triumph of art. This change 
has been produced by long and careful culture. What may not be made, 
by similar efforts, of a fruit perfectly suited to our climate, which, in its 
natural state, is pronounced delicious ! 

" Found in mountainous and rocky places from Massachusetts to the moun- 
tains of North Carolina, and west to beyond the Rocky Mountains." — p. 421. 

Of fine, wild, native species and varieties of the Raspber- 
ries, we are informed that — 

"The wild Red Raspberry, 1? slrigbsus, not inferior to the cultivated, 
and very nearly like it, and the High Blackberry,!?, villosus and R. 
frbndosus, and some varieties of the Low Blackberry, R. Canadensis, of 
Torrey and Gray, are delicious and wholesome fruits. They difl^er much 
in different localities. This circumstance is worthy of consideration with 
those who mean to attempt to improve these fruits by cultivation. The 
variety of High Backberry found u,t Fall River and around Buzzard's Bay, 
is superior to any that I have tasted, in the vicinity of Boston." — p. 429. 

We have already alluded to the practical value of the Com- 
mon Locust tree ; beside this, it is an universal, and deservedly 
so, favorite of all, whether we take into consideration the del- 
icacy of its foliage, or the snowy grace of its pendent blos- 
soms. Of late years, its cultivation has been much checked 
in consequence of the extensive ravages of the locust borer, 
an insect of insidious habits, and of destructive tendency. 
Premiums, we believe, have been repeatedly offered for cer- 
tain and sure preventives of its fatal evil : — 

Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 223 

" An unexpected remedy has, however, been suggested by the success 
of Joseph Cogswell, Esq., in the cultivation, some years ago, of a large 
plantation of the locust. He found that, when it forms a wood, those trees 
only are attacked by the worm which form the outskirts, exposed to the 
sun and free air. Whether it is that the insect parent of the worm de- 
lights, as many do, in the sun light, and avoids the shade of the woods, or 
from whatever cause, it was found that all the interior of the plantation was 
free from its attacks. If this conclusion should be confirmed by further ex- 
perience, it will be best, whenever the tree is cultivated for its limber, to plant 
it in masses of several acres in extent, and to substitute, in the sunny and 
exposed situations which it has usually held, some of those numerous trees 
which flourish best in them." — p. 4(33. 

Some promise of future valuable results may be anticipated 
by experiments on our native grapes by seed-sowing, to a 
greater extent than has already accrued. Of the Common oli 
Fox grape, (Fitis Z/abrusca, Z«.,) we are told of a remarkable 
variety, the Summer White Grape : — 

" One of the most remarkable varieties is the Summer White Grape or 
Early White. In appearance, it presents some peculiarities. • The leaves 
are on rather long, bristly and downy footstalks, with a rusty down closely 
covering the under surface. The fruit is two thirds or three quarters of an 
inch in diameter, round, pale green, or of the translucent color of the Mal- 
aga grape, when just ripe, afterwards turning red. It is, in some varieties, 
very agreeable to the taste. It ripens in the last of July, and in August 
and September. I have gathered some of this variety in the woods, de- 
cidedly superior to the Isabella grape." — p. 468. 

We confess ourselves wholly unacquainted with such a 
superior wild variety, or, indeed, of any such kind, which 
even approaches to a well ripened Isabella : and doubtless here 
the old adage applies, de gustlbus non, 6lc. ; yet how far 
hardier or better varieties may not be artificially produced, 
no one can affirm without previous experiment. 

The peculiar charm of some happy blending of species of 
flowering shrubs by the accident of Nature is pleasantly set 
off in the following description of what every admirer of the 
rural must have noticed in this vicinity : — 

" On some lanes in Brookline and other places in the vicinity of Boston 
a natural hedge of barberry, sweet briar, wild rose and privet has formed a 
most graceful border for the road-side. This, which gives an airofwild- 
ness and retirement perfectly suited to the purpose for which much of this 

224 Trees and Shruhs of Massachusetts. 

suburb is used, has, in several places, been made to give place to the stiff, 
puddingstone wall ; and the change is called improvement. 

" If the suckers and lower branches are removed, and only the upper 
branches allowed to grow, the barberry forms a very beautiful little tree, 
and sometimes shoots to the height of ten feet. At limes we find such a 
tree by the road-sides, surprising us by its gracefulness and the beauty of 
of its bright yellow flowers in June, and of its rich scarlet berries and its 
fading orange-scarlet leaves in autumn." — pp. 523, 524. 

We have thus presented to our readers a more than usually 
long notice of this remarkable document, of which every page 
seems replete with interest, both of things old and new, rare 
and well known. Accompanying the text of five hundred 
and thirty-four pages, are seventeen copperplate prints of 
specimens of the following trees in outline, done with a beauty 
and accuracy as creditable to the artist as is the subject mat- 
ter to the author. These plates consist of figures of the White 
Oak, QiuercAis alba, leaf and acorns, &c. ; the Overcup Oak, 
d. macrocarpa, leaves and fruit ; the Rough or Post Oak, Q,. 
stelldta, leaves and fruit ; the Swamp White Oak, Q,. bicolor, 
&c. ; the Chestnut Oak, Q. castdnea ; the Rock Chestnut Oak, 
Q,. montdna ; the Black Oak, Q,. tinctoria; the Scarlet Oak, 
Q,. cocc'mea ; the Red Oak, Q,. rubra ; the Bear Oak, Q. ilici- 
fblia ; the Shellbark Hickory, Cdrya alba ; the Mockernut 
Hickory. C. tomentbsa ; the Pignut Hickory, C. poixhia ; the 
Bitternut Hickory, C. amdra; the Nettle Tree, Celiis occiden- 
idlis ;• the Tupelo Tree, Nyssa multijibra. 

We cheerfully recommend such a treatise as this to the 
friends of Horticulture, feeling that the style and manner in 
which the subject is treated will be peculiarly interesting — 
especially to the floriculturist, who engages in a love for beau- 
tiful native shrubs and forest flowers ; and to the arboricul- 
turist will it prove a useful companion and guide, to furnish 
him with important hints, or to serve as a pleasant source of 
instruction. R. 

March 10, 1847. 

The New Engla?id Book of Fruit 225 

Art. II. The New England Book of Fruit ; co7itaining mi 
Abridgment of Manning'' s Descriptive Catalogue of the most 
valuable Varieties of the Pear, Apple, Peach, Plum and 
Cherry, for New England Culture: to which are added 
the Grape, Quince, Gooseberry, Currant and Strawberry ; 
with outlines of many of the finest sorts of Pears drawn 
from Nature ; with Directions for Pruning, Grafting, and 
General Modes of Culture. Third Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged. By John M. Ives. 1 vol. 12mo. pp. 144. Sa- 
lem. W. & S. B. Ives. 

The increasing interest in the subject of Pomology, and the 
eagerness to procure information, may be, in some measure, 
perceived by the recent publication of works treating upon the 
subject. Almost every individual who possesses a spot of 
ground is desirous of planting a few trees, but a want of some 
information upon the subject often deters them from their ob- 
ject. The larger and more complete works are too expensive 
for those who have but little space for gardening purposes, 
and a manual like the New England Book of Fruits comes 
very opportune to the many who wish for something more 
than a mere catalogue of names. 

In the preface to this edition, the author informs us he 
has brought together "the experience of practical cultiva- 
tors in a condensed form and at low price." The original 
descriptions of Mr. Manning, as they appeared in his Book of 
Fniits, (Vol. IV. p. 18.5,) are retained, and many additions 
have been made to his list. The present edition contains a 
descriptive catalogue of 69 varieties of pears, 55 of apples, 24 
of peaches, 29 of plums, and 19 of cherries; also currants, 
gooseberries, strawberries, quinces and grapes. The outline 
engravings which appeared in the second edition also accom- 
pany this volume. Some few fruits have been added by Mr. Ives 
and addenda to those originally described ; and some of the 
original descriptions struck out, in order, we presume, to have 
the book contain about the same number of pages. 

It is unnecessary for us to again recommend a work con- 
taining a great portion of the experience of Mr. Manning for 
twenty-five years ; for, although many new and fine fruits 

226 General Notices. 

have been brought to notice since the volume first appeared, 
the descriptions which were made by him are exceedingly 
valuable, as they were the result of many years' careful ob- 
servation. We therefore commend the work to the attention 
of all who need a manual to aid them in the selection of a few 
choice fruits for their gardens. 

We have only to regret that the size and form of the Avork 
have been reduced : if the present edition had been uniform 
with the last, it would have, we think, been preferable to its 
present form, in which the pages are so reduced as scarcely to 
admit of the largest engravings. The title-page is accompa- 
nied with a colored vignette. 


Art. I. General Notices. 

Destruction of Insects ly Hot Water. — Foremost among universally trou- 
blesome insects, stands the Scale, of various species. This gentleman 
shelters himself beneath his flat shield so securely, that there is no getting 
him to move, or if he is dislodged it is only to leave behind a brood yet 
worse than himself. Hitherto he has baffled everybody. It has been pro- 
posed to glue him down by a wash of paste or gum water, to grind him to 
pieces by incessant rubbing, to kill him with poisons more subtile than 
those provided for her friends by Sir Edward Lytton's " Lucretia;" but 
somehow he always reappeared, and not unfrequently seemed to be invigor- 
ated by the applications in question. At last it has been ascertained by 
Mr. Gordon, the Superintendent of the Ornamental Department, in the 
Garden of the Horticultural Society, that the Scale may be dealt with 
effectually by means of — hot water, which seems to dissolve him. Water 
of the temperature of 140° will annihilate the Scale, and all his young ones, 
eggs included, and will not injure the bark of trees on which he feeds. It 
may be applied by a syringe or a sponge ; all that is indispensable is, that 
it shall come in contact with him. It may be urged, that if water at the 
temperature of 140° will not injure bark, it will leaves. But, in the first 
place, it is possible to attack the Scale when plants have no leaves ; in the 
second place such water will not hurt hard leaves ; and thirdly, if the leaves 
are killed, they will grow again, so that the worst consequence of this appli- 
cation to plants is a temporary loss of beauty instead of a permanent and 
increasing loss of health. 

It is not irapiobable that this method will be found applicable to other in- 

General Notices. 227 

sects besides the Scale. "We learn, indeed, from a correspondent that " a 
pharmacien of Macon has made use of hot water against some of the insects 
that attack the Vine in France, particularly a species of Pyralis, known 
under the name of Ver de la Vigne, the ravages of which, in certain depart- 
ments, almost exceed belief. After various attempts to destroy it by fumi- 
gations with sulphur, corrosive washes, &c., the plan was adopted of at- 
tacking the insect in the state of chrysalid in the fissures of the bark where 
it lodges, by pouring boiling water over the stocks. This mode of proceed- 
ing does not appear to injure the wood, or to impair the vegetative powers 
of the plant, for Vines that were so treated gave a much larger produce than 
those in the neighborhood where the insect was allowed to remain undis- 
turbed." We hope to be able to lay before our readers some details con- 
cerning this gentleman's process. 

With the Gooseberry Caterpillar, another and very different, but equally 
effectual method has been employed for some years by our correspondent 
" F. H. S." 

" In dry weather, about the end of March or beginning of April, two 
men go round the garden with two wheelbarrows, the one full of maiden 
soil, the other empty ; the surface soil for 2 inches deep, in a circle of two 
feet diameter, is removed from under each bush, and replaced with the 
maiden soil, and as soon as the leaves begin to appear, a light covering of quick- 
lime and soot is spread on the new soil, lest a few of the eggs might hap- 
pen to have been left behind." 

The explanation of this is obvious. The young Gooseberry Caiterpillars 
(see vol. i. p. 516) or the chrysalids of the Gooseberry Saw-fly {vol. i. p. 
548), lie all winter in ground about the roots of the bushes ; in the 
beginning of April, they revive or hatch, and immediately climb up to the 
leaves. It is therefore obvious, that if the top soil is removed as above recom- 
mended, the enemies are carried away from their prey, and having no food 
when they are revived or born, perish. We should, however, mix lime 
with the old soil when it is removed, for the purpose of killing the chrysa- 
lids ; the caterpillars will die of themselves. 

Here we have a remedy which cannot fail, because it is dependent upon 
the habits of-life of the insects themselves ; and we doubt not that an inge- 
nious man of leisure, well acquainted with the facts of insect existence, 
vpould devise similar methods of dealing rffcctually with other species which 
as yet have baffled human skill. In some measure this has been done in 
the case of the Curculios, which ravage our apple trees ; and in France, a 
Mr. Blaud has completely overcome the enemies of his Olives, by a pro- 
ceeding very like that which " F. H. S." finds so certain with his Goose- 
berries and Currants. 

The Olive suffers greatly from the ravages of certain moths, whose cater- 
pillars attack not only the leaves, but the flower-buds and fruit, and thus 
produce incredible mischief. These moths, called Tinea olaella by Fabri- 
cius, have been made, it seems, into two genera, by M. Duponchel, who 
calls them Elachista and (Ecophora, although they appear to be not even 
different species ! There are three broods of them in the year, of wiiich 

228 General Notices. 

the first is the only one that is unattackable. The others drop to the 
ground, creep into some dead leaf or cavity, and there undergo their trans- 
formations. It therefore occurred to Mr. Blaud that if, shortly before these 
caterpillars drop to the ground, he were to dig a ditch round his Olive trees 
the caterpillars would fall into it ; and that then, by throwing back the 
earth, he would bury them alive. He tried the method, and found it an- 
swer perfectly. 

Another Olive-scourge is the Oscinis or Dacus Oka, a little fly, which 
deposits its eggs in the Olive fruit, where they hatch and become a grub, 
which feeds upon it. These grubs in the autumn crawl forth, descend the 
branches, and bury themselves an inch or two below the surface, where 
they undergo their transformations and pass the winter. Mr. Blaud buries 
them, too, by throwing 18 inches of mould over the soil at the foot of the 
Olive trees, and beating it down. Out of this tomb the flies never emerge. 

These facts, and twenty others, prove that if we still suffer from the 
attacks of our insect enemies, it is the fault of our negligence, or ignorance, 
or both, and that a study of the habits of these minute creatures, if its re- 
sults are applied by men of skill and judgment, will reduce them, as it has 
reduced other living things, entirely under the dominion of Man. — Gard. 
Chron., 1847, p. 203. 

The Cultivation of the Calceolaria as an Annual. — As the Calceolaria may 
be grown as an annual, I shall begin treating of it as one of those plants 
that can be sown and flowered the same season. Those who have not got 
any seed should get some immediately ; it can now be obtained from any 
seedsman, and, as they are plentiful in most parts of the country, and bear 
seed freely, the seed can be got cheap. The seedlings, if treated in the 
following way, will flower in July, August, and September. The seed 
should be sown in a slight heat, not below 55 degrees, nor above 65 de- 
grees, because, if higher, the seedlings will draw up long and slender, too 
much so to bear handling well ; for they must be transplanted as soon as 
they have three or four leaves, and the sooner it can be done the better. 
The soil should be loam, leaf-mould, and sand, very fine. As the seed is 
very small, it should scarcely be covered with the soil; a little moss put 
over the pot until the plants begin to spring, will be quite sufficient, but it 
must be removed before the plants can be drawn off with it, as there is 
some danger of that sometimes. The soil for the transplanting should be a 
little stronger and coarser than what they were sown in. They may be 
put in at about one inch apart, each way, for the first planting, and tiien the 
largest ones removed as they show themselves, to give both the weaker ones 
and themselves more room. They may be potted at once, or they may be 
again transplanted into pans or boxes, to save room and pots ; for, by that 
time, pots will be in great demand for the many things that are easier plant- 
ed out, if previously well established in pots. Meanwhile, the calceola- 
rias will be growing on in the boxes, and, if lifted carefully and potted, 
just when the first pots are emptied into the flower garden, they will not be 
much later in flowering than if they had been potted after the first trans- 
planting. The soil should be richer and coarser every time they are shifl- 

General Notices. 229 

ed, until they are put into six or eight inch pots, where they will flower as 
well, and often better, than those obtained at a high price fiom the dealers. 
Where the grower does not intend competing at exhibitions, but simply 
requires his plants for the decoration of his garden, I would advise him to 
adopt this plan, whereby he will be supplied with little more cost than his 
trouble ; and this would be comparatively nothing if we take into account 
the number of plants he could have for tlie price of the very cheapest plants 
he could buy. Besides, he would be likely to obtain far better flowers. 
Any person who has been in the hhbit of raising seedlings, knows what an 
amount of pleasure he has experienced on seeing a beautiful child of his 
own, if I'may use the expression, showing its face for the first time. I am 
sure that any person trying this plan will have a hundred flowers out of one 
packet of seed, as good as the one flower he could have bought at the same 
price. And, whenever the flowers show themselves to be unworthy of 
room in the inside, there will always be a place outside, in which any thing 
in flower will look better than a blank, or a plant out of flower. Where 
there is not much room for w-intering them, none but the very best need be 
kept ; the rest, having ripened their seed, may be turned out ; and the pots 
may be used for some of the plants in the flower-garden before the frosts 
set in. There is no plant I know that is so easily crossed as the calceola- 
ria, for the herbaceous and the shrubby kinds cross as readily together as 
any of the shrubby or herbaceous ones taken by themselves. The way I 
generally do, when I have decided on what two flowers I wish to cross, is 
thus : — With a knife I scrape the pollen froin the anther of the one, and 
apply it to the stigma of the other with the same instrument, taking care to 
have the anthers removed before they burst. Where there is to be more 
than one cross effected upon one plant, there will be something needed to 
show which flowers are crossed with this or that variety. The best and 
most simple method is to use diflJerent colors of thread, tying a distinct color 
to each flower, and keeping a'note of the cross in a book ; by this means, 
■when the seed is ripe, it is easy to know from what flowers it was obtained. 
I recollect, some years ago, just at the beginning of the calceolaria mania, 
to have been in the house of a great grower, and his flowers were marked 
with thread of different colors ; and I believe he reaped the benefit of his 
colors, for he raised some of the best flowers that appeared for some time 
after that, and got great prices for them. But every thing of that kind has 
its day, and I believe he has now no better flowers than his neighbors. — 
{United Gardeners'' Journal, 1817, pp. 97, 98.) 

The Cuhivalion of the Dahlia. — The following remarks on the manage- 
ment of this fine autumnal flower, are from a Descriptive Catalogue recent- 
ly sent us by the author, Mr. Charles Turner, of Chalvey, near Windsor, 
one of the most successful cultivators around London. Mr. Turner was 
formerly with Mr. Brown, of Slough, well known not only for the superior 
specimens of blooms which he has repeatedly exhibited, and taken the highest 
prizes, but for the production of many of the finest varieties which have 
been raised. We therefore make no apology for the length of his observa- 
VOL. XIII. — NO, V. 22 

230 Genei'al Notices. 

lions, confident that every amateur will find them of the greatest assistance 
in the growth of superior flowers : — 

" Culture of the Dahlia. — Having been frequently solicited to give the 
particulars of my system of cultivating the Dahlia for exhibition, 1 beg to 
offer the following directions, as the result of considerable experience, at- 
tended with uniform success, from 1834 to the present time. During this 
period I have grown the ' King of Autumn ' in four different localities, 
and in as many different soils. The ground I occupy at present, differs 
materially in its nature, and consists of old black vegetable garden mould, 
stiff loam, and sandy or peaty loam. 

The finest flowers are produced with less labor and attenticm on the 
latter, to which, of course, I give the preference ; and I would recommend 
to those beginning the culture of the Dahlia, or others selecting a new piece 
of ground, to choose a moist, light part of the soil, for flowers that produce 
green, hard centres, and likewise a convenient situation for giving them 
plenty of water, as their rapid growth causes them to produce flowers with 
perfect centres ; when those floweis that generally come thin after their 
first blossoms, should have an open situation and heavy soil, in order to pro- 
duce slow growth. The Marquis of Aylesbury, Hudson's Princess Royal, 
&c., are suitable to the former; Lady St. Maur, Beauty of Sussex, and 
such flowers, to the latter situation. 

Planting. — The ground having been well turned, or thrown up in 
ridges, during the winter, levelled when in a dry state late in March, or 
early in April, and well dug previous to planting, I proceed to mark the 
distance ; which should be six feet from row to row, and five feet six in the 
rows. This will not be found too much ; as large flowers can never be 
produced, if the plants once become drawn. 

A few spits of light rich soil, well-mixed in the spot where the plants 
are about to be placed, will cause them to take hold, and be established, in 
much less time ; and, if the ground is poor, the same quantity of rotten 
manure mixed in underneath, will also be of great benefit. 

The last week in May, or the first week in June, is the proper time to 
commence planting. Select those plants that are short, stout, and fast 
swelling ; and avoid thbse that have stood too long in the pots, and have 
become stunted in the points, and hard in the leg. If such cannot be avoid- 
ed, it would be a saving of time to re-pot, and place them in a brisk heat. 
I would recommend, also, that the young plants should be repotted, as soon 
as received from the nursery, into four-inch pots, and placed in a cold frame, 
free from slugs, and to be kept growing, though slowly, giving all the air 
possible in fine weather, so that the stems of the plants may be of a dark 
green color, short-jointed, and of a healthy appearance. Green fly should 
not be allowed to exist amongst them. By attending to these simple 
means, it is easy to lay the foundation of future success, which cannot 
be obtained with bad plants. 

Stake them at once with one large stake, to be permanent, and secure 
the plant with a strong piece of bass, suflBciently loose to allow the stem 
to swell. Add two small stakes at right-angles, to which the plant must 

General Notices. 231 

also be secured ; this will keep it in a firm position during the worst wea- 
ther. Add large stakes as the plant advances, and keep the side-branches 
secured. In this particular, there is generally some neglect ; by deferring 
the tying until it can be done all at once, an unexpected high wind may strip 
the plant of half its branches. 

I must strongly impress on those who wish to obtain fine large flowers, 
the importance of tying the branches " out," not up in a bunch like a wheat- 
sheaf, which is too often the case ; as it is essential that the sun and air should 
circulate freely through the plant, as well as around it. 

Thinning. — Under this head, no definite rule can be laid down. Never 
allow the plant to become full of small branches, and then removed at once ; 
all superfluous shoots should be cut away as the plant progresses. It is also 
injudicious to subject each variety to the same amount of thinning ; for, by 
such treatment, as much injury will be done to some kinds as good to others. 
Those that are generally too large and coarse must be spared ; when such 
varieties as require size only should be thinned considerably. As I before 
observed, no precise rule can be laid down ; and nothing but close observa- 
tion in this important part will make the operator perfect. 

Nearly the same rules apply to disbudding. Those that it is necessary 
to reduce in size must be deferred until a later period, which will bring the 
flowers more compact, with smaller petals, and better general form. Infor- 
mation will be obtained on this part of the subject, by referring to the an- 
nexed catalogue, which cannot be given in detail here. 

Shading of Blooms. — Here the enthusiast often makes a sad mistake, by 
being too anxious, giving himself extra trouble, and, at the same time, spoil- 
ing the blooms he so much wishes to preserve, by shading them too long 
before they are wanted ; shading out of character many of the light flowers, 
and making all tender, and less able to bear a journey, or exposure when put 
up for competition. It is requisite to shade some light flowers, and some 
of the yellows, earlier than others, in order to produce them clear and dis- 
tinct : when, on the other hand, those with slight tips, or marking, must be 
deferred ; otherwise, the face of the bloom would be without its character- 
istic feature — indistinct blush, instead of the attractive tip or edge. 

The time required for shading before a given day when the blooms are 
wanted, must, in a great measure, depend on the weather. Four or five 
days will be sufficient for an early show, but, as the season advances, ex- 
tend the time ; and secure the buds or young blooms likely to be good, 
from friction against the neighboring blooms and foliage, by tying them to 
stakes or parts of the plant. 

There are many kinds of shades in use for protecting the blooms, of vari- 
ous degrees of merit. Those I prefer are made of tin, painted white. A 
spring in the ferule attached to the side of the shade fixes it at any height 
it may be required ; the stalk of the bloom is then crossed, and firmly secured 
to the stake, leaving the bloom fixed under the centre of the shade. 

Pots, inverted on what are termed tables, are desirable for some varieties. 
I do not prefer them for general use ; one great disadvantage being the 
time occupied, in fixing the bloom, being double that of the shades above 

232 General Notices. 

described. Flowers ■with weak foot-stalks are best secured under pots. 
Avoid any contrivance that will not admit the air freely. 

Those who have grown the Dahlia for exhibition will be fully alive to the 
importance of keeping down insects, more particularly the common enemy, 
the earwig. Many plans are adopted for this purpose : the most common, 
and, perhaps, most effectual, being with small pots half-filled with dry 
moss, placed on the stakes that support the plants, and bean-stalks placed 
about them, to which they retire. The most active vigilance is necessary, 
as they fly from plant to plant ; but, commence early to examine the plant, 
and keep them down as much as possible. The surface of the ground 
should frequently be moved ; it will require to be forked up between the 
plants about five or six weeks after they have been planted. Cleanliness 
should be observed in every department, and at every stage of their growth, 
or success will be any thing but certain. 

Watering. — From constant watering, the soil near the plant will become 
baked and hard. It will, therefore, be best to mulch them with partly- 
decomposed manure ; this should be done immediately after they have been 
forked over, as it will keep the roots nearest the surface moist. 

Use soft water, if possible. If not naturally so, pump it, in the morning, 
into tubs or tanks, leaving it to the action of the sun and air ; to be used in 
the evening. AA'hen the plants have become large, it will be necessary to 
give them considerable quantities at a time, instead of frequent waterings; 
but this, of course, will depend upon the state of the weather, soil, &c. On 
no account neglect giving them a slight sprinkling overhead, through a fine 
rose or syringe, in dry weather, after the sun has left them ; as the dew 
following this operation, will keep the plants in a wet state until the follow- 
ing morning, which will prove a preventive of the thrip, and keep the 
earwigs from eating the points of the young shoots, which they often do 
before any blooms appear. The color and size of the foliage will also soon 
show the beneficial effects of this practice. 

Selecting Blooms for Exhibition often puzzles the most experienced grow- 
ers, — the dark selfs being so much more numerous and superior in shape 
to the light flowers, that, in selecting twenty-four, one or two points often 
have to be sacrificed — either shape, or contrast in colors. I recommend that 
as much diversity of color should be introduced as possible, with due regard 
to shape and perfect centres. Much can be done by arrangement ; yet we 
often see stands contain a whole row of flowers of great similarity. At all 
times, place deep circular flowers at the four corners ; and select quality 
before size. If a bloom is observed to be shaky behind, or inclined to open 
in the centre, when packing up your box, it may safely be concluded that 
it will not make one of the number required, by the time it is wanted. Dis- 
card it at once, and look for the next best of the same sort. 

If the blooms are intended to travel a long distance, provide plenty of 
young ones in addition. 

Never, unnecessarily, handle the blooms. It should be remembered 
that all this pains-taking has been to produce them in the highest state of 

General Notices. . 233 

perfection, to be looked at only. The dead appearance, caused by rough 
usage, can never be removed. 

Fancy Dahlias are becoming very popular, and deservedly so. The pre- 
judice is fast wearing away, that these party-colored flowers could never be 
produced of good shape. Every succeeding season has tended to remove 
this impression ; and many, in the accompanying list of fancy Dahlias, 
would grace a stand of the ordinary varieties. 

I should recommend the sam.e treatment for these as the other varieties. 
Perhaps they should not be grown quite so strong ; and those known to be 
too long in the petal (the prevailing fault at present), should not be disbud- 
ded so early as the others ; this will improve the outline of the flower but 
reduce it in size, a point, however, of much less importance. 

Fancy Dahlias, in a ievf years, will, no doubt, be as extensively culti- 
vated as the ordinary varieties, being more showy in the borders, and, with, 
improved shape, will be more attractive in stands. 

Raising Seedlings is, perhaps, attended with more interest and pleasure 
than any other part of the culture of this beautiful flower. Daily watching 
the expansion and development of each promising bud is attended with no 
little excitement. 

Much has been said and written respecting which sorts are best to save 
seed from. I will not attempt to instruct, further than give the system 
practised by me ; which is, to remove all thin, or otherwise inferior blos- 
soms, as they appear ; for the fewer petals there are, the greater the quan- 
tity of seed, with little or no chance of its producing a good double flower. 
By this, it will be seen, much ultimate trouble will be saved. In small 
select collections, there will not be so much to do on this point ; but, in 
large collections, there will be many varieties from which it is not desirable 
to save seed. This accounts for the number of fine seedlings that have been 
produced by amateurs, from small collections ; when many, who annually, 
raise thousands, do not produce a good one. It is worthy of remark, that 
those seedlings that take the lead and bloom first, seldom, if ever, produce 
a flower worth preserving ; these are from the finest seeds and thinnest 
blooms ; they vegetate first, and keep ahead all through the season, and 
can easily be distinguished by their tall habit, without side-branches ; 
whereas the late, small plants, that require nursing to make them bloom 
before the frost arrives, generally produce the best flowers; as it is well 
known that very few of our best seedlings are ever shown the first season 
of their blooming. These are from the smallest seeds, and very double 

Concluding Remarks. — I am an advocate for changing tlie stock of good 
old varieties. Growing them year after year, in the same garden, without 
even partly changing the soil, produces the result which may be anticipated : 
the flowers degenerate ; and a change becomes necessary. 

Keeping the roots and propagating from them being so simple, and now 

so generally understood, it would be a waste of time and space to enlarge 

on this part here ; but I recommend that pot plants should be preserved of 

those varieties as are known to rise badly from the ground, such as the 


234 Domestic Notices. 

' Duchess of Richmond,' ' Mrs. Shell}',' and several others, which often 
decay during the winter. 

In taking a retrospective view of the Dahlia fancy, it is pleasing to re- 
mark the gradual improvement of this autumnal favorite, up to the present 
time. This improvement is annually progressing towards greater perfec- 
tion ; for of late years many of the finest varieties have been introduced, 
and it is notorious that an established fine seedling at the present time will 
command a higher price than at any previous period. To mark the progress 
of the Dahlia, the stand that obtained the £20 prize for the best twenty- 
four blooms at the Cambridge Dahlia Show, 1840, contained only one 
variety that was shown in the first stand, of the same number of blooms, at 
the Metropolitan Exhibition, 1846 — a brief period of six years. That vari- 
ety was Springfield Rival, a flower of thirteen or fourteen years' standing. 
I need not mention that both stands were grown by myself. The former 
was considered to be the best that had been produced up to that time, and 
the latter was certainly the best twenty-four I had shown during 1846. I 
very well remember that, at Cambridge, Unique was what is termed the 
" bloom of the exhibition ;" Penelope, Amato, Hope, Conservative, Maid 
of Bath; and many other flowers now out of date, were stars in that superior 
stand." — (C Turner^s Catalogue, 1847.) 

Art. II. Domestic Notices. 

The American Agricultural Association of New York city, recently organ- 
ized, has issued a circular, giving a programme of the first contemplated 
exhibition to be holden in the large room of the Association, No. 501 Broad- 
way, on the 19th of the present month, when a liberal number of premiums 
will be awarded. We make the following extract from the Circular, in 
regard to the objects of the Association : — 

" Influenced by such considerations, and conscious that no part of the 
world offers greater advantages for the development of horticultural produc- 
tions, where the wealth of the community, the facility of access, and the 
nature of the climate all combine, if seconded by the zeal of those desirous 
of advancing a favorite pursuit, to lead the Association to the most sanguine 
hopes of immediate success. Our sister cities of Boston and Philadelphia 
have entered upon this field of amicable competition with remarkable advan- 
tage, and while, in most respects, their opportunities are inferior, let it not 
he said that we cannot even equal them, when we have once appreciated the 
benefits of the scheme. Around New York city, the establishments of nur- 
serymen and gardeners are more extensive and complete than in any other 
part of the country, and their proprietors yield to none in the energy with 
which they manage their business, the enterprise with which they obtain 
the best productions of foreign soils, or the skill with which they develop 
them. If we remember the great number of conservatories, greeDhouses 

Domestic Notices. 235 

and plant-rooms, which are attached to private dwellings, we cannot fail to 
be convinced that united action only is wanting to bring into prominent view 
the existing floral wealth amongst us. And the vicinity of the city, with its 
sisters of Brooklyn and Williamsburgh, and, hardly more removed, Jersey 
City and Newark, with the rivers running to the North and East studded 
■with the seats of those devoted to rural pursuits, emulating, in their zeal, 
the inhabitants of Stalen and Long Islands, presents a field of horticultural 
prosperity certainly unequalled in any part of the United States. Con- 
scious, therefore, of sufficient strength, determined to go on, confident of 
the support of a people always ready to aid a public enterprise, and trust- 
ing that the plan may meet with approbation, the Association submits, 
through the Executive Committee, the following scheme of its contemplated 

We are glad to learn that another attempt has been made to organize a 
society in New York, for, as the Committee state, ihere is no want of en- 
ergy or enterprise, either among the professional cultivators or amateurs 
around the city, and united action is only necessary to carry out all they 
propose. With such gentlemen as Messrs. Bradish, Frelinghuysen, Len- 
ox, Bell and others, as the Executive Committee, and such active mem- 
bers as Messrs- Thorburn, Reid, Hogg, Dunlap, Smith, &c., w-e cannot 
doubt of success. We shall endeavor to give a brief report of the exhibi- 

Individuals sending plants from a distance are notified that Mr. James 
Hogg, 562 Broadway, will take charge of them. — Ed. 

Liberal Donation to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — We are 
happy to announce another liberal donation to this institution of $500 by 
Josiah Bradlee, Esq., the amount to be added to the permanent fund for 
premiums on flowers and fruits. Mr. Bradlee has already presented the 
Society with two beautiful China roses, and we are glad to record this addi- 
tional act of munificence for the promotion of a science which contributes 
so much to the public good. — Ed. 

Osage Orange {Macliir^ Aurantiaca). — Messrs. J. F. Dair & Co., of 
Cincinnati, have been successful in introducing for sale, from the native 
forests of the Far West, a great quantity of the seed of this beautiful tree, 
•which we, years ago (Vol. IL p. 9), recommended as a valuable hedge 
plant, especially south of New York. Around Boston, it has not been found 
hardy, only in some very dry and cool northern exposures. As a general 
hedge plant in the latitude of 42° north, it will, we fear, never answer the 
expectations of cultivators. But where it stands the winter freely, it makes 
one of the most beautiful screens or hedges, its glossy and deep-green foli- 
age having all the elegance of the orange tree. Messrs. Hovey & Co. sup- 
plied J. P. Cushing, F,sq., of Waiertown, with plants for a hedge in 1839 or 
'40, but, notwithstanding every care has been taken with it, it is yet small 
and gaps have been made in it from the destructive effects of severe frosts. 
To our friends around New York and Philadelphia, we would highly rec- 
ommend the osage orange. — Ed. 

Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — The first public 

236 Domestic Notices. 

exhibition of the season will take place on Saturday, May 15th, when pre- 
miums will be awarded for greenhouse plants, pelargoniums, roses, cac- 
tuses, &c. &c. The season has been rather backward, and the day has 
been put forward from the 1st to the 15th on this account ; yet we antici- 
pate a good display of plants, especially of pelargoniums. — Ed. 

Cultivation of the Fig, and new Varieties of the Pear. — By accident. I 
did not see the number of your Magazine containing my last communication 
and your request for the fig trees, until a very few nights since, when it was 
quite late to send the trees, as they are out in small leaf. I will try, how- 
ever, to send you some of them later in the season, or, if I cannot, 1 will 
send you small trees of all the good kinds we have in cultivation that I can 
get. The fig grows readily from cuttings, put out in August, and frequent- 
ly bears a few fruit the next spring. Of all the varieties we have, and they 
are not very few, the Alicante and Celestial are decidedly the best. 
The coming summer, I hope to be able to send you outlines of the most re- 
markable. My wife took the outline of one of the first Alicante figs we had 
last summer, which I send you herein. It is much longer than usual, but 
proportionably narrower in consequence, and probably not of the .largest. 
This is the most productive variety I have ever seen, bearing constantly, 
from about the middle of July until about the middle of November, when 
we usually have our first killing frost. This one was plucked ripe on the 
4th June, in the open garden, being one of what is usually called first crop ; 
usually, we get only the second and third crops. The true shape of this 
fig is more nearly such as my dotted outline, but may be not quite so large, 
but little if any smaller. 

Since my first communication to you I have considerably increased 
my number of varieties of the pear, now numbering 126 varieties, 
many of which may fruit this summer for the first time. I received, a 
few days ago from Paris, the following varieties, Orpheline d'Enghien, 
Tavernier de Boulogne, Colmar d'Aremberg, Belle — , Epine Dumas, Bezi 
des Veterans, Bonne d'Ezee (quere Bonne des Zees ■? of you), Beurr6 gris 
d'hiver, Nouveau or deLugon, and St. Nicholas. Do you know these varie- 
ties and what is their character and reputation, as also of the Bon Chretien 
Napoleon, Bonne Ente, (or Anthe) ou Sublime Gamotte, Delices Charles 
Van Mons, Beurre des Charneuses, do. de Richelieu, do. de Beaulieu, do. 
Moir6, Excellentissima, Louis Philippe, Bezi de Caissoy or Quessoy, do. 
Sans pareil, Poire de Passy, Angora ou Belle Angevine, Bon Chretien d'Au- 
che, do. de Vernois and Noisette, which 1 received last year 1 Some of this last 
list will blossom and probably bear fruit the coming summer, though the 
trees (dwarfs) are very small, even for that shape. I have twice received 
from Europe the Beurr6 gris and Beurr6 dor6 as different pears, and think 
that they are, as both times I have lost them ; the first time, one tree lived 
a few years and died of the fire-blight, when 1 was travelling for the sum- 
mer, and the last year it came dead, while the true Beurr6 gris is a very 
vigorous and flourishing tree. They are considered as different in every 
•work on gardening that I have in French. I received, both last year and 
this, the Bartlett from Paris, as the Bon Chretien Williams, and not as 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 237 

Poire Guillaume, as Mr. Downing says in his first edition of Fruits, dSfc. 
I have never before now had the St. Ghislain ; at any rate, no tree sent me 
by that name ; therefore, the pear of mine that you allude to cannot well be 
that pear. Be it what it may, it certainly was the most delicious pear that I 
have ever eaten, but this is not saying a great deal, as I have not tasted many 
of the finest. In looking over the catalogue of the nurseryman who sent 
me the tree, I see Bezi de Lamotte along with the Chaumontel, de Vaat 
and others, and no Doyenne de la Motte. — Yours, R. Chisholm, March 25, 

Growth of Trees in the Southern States. — From your remark upon 
the growth of the trees of your correspondent. Dr. Philips, I see that you 
have no idea of our climate, where peach trees are in full bloom now, 
and blossoms were seen since 14th February. Pear trees, Crassane, 
and Messire Jean, are in bloom, and some are putting out leaves, which 
may live until next Christmas. I put in two buds of the Beurr6 des 
Charneuses last year about this date into one sucker, at the root of the 
supposed St. Ghislain, which are, at this time, 4 feet 8, and 6 feet 4 high 
above their insertions. The Fire-blight is very rare with me, and I hope 
will hereafter be still more so, but I believe is much more common on sandy 
soils here, where the pear is grafted upon pear roots. I have set out one 
plant of what was given me by a gentleman who imported, direct from you, 
I believe, one dozen plants when they sold at $ 5 per dozen, as your Seed- 
ling, a pistillate plant, about two miles from here in a straight line, and 
equally far from any other plants, except one plant of what was given me 
as Keene's seedUng, also pistillate, about half a mile farther off still, to try 
whether they will bear fruit. Both are in excellent soils for them. I have 
found the Crassane and Bon Chretien d'hiver pears, very sweet cooked 
when gathered half-grown, in thinning out the fruit ; and Bailly, in his 
Manuel du Jardinier, mentions also the Salviati, Chaumontel, Colmar, 
Messire Jean and Echasserie as good either for the table or to cook. My 
only little musk apricot tree being about to die last spring, I grafted below 
ground, three scions upon roots of peach, and two out of the three lived, 
and grew well, say about three feet high, the roots being quite small. I 
have just received from Paris the Beun-6 Aurore or Capiaumunt ; Are they 
synonymous? I find quinces grow very freely from cuttings put down at 
any time during the winter. — Yours respectfully, Robert Chisholm, Beau- 
fort, S. C, March 25, 1847. 

Art. III. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, April 3d, 1847. — The quarterly stated meeting of the Society 
was held to day — the President in the chair. 

The President announced to the Society, that he had received, from Josiah 
Bradlee, Esq., a check for $500, for the purpose of being added to the per- 
manent fund for premiums on flowers and fruits. 

238 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Bradlee for his very liberal 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Geo. B. Emerson, Esq., for a 
copy of his Report on the Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts. 

A package of seeds from the Rocky Mountains was received from J. B. 
Russell, of Cincinnati, and the thanks of the Society were voted for the 
same. The seeds were placed in the hands of the Committee on Flowers 
for distribution. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to R. Buist, of Philadelphia, for a 
copy of his Manual on the Culture of the Rose. 

A letter was read from Wm. R. Smith, of Macedon, N. Y., accom- 
panied with scions of the Early Joe, and Red Canada Apples, and Swan's 
Orange, and Osband's Summer pears. The thanks of the Society were 
voted to Mr. Smith, and the scions distributed to a few members. 

The XXth Section of the By-Laws was amended by striking out all after 
the word " them" in the twenty-second line. 

Adjourned one week, to April 10th. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From John Thomas, gardener to J. L. Gardener, 
flowers of five varieties of Pelargoniums. From W. B. Richards, two varie- 
ties of Crown Imperials and Polyanthus narcissus. 

Afril lOth. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day, — the 
President in the chair. 

A letter was received from Mr. A. H. Ernst, accompanied with fourteen 
varieties of apples, and one variety of the pear, which were laid on the table 
for distribution — and the thanks of the Society voted for the same. 

Adjourned one week to April 17th. 

April mh. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to day, — 
the President in the chair. 

A box of seed was received from Mrs. Percival, and the thanks of the 
Society voted. 

Voted, — That the Recording Secretary be requested to give notice through 
the public press, of the opening of the Society's Hall for Public Exhibition. 

William D. Ticknor was elected a Subscription Member. 

Adjourned for one week to April 24. 

April 24</t. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day — the 
President in the chair. 

No business was transacted at this meeting, and the Society adjourned 
for one week to May 1. 

Adjourned two weeks, to May 8. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From P. Barnes, a plant of Hybrid perpetual 
Duchess of Sutherland Rose, and seedling Verbenas, some of them fine. 

Fruit : From J. F. Allen, Black Hamburgh and White Chasselas grapes 
— and Black St. Michael figs. From B. V. French, Yellow Newtown 
Pippin apples. From S. W. Cole, specimens of apples called the Red 
Russet, of fine flavor for the season. 

Horticultural Memoranda. 239 




Grape Vines will now be in full flower in the greenhouse and grapery, and 
the temperature should be raised a few degrees, and the house kept rather 
closer, especially during cold and windy weather. Discontinue syringing 
while they are in blossom. By the middle of the month, the berries will 
probably be nearly all set, when more air should be given, and syringing 
again commenced : the walks should, however, be well watered every 
warm day, in order to create a humid atmosphere. Continue to stop the lat- 
erals where they have pushed from a previous stopping, and tie in leading 
shoots carefully where the vines have not yet attained their full length. 
The border should be carefully forked over, with the addition of some good 
manure, and a slight coating of guano. Vines in the open air, of both for- 
eign and native kinds, should now be tied up to the trellises, and put in order 
for the season. A'^ines in pots, now swelling their fruit, should be liberally 
watered with liquid manure. 

Raspberry plunlaiions may yet be made with the best success, in conse- 
quence of the late backward weather. Dig around old plants, and tie up 
the stems to stakes. 

Strawberry beds may be made all the month. Old beds should be care- 
fully raked, and cleared from all old dead runners, weeds, &c. 

Grafting should all be completed this month, if possible. 

Pruning should now receive attention ; it is a kind of work which should 
be done with deliberation and judgment. 


Pelargoniums will be in their greatest perfection this month, and, if they 
have been properly managed, quite the showiest plants of a good green- 
house collection. If the plants show signs of weakness, give them a little 
guano water : see that they are all carefully and neatly tied up, and place 
them in a situation where they can have an abundance of light and air, and 
be shaded from the sun from 10 till 2 o'clock. Fumigate, if there is a 
sign of the green fly. 

Camellias will now be making their new growth, and should be liberally 
watered at the root, and freely syringed over the foliage ; no plant delights 
more in moisture during the growing season than the cameUia. 

Azaleas will now need attention, if fine specimen plants are wanted next 
season. As soon as they begin to make new shoots, the tops should be 
nipped off, in order to make them bushy and compact. If plenty of room, 
now is a capital time to encourage them in their growth by a liberal shift 
into larger pots. Syringe freely over the foliage. 

Gloxinias should now be potted again, if they have been properly man- 

Achimenes will now need another shift, and, if very fine specimens are 
wanted, they should be put into shallow pans, thiee plants in each. 

240 Horticultural Memoranda. 

Hardy Roses should now be pruned, being careful to cut well in, with the 
exception of Hybrid Chinas and Bengals. Prairre roses should also have a 
portion of the old wood cut out, in order to give place for the new. 
Hydrangeas, if wanted for fine specimens, should now be shifted. 
Chinese Primrose seeds should be sown this month to make fine plants 
for the autumn. 

Heaths, Epacrises, and similar plants, should now be propagated from cut- 

Scarlet Geraniums should now be propagated for a stock for next win- 

Verbenas and Petunias of fine sorts may now be propagated by cuttings 
for turning out into the border. 

Gladioluses, Tigerjiowers, and other spring bulbs, may be set out in the 
open border now. 

Fuchsias will need another shift now, if fine specimens are wanted. No 
plant is more ornamental than this, and, if properly treated, they form the 
very finest ornaments for the balcony or verandah, during the months of 
July, August, and September. 

Pansies, managed as we have directed, should now be planted out in beds 
properly prepared. 

Dahlias may be put out the latter part of the month, or as soon as all 
danger of frost is over. [See the remarks in a previous page of the present 

Carnations and picoiees, wintered in frames, should now be turned out 
into beds, where they will bloom better than in pots. 

Annual Seeds of all kinds may be sown now in beds, and, after being 
properly thinned, they may be put out to fill vacant places in the border. 

Daphnes should now be propagated from cuttings of the young wood just 

Chrysanthemums should now be propagated, either by cuttings or suckers. 
Cyclamens done blooming may be removed to a cold frame. 
Phloxes should now be taken up, divided and reset, in order to have fine 
blooming specimens. 

Cactuses, now coming into bloom, should be liberally watered. 
Salvias of the several kinds may be planted out the last of the month. 
Herbaceous plants of many kinds may be safely transplanted until the mid- 
dle of the month, or even later. 

Roses in Pots, wanted for early flowering specimens in the autumn, may 
now be encouraged to make new wood by a shift into a larger size. 

Cape Jasmines may now be easily increased by cuttings placed in a little 
bottom heat. 

Greenhouse Plants of all kinds may be now propagated before the very 
hot weather sets in. Every zealous amateur, or enterprising gardener, will 
find an abundance of labor to occupy him this month, which is, in truth, 
the busiest of the year. The out-door garden, too, will need every 
attention, and to have a succession of showy flowers throughout the season 
ahauld be the mala object of every gardener who knows his duty. 


O F 


JUNE, 1847. 


Art. I. Guano^ and its Application to Fruit Trees. 
By the Editor. 

The use of Guano for Horticultural purposes is steadily 
gaining friends, and, although much has already appeared in 
our pages upon the subject, and numerous pamphlets pub- 
lished, there is still, with many, a great prejudice against its 
use in any form in gardens. Some allege that it possesses no 
virtue ; others, that it is altogether too powerful ; while by far 
the greater part of cultivators have not made any experiments 
with it, but quietly await the results, after others have failed 
or succeeded in their endeavors to introduce so economical 
and valuable a fertilizer. 

Since the first introduction of Guano, wc have annually 
made use of considerable quantities, and tried it upon a vari- 
ety of trees, shrubs, plants, flowers, vegetables, &c., and in 
no case but with the most marked success, unless we except 
some few pot plants, when it was used, through negligence, too 
strong. We have an account of an experiment we tried in 
laying down an old pasture to grass, the results of which 
were so much beyond our expectations that we intend soon 
to publish it. For the present, we have only room to oflfer a 
few hints on its application to Fruit Trees, this being just the 
season for that purpose. 

Mr. Teschemacher, whose articles on the use of guano have 
occasionally appeared in our pages, formerly recommended its 
application in a liquid state, but more recently, in his treatise 
on the subject, he has advised its direct application to the 
soil, as the insoluble portion contains the chief substance of 

VOL. XIII. — ^NO. VI. 23 

242 Guano, and its Application to Fruit Trees. 

which the seed is composed. Separate from the extra labor 
which its appUcation in a liquid state would require, we are 
decidedly of opinion that the trees are much more benefited 
by its incorporation with the soil, where the roots may find 
food as they require it. 

The object with all judicious cultivators is to keep the roots 
of trees as near the surface of the ground as possible, where 
they will more readily receive the benefit of light rains, the 
genial warmth of the surface soil, and the action of the air 
upon the roots, a subject too often lost sight of, especially in 
heavy soils. It is for this reason that, in such soils, we do 
not recommend the use of guano alone, but only in connec- 
tion with some well decomposed manure, which, acting me- 
chanically, by loosening the soil, and rendering it more per- 
meable to air, the roots can more readily extend in search of 

Reasoning thus, we have applied Guano to our specimen 
fruit trees, particularly pears, which are planted on the bor- 
ders of the walks, six to eight feet apart, at the rate of a pound to 
each tree, (four to six years old,) strewed equally over the width 
of the border, and immediately dug in, a thin coat of manure 
having been first given. This is done early in June, when 
the borders are usually dug. 

The results of this single application have been surprising. 
The trees have grown with rapidity, making short-jointed 
and stocky shoots, and, with a judicious summer-pruning, 
ripening perfectly well. A portion of the trees are on the 
quince stock, and the others on pear ; but we make no difler- 
ence in the application of guano to each. 

Our advice, therefore, is, to all who have fine trees which 
they are desirous of forwarding ia a vigorous and healthy 
manner, to apply guano as we have recommended. On trees 
planted the present year, a half pound to each tree will be 
ample, spreading it within a circle of three feet from the tree : 
to those two years planted, a pound each may be applied ; 
and to those older, the quantity may be increased slightly ; 
always strewing it on evenly, and digging it in to the depth of 
a few inches with the spade. 

At a future time, we shall continue an account of our exper- 
iments with guano on forest trees, shrubs, grape vines, roses, &c. 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 243 

Art. II. Descriptiojis and E?igravings of Select Varieties of 
Pears. By the Editor. 

In the series of articles which we have, from time to time, 
presented to oar readers, describing all the choicest varieties 
of pears which have fruited in American collections, we have 
generally placed those of native origin together. This arrange- 
ment we have thought preferable as long as practicable, in 
order to bring them more immediately before amateur culti- 
vators, with a view to show their comparative merits, and to 
give a better estimate of their number, than if they were indis- 
criminately intermixed with foreign kinds. Until the num- 
ber of choice native pears is so reduced, as to delay our descrip- 
tions, this arrangement will be continued. 

67. Swan's Orange. Ge7i. Farmer, Vol VII. p. 25. 

Onondtfa Seedling, \ "^ ^°""« collections. 

In the winter of 1845, in looking over the Genesee Farmer, 
the Horticultural department of which is under the supervis- 
ion of our correspondent, Mr. P. Barry, of the Mount Hope 
Nurseries, Rochester, N. Y., we were somewhat interested in 
an account of a new pear described and figured under this 
name. A very high encomium was bestowed upon it ; but we 
supposed its merits were overrated, or it would not have been 
so long confined to the locality of Rochester without being better 
known. Believing it to be either some foreign variety, under 
another name, as Mr. Barry expressed his doubts about its 
native origin, or only a new fruit of fair quality, we made no 
exertions to procure a tree for our collection, and the name, 
for the time, was partially forgotten. 

In the summer of 1846, our correspondent, J. W. Bissell, 
of Rochester, kindly offered to send us specimens of the vari- 
ous new or little known fruits of western New York ; and, on 
the 10th of October, we received a box containing a variety 
of apples and pears, accompanied with the following note : — 
" Swan's Orange Pear, sometimes called the Onondaga. The 
first scions were brought here, some years since, by L. B. 
Swan, from a tree upon the farm of his father in Onondaga 

244 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

County. The parent tree is dead, and it cannot now be as- 
certained where it originated, and no one knows it except 
from this source. It is a rapid grower, and an early and 
abundant bearer. We consider it one of our very best pears, 
and hope it will please you." On opening the box, we found 
six unusually large pears, and we more than ever had 
the impression that it must have been overrated, as a pear so 
very large and handsome could not, by any possibility, have 
been for some years cultivated without its qualities — if so 
very superior — being widely and extensively known. As 
they appeared rather hard, and not in a state for eating, we 
placed them away to ripen. 

A fortnight after this, we ate one of the pears, and, to our 
great surprise, we found it to possess qualities of the very high- 
est excellence — qualities which we had scarcely found in any 
pear we had ever tasted. We had just eaten of all the fine 
kinds of the season, such as the Belle Lucrative, Flemish 
Beauty, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Marie Louise, &c., and when 
we state that neither of them came up to the Swan's Orange, 
we only state what, in our humble opinion, we believe to be 
true. At this time, we had not examined the specimens in 
the bottom of the box, which were wrapped up in paper, and 
our surprise was still mcreased when we found one of the 
pears to weigh upwards of thirteen ounces. Four weeks 
elapsed before we ate the last specimen, and, up to that pe- 
riod, they remained perfectly sound, without the least appear- 
ance of rot at the core. Indeed, we do not hesitate to afiirm 
that, if the epithet of the " best pear in the world" belongs to 
any variety, it is to the Swan's Orange. 

Desirous to give a full account of so remarkable a pear, 
whose history appeared to be involved in some obscurity, we 
applied to our friend Mr. Bissell to supply it, and, at the 
same time, wrote to other correspondents, that we might have 
all the particulars ; and we are happy to state that these have 
been kindly furnished by E. W, Leavenworth, Esq., of Syr- 
acuse, to whom we are indebted for the following account, 
under the date of Dec. 26th last, so interesting that we make 
no apology for its length : — 

" The entire history of the ' Onondaga Seedling' is em- 
braced in the following facts, so far as the same has yet 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 245 

been traced. Some six or eight years since, and, perhaps, ten, 
Deacon Joseph Swan, of Onondaga Hollow — four miles south 
of this — had a son living in Rochester. In the fall of the 
year, he took from home, and exhibited in Rochester, some 
specimens of this pear. It received universal admiration. Ell- 
wanger & Barry procured scions from Mr. Swan — grafted into 
an old tree or trees — and have the fruit now growing. They 
also propagated the tree in their nursery, and called it ' Swan's 
Orange,' and ' The Onondaga Seedling.' They have spread 
the knowledge of the tree extensively. I have, this season, 
undertaken to trace its history. I traced the only trees I 
have yet found, being Mr. Swan's single tree, and five owned 
by one Killman, to the garden of Henry Case, at Liverpool, 
five miles north of here, on the Onondaga Lake. Case left this 
country many years since ; but I found him by letter at Gran- 
ville, in Ohio. I have a letter from him, received a few weeks 
since, in which he says that he cut the graft from which his 
original tree grew, on the ground of the father of the late 
Fisher Curtiss, Esq., of this town, in Farmington, Conn., in 
the Avinter of 1806 ; that, in the spring of 1806, he put the 
graft into a small tree, about three miles west of Onondaga 
Hill ; and, in 1808, moved the tree to Liverpool, where it died 
in 1823. But, in the mean time, it had become a large tree, 
and borne fruit, and many grafts had been taken from it; he 
particularly remembers Mr. Kill man's. He does not state the 
cause of the death of his tree in 1823. Mr. Swan informed 
me that his tree came from Case's. Swan's tree is old and 
not thrifty — grows in the grass — I presume was never ma- 
nured or dug about — and the place is a steep side hill, and 
every way unfavorable. There are no young shoots on the 
tree, or were none last year. Mr. Killman has one small tree, 
and four in bearing about fifteen years old. They are also in 
grass, but are thrifty, hardy, excellent growers and bearers — 
bear every year, and abundantly. These are the only trees 
known here. 

" I have not yet attempted to trace the history of the tree 
at Farmington, Conn., but if no other person does, I will." 

Since the receipt of the above, we have had several letters 
from Mr. Leavenworth, but he has been unable to learn 
any thing respecting its history in Connecticut, and, though 

246 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

we have delayed our description to complete this, we have 
also been unable to glean any further account of its origin. 

Nothing is more important in pomology than uniformity of 
nomenclature. A fruit once named, no alteration should be 
made, even upon what might sometimes seem reasonable 
grounds. If every individual can re-name a fruit as soon as 
he introduces it into his garden, pomologists might give up 
at once all attempts to reduce the chaotic confusion, which 
already exists, into something like order. The rules which 
govern pomological science are precisely the same as those 
which have always governed botanical science, and are prob- 
ably familiar to most cultivators. A fruit which has been 
named by a special vote of a Horticultural Society, and de- 
scribed and figured under that name, cannot be changed with- 
out violating all these rules; and no author or pomologist who 
had the promotion of the science at heart, and not the exhi- 
bition of his own dogmatic opinion, would attempt such an 
alteration. Such is the case in regard to Swan's Orange. The 
Horticultural Society of Rochester, some years since, called it 
after Mr. Swan, because he first exhibited specimens of the 
fruit, and he was, in fact, the individual who brought it to 
notice. From 1806 to 1823, a period of seventeen years, while 
it grew in the garden of Mr. Case, we cannot learn that it had 
a name, or that any attempt Avas made to disseminate it, or, 
from 1823 to 1840, a period of seventeen years more, do we 
hear any thing of it : but, no sooner did the younger Mr. Swan 
perceive its excellence, than he exhibited the fruit, introduced 
it to notice, and gave away the scions to nurserymen that the 
trees might be disseminated. Will any individual say that 
" Mr. Case's name, if that of any person, should be attached 
to it" 1 Certainly not. And again, allowing, for a moment, 
that Mr. Swan's name should not be coupled with it, why 
should it be called Onondaga, a name, we admit, which we 
should like, if it were for the first time applied. Did it origi- 
nate in Onondaga county 1 Certainly not. It is a New Eng- 
land pear, and grew in that ^^ sandy soil and rude climate 
near Hartford" where " many sorts of pears that once flour- 
ished well are now feeble, and the fruit often blighted." The 
name of Onondaga cannot apply, and, without alluding to Mr. 
Barry's description and figure of this variety, the priority of 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 247 

introduction to notice is sufficient to establish the name of 
Swan's Orange. How stands the case with the Bartlett pear, 
which, though an old and well known English variety, is 
now called by that name, even in some pomological works, be- 

Fig. 19. Swan's Orange. 

cause it was first imported into Mr. Bartlett' s garden. Here 
we have a foreign pear described and figured in European 
works, and yet it is called after the person who first brought 
it to notice in this country. Go further back, and see 
how foreign pomologists respect priority of name. The Bart- 
lett, so called, was raised in Berkshire, in England, by a Mr. 
Wheeler, and was first introduced to notice by Mr. Wil- 

248 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

liams, a nurseryman at Chiswick, near London, whose grounds 
are now in the possession of Mr. Glendening, and where we 
saw the old tree in 1844. Yet no cultivator attempted to call 
it after the individual who raised it. Mr. Williams brought 
it into notice, and, from this circumstance, it received the 
name of Wilhams's Bon Chretien. 

It only remains for us to add our description to these rather 
long preliminary remarks, which have been extended from 
the exceeding high merit of the variety, a variety which, we 
repeat, must be called the "king of pears." It is no small 
credit to our rapid strides in pomology, thus early to be ena- 
bled to possess a native variety which fully equals, if not 
surpasses, any thing which the accumulated labors of Euro- 
pean pomologists for centuries have produced. 

Swan's Orange (Jig. 19), in general appearance, somewhat 
resembles a large specimen of Williams's Bon Chretien, 
having the same uneven surface, but, towards the crown, it 
is much broader, and the stem end is nearly always swollen 
and raised on one side, so as to throw the stem into an oblique 

The tree, as our correspondent, Mr. Leavenworth, remarks, 
is a thrifty, hardy, and excellent grower, and bears fine 
crops, even under the ordinary treatment of orchard cul- 
ture, in grass land. Messrs. Ellwanger &. Barry inform us 
it is a most rapid grower. Whether it will succeed upon the 
quince remains to be ascertained, but we shall try it next 
autumn. The wood is strong and upright, rather short-joint- 
ed, with prominent buds, and of a clear olive shade. 

Size, large, about four and a half inches long, and three 
and a half in diameter : Form, oblong obovate, little uneven, 
and irregular or Bon Chretien shaped, largest in the middle, 
narrowing towards the crown, and tapering to the stem, near 
which, on one side, it is suddenly contracted : Skin, very fair, 
smooth, greenish yellow, but becoming a bright yellow when 
mature, leaving a few traces of green, russeted .around the 
eye, faintly tinged with blush on the sunny side, and very 
regularly covered with small, round, russet specks: Stem, 
rather short, about half an inch in length, moderately stout, 
crooked, greyish brown, with white specks, slightly fleshy at 
the base, curved and obliquely inserted in a very shallow 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 249 

contracted cavity, with a swollen lip or projection on one 
side : Eye, medium size, closed, and rather deeply sunk in 
a large, round, smooth basin ; segments of the calyx broad, 
fleshy, and partially reflexed : Flesh, white, fine, very melt- 
ing, buttery and juicy : Flavor, rich, sprightly, vinous, and 
delicious, with most agreeable and high perfume : Core, small, 
very close : Seeds, remarkably small, and very dark. Ripens 
in October, and will keep from four to six weeks. 

We have only to remark that a figure of it will appear 
in an early number of the Fruits of America, from a beauti- 
ful painting by our artist, Mr. Sharp. 

68. Dallas. Mag. of Hort. Vol. XI. p. 251. 

In our volume for 1845, (XI. p. 251), a brief account of 
several of Ex-Gov. Edwards's seedling pears appeared from 

Fig. 20. Dallas. 

his own pen, and, in our last volume, (XII. p. 441), we fig- 
ured and described what we thought to be one of the best of 

250 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

his numerous seedlings, viz., the Elizabeth. At that time, 
we had only made a single trial of them, in the fall of 1845, 
but the last season, having the opportunity to taste some of 
them again, we found two which appear well deserving of a 
place in collections, especially those of any extent. These are 
the Dallas and Calhoun — the latter of which, as Mr. Edwards 
has stated in his communication above referred to, he consid- 
ers " one of his best, as might be known from the name." 

The Dallas {fig. 20), is a fair-sized pear, of a russety ap- 
pearance, and comes in at a good season, during November 
and December, after the great number of early autumn kinds 
are past and gone. 

Size, medium, about two and a half inches long, and two 
and a half in diameter: Form, obovate, regular, full at the 
crown, and tapering to the stem : Skin, dull yellow, thickly 
interlaced, and, in some places, quite covered, with cinnamon 
russet : Stem, medium length, about three quarters of an inch 
long, moderately stout, straight, pale brown, and inserted 
without any cavity : Eye, large, open, and moderately sunk 
in a small, round, slightly wrinkled, basin ; segments of the 
calyx medium length, round, stiff: Flesh, yellowish white, 
fine, melting, and juicy : Flavor, rich, vinous, and slightly 
perfumed : Core, medium size : Seeds, small, pale brown. 
Ripe in November, and keeps into December. 

69. Calhoun. Ma^. o/ i^or/. Vol. XL p. 251. 

The success which has thus far attended the experiments 
of pomologists, in raising new varieties from seed, should en- 
courage all, who have the time and patience, to persevere in 
the laudable effort of adding new kinds to our collections. 
Most of the native sorts have a vigor and hardiness which en- 
able them to withstand our variable climate, suffering less 
from severe frosts, and freer from the attacks of the blight, in 
localities where that disastrous malady annually destroys 
many trees. No individual who plants an orchard of apples 
would think of selecting foreign sorts. The Baldwin, Green- 
ing, Russet, Newtown pippin, Bellflower, &c., would be cho- 
sen ; and, if our apples are so much superior, why should not 
our pears partake of the same character 1 If we may judge 
from the Seckel, Dix, Tyson, Swan's Orange, Andrews, 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 251 

Lewis, Reid's Seedling, Lawrence, &c., this will undoubtedly 
be the case. Gov. Edwards deserves the thanks of all culti- 
vators for what he has done in the production of new kinds, 

Fig. 21. Calhoun. 

and to add three good varieties is an achievement which but 
few will be able to accomplish in the same period of time. Our 
description of the Calhoun, {Jig. 21), is as follows : — 

Size, medium, about two inches long, and two inches in 
diameter : Form, roundish, regular, slightly tapering towards 
the stem: Skin, fair, smooth, yellow, covered with russet 
specks, and traced with russet on the sunny side : Stem, 
short, about half an inch, stout, and inserted in a very slight 
cavity : Eye, small, closed, and slightly depressed in a very 
shallow basin ; segments of the calyx medium length : Flesh, 
yellowish white, soft, melting, and juicy : Flavor, rich, per- 
fumed, and excellent : Core, medium size : Seeds, large, brown. 
Ripe in October and November. 

70. McLaughlin, il/a^. o/^or^ Vol. VIIL p. 62. 

In the fall of 1831, Gen. Wingate, of Portland, sent to the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society a basket of pears, which 

252 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

he stated to be a seedling raised in Scarborough, Me., and the 
Committee pronounced it a "very fine fruit." Mr. Manning, 
ever eager to add every new and desirable variety to his 
collection, procured scions of the pear, with which he grafted 
trees that produced fruit in 1841 or '42 : at that time, he gave 
a short description of it as above referred to, with the remark 
that it was '-'juicy and good." 

In the fall of 1846, our correspondent, Mr. Goodale, of Saco, 
sent us several specimens of the McLaughlin pear, {fig. 22), 

Fig. 22. McLaughlin. 

with the following note : " I send you a sample of the McLaugh- 
lin pear, thinking it probable you might like to describe it 
in your Magazine some time. With us, it is vastly superior 
to many usually considered first-rate, — though I do not con- 
sider this as strictly first-rate — but it is the best winter pear 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears 253 

we have fruited here, usually in eating in December, and 
November to February, I think it not improbable that it 
may be a cross of the old St. Germain and Brown Beurre." 

The pears sent us by Mr. Goodale were of large size, and 
proved to be a very excellent fruit, — not quite first-rate, but 
well deserving a place in a select collection. Our drawing 
was made on the 15th of December, and some of the pears 
kept till January, though in a rather warm room. We sub- 
sequently wrote to Mr. Goodale for some account of the ori- 
gin of this variety, and his statement is as follows : — 

As you requested, I give you all the particulars known to 
me in regard to the McLaughlin pear. There are some dozen 
trees on the McLaughlin farm, about ten miles from here; all 
are evidently grafted, some of the older near the ground, the 
others in the branches. The widow of the man who planted 
them says the scions came from Westbrook, an adjoining 
town, but no such pear is known there, that I can ascertain. 
It is believed to be a seedling raised in this vicinity. The 
fruit, though not strictly first-rate, is usually very good, and, 
in favorable seasons, when the trees are not overloaded, little 
inferior to any pear of the season ; last of November to Jan- 
uary, and they have kept sometimes nearly through Feb- 
ruary. The trees grow in grass land, and have received no cul- 
ture whatever for many years, and bear well. 

Gen. Wingate, in his letter dated October, 1831, states, that 
a person in Oxford County, (whose name, he believes, was 
Lamb,) many years since, raised a number of pear trees from 
seeds, all of which produced, as he understood, inferior fruit, 
with the exception of one tree; and, from that tree, the scions 
were taken and engrafted by Mr. McLaughlin, of Scarborough. 
There is no doubt of its native origin. 

Size^ large, about three and a half inches long, and two 
and a half in diameter : Form, oblong, tapering slightly 
towards the crown, and contracted near the stem, where it 
ends obtusely : Skin, fair, slightly rough, of a bright cinna- 
mon russet, tinged with brownish red on the sunny side, 
showing a few traces of a bright yellow ground on the shad- 
ed side : Stem, short, about half an inch in length, rather 
stout, swollen at its junction with the tree, little curved, and 
obliquely inserted in a shallow cavity on one side of a small 

VOL. xin. — NO. VI. 24 

254 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

projection : Eye, medium size, open, and moderately sunk in 
a rather shallow, uneven, ridged, or puckered basin; seg- 
ments of the calyx, broad, short, wavy, and pointed : Flesh, 
yellowish, rather coarL>e, melting, and juicy : Flavor, rich, su- 
gary, slightly perfumed, and excellent : Core, rather large : 
Seeds, large, plump, pointed, light brown. Ripe in Novem- 
ber, and keeps till January. 

71. Ropes. 

Last autumn, our correspondent, Mr. J. F. Allen, of Sa- 
lem, presented us with a very handsome pear, much resem- 

Fig.n. Hopes. 

bling the Seckel, which he proposed to call the Ropes, {fg. 
23,) from its having originated in the garden of Mr. Ropes, of 
that city, about the year 1833 or 1834. It first produced a 
few pears in 1844, but none were eaten until last summer, 
(1846,) when it was found to possess very good qualities, 
which will undoubtedly improve as the tree attains age and 
finer specimens are produced. It resembles the Seckel so 
much, that one not well acquainted with the latter would 
scarcely detect the difference. The following is our description ; 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 


Size^ medium, about two and a half inches long, and two 
and a half in diameter: Form, obovate, regular, tapering 
toward each end, and very obtuse at the stem : Skin^ fair, of a 
uniform pale cinnamon russet, slightly tinged with red on the 
sunny side : Stem, rather short, about half an inch in length, 
stout, dull brown, curved, and rather deeply and obliquely 
inserted in a small cavity, swollen on one side : Eije, small, 
open, and slightly sunk in a smooth, shallow basin ; segments 
of the calyx, round, short, projecting: Flesh, yellowish, 
coarse, melting, and juicy : Flavor, sugary and good, with a 
rich perfume : Core, small : Seeds, medium size, black. Ripe 
in October and November, 

72. Pennsylvania. Mag. of Hort. YoLX. i^.2\Z. 

Our first knowledge of this pear was from Mr. Manning, in 

Fig. 23. Pennsylvania. 

the fall of 1843, when he gave us some fine specimens pro- 

256 Notice of a New Seedling Apple. 

duced in his collection, from which we made a drawing at 
that time. Wishing to have another trial of it before giving 
a figure and description, we last year had some very fine 
specimens from the collection of Mr. Cabot, and we were grat- 
ified to find it prove a very excellent pear, — not first-rate. — 
but a good-sized, handsome variety, worthy a place in a large 
collection, — its productiveness and hardy character giving it 
a claim over some of the better, but more delicate foreign sorts. 

The Pennsylvania pear is a seedling found on the ground 
of Mr. J. B. Smith of Philadelphia, the original tree of which 
is stated to be nearly forty feet high, of a pyramidal form, 
and remarkably robust habit. Its origin and age are not 
known. It received its name from the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society. As an American fruit, it may be ranked 
with the Buflum, Gushing. Fulton, — other not strictly first- 
rate varieties. 

Size^ large, about three inches in length, and three inches 
in diameter : Form^ obovate, largest in the middle, lit- 
tle swollen on one side, and tapering to the stem, where 
it ends obtusely : Sk'w., fair, and slightly rough, dull yellow, 
very rnuch russeted, particularly around the crown, with a 
ruddy tinge on the surmy side : Stem^ long, about one and a 
half inches, stout, straight, wrinkled, brown, slightly fleshy 
at the base, and inserted with scarcely any cavity, but with a 
swollen projection on one side: Eye, small, closed, and rather 
deeply sunk in an uneven, ridged, contracted basin ; segments 
of the calyx, short, pointed, stiff": Flesh, yellowish white, 
coarse, melting, and juicy : Flavor, rich, sugary, slightly per- 
fumed, and good : Core, small : Se^ds, very small, plump, 
light brown. Ripe in October, and keeps some lime. 

Art. III. Notice of a neiv Seedling Apple. By A. Fahnes- 
TOCK, Lancaster, Ohio. 

A NEW Seedling Apple has been raised by the Rev. C. 
Springer, Meadow Farm, near Zanesville, Ohio, which, on 
account of its great productiveness and late keeping, I consid- 

Some Account of the Neio Shrub SpircB'a prunifblia. 257 

er quite an acquisition, or, at least, very desirable. Mr. 
Springer informs me, under date of May 3d, that its season 
of maturity is ^out the 10th of March, and tliat it is still im- 
proving, and rots the least of any apple he has in his orchard, 
(and he has a fine collection.) He also stated to me that it 
produced enormously — far beyond any other tree he has. I 
will endeavor to forward you scions in the fall, with others 
you requested of me. 

In relation to your remarks on the American White Winter 
Calville, I wrote to the Mr. Mathews, of Coshocton, and he 
says it is certainly different from the old White Winter Cal- 

I hope to be able to bring to yournotice some other fruits of 
merit, from time to time. 

Have you Feast's new Seedling Grape 7 I think it desirable. 

Lancaster, Ohio, May 17, 1847. 

Our correspondent will find a brief note in a future page 
from a friend in Montreal, in which he states that Mr. Fah- 
nestock's description of the American White Winter Calville 
answers perfectly to the old White Calville, a variety well 
known in Canada. — Ed. 

Art. IV. Some Account of the Beautiful New Shrub Spiraea 
prunifblia, var. fiore plena, with a Drawing of the Same. 
Communicated by M. Louis Van Houtte, Belgium. 

Some time since, in our article on the Hydrangea japonica, 
(p. 122,) we announced the introduction of a new and ele- 
gant shrub, called the >S'piroD^a prunifolia, with double flowers, 
which was another of the great acquisitions of Dr. Siebold, in 
his Japan Expedition. We now have the gratification, through 
the kindness of our correspondent, M. Van Houtte, the cele- 
brated nurseryman of Ghent, in Belgium, to furnish a draw- 
ing of the same, which has been forwarded for this purpose, 
together with some account of this charming plant : — 

It is difficult to convey an impression of the beauty of this 


258 Some Account of the New Shrub Spirm^a prunifblia. 

shrub from the specimen represented in the engraving, {jig. 
25). Imagine a neat, deep-green, upright bush, covered with 
thousands of snow-white flowers, of the size represented, and 
as perfect as roses, and some idea may be formed of this new 

Fig. ^5. SpircB^a prunifolia. 

spiraea. Braving with impunity the severity of our hyperbo- 
rean latitude [Belgium], it must be considered one of the great- 
est acquisitions for decorating the lawn or parterre. 

We do not know the native country of this shrub. M. 
Siebold, to whom we are indebted for its introduction, we 

Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Exotics. 259 

learn, found it cultivated in the Japan gardens, where it at- 
tained the height of six to eight feet. Its native habitat is 
supposed to be Corea, or the north of China, and it is some- 
times found growing in a wild state in the environs of cities, 
but evidently not indigenous. 

According to M. M. Zuccarini and Siebold, (^Fl. Japan^) it 
forms an upright and bushy shrub, with slender branches, 
which are covered with a smooth, ash-colored bark, which, 
when old, detaches itself in thin scales. The leaves are oval, 
rounded at their base, a little acute at the apex, downy be- 
neath, and denticulated at the edge. The flowers, which ap- 
pear in clusters of four to six, the entire length of the shoots, 
are perfectly snow-white, and perfectly double. In shape, 
they resemble the double i^anunculus aconitifolius, and their 
number and arrangement, as well as the light green of the 
foliage, and neat habit, render it the most charming of hardy 

Its cultivation is the same as that of the ^S'pirse^a trilobata, 
and other well known kinds ; and it is increased either by 
division of the root or by layers. L. V. H. 

Mr. Van Houtte has now the whole stock in his possession, 
and proposes to sell the plants by subscription the coming 
fall, as will be seen by reference to his advertisement. We 
trust it will soon find its way into our gardens. — Ed. 

Art. V. On the Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Ex- 
otics : in a Series of Letters. By James Kennedy, Gardener 
to S. T. Jones, Staten Island, New York. 

Letter IT. Propagation by Cuttings. 

As my former remarks on the Propagation of Exotics seem 
to have met with your approbation, I will continue the arti- 
cle in your next number. I believe my last letter treated of 
the propagation by seeds, as far as necessary to insure suc- 
cess, and therefore I will devote this article to propagation by 

260 Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Exotics. 

2. Cuttings. — Most exotics may be increased by this mode ; 
many of them by yomig cuttings a little hardened at the base, 
some by ripened ones, and a few by means of very yomig 
ones. However, when it is desired to propagate any partic- 
ular kind, a healthy plant should be chosen for the purpose. 
This is not generally borne in mind. Many cultivators select 
the shabbiest plant in their collection, without ever consid- 
ering that it is to become the parent of many, and nine out of 
every ten will be diseased. Indeed few, if any, will ever 
make good specimen plants, be they ever so well treated. At 
any rate, if the cutting be not healthy, reason will teach us 
that it cannot perform the functions necessary to produce' 

If the kind to be propagated from is an inmate of the green- 
house, let it be removed to a moist stove about the first of 
February, where it will produce its young shoots early, and, 
when the shoots are of a sufficient length, say from 1^ to 3 
inches, according to the sort, take it back to its own depart- 
ment to harden off a little, and get ripened more or less, as 
may be required : this, however, must be regulated according 
to the sort in question. From the first of February to the 
end of May is the best time to increase by cuttings, as then the 
plants have ample time to root and be potted off in season to 
stand the following winter with success. But the time of taking 
off cuttings depends chiefly on the nature of the plant to be 
propagated. Heaths, epacrises, phylicas, diosmas, burto- 
nias, &c. &c., should be taken off when the plants are in a 
growing state, or when they have nearly completed their 
growth ; and this is generally in spring, or beginning of sum- 
mer. If not naturally in a growing state at this time, it is 
easy rendering them so by a slight degree of artificial heat. 
Some take their cuttings off in the fall ; but this practice I do 
not approve of, as it incurs the expense of artificial heat to 
protect them during winter; besides, the absence of light, and 
the presence of damp, will more than likely occasion many 
deaths ; but, when taken off in spring, the bright days are 
coming, solar influence increasing, and, consequently, very 
little fuel is consumed ; and, what is of the most consequence, 
the plants are full as well established by winter as those put 
in in the fall. 

Propagation by Cuttings. 261 

In some kinds of plants, it is necessary to take lateral shoots, 
and these should be slipped off, so as to have with them the 
axillary formation of the bud and vessels of the leaf. Of these, 
the gnaphalums, helichrysums, burchellias, loganias, da- 
viesias, and some banksias, are instances, some of which will 
not strike otherwise. The cause of this is, I expect, that the 
heel consists of wood, more or less ripened, and is not so likely 
to damp off after planting. However, let this not lead the 
young propagator to believe that he must have wood of these 
sorts thoroughly ripened (such is not the case) : A medium 
state is the best and surest. The cuttings of succulent plants, 
and, in fact, all fleshy plants, should lie exposed in an airy 
place for some time after being severed from their parent, 
that their juices may become dried ; for, if put in in a fresh 
state, the ends of the cuttings soon turn black and rot, where- 
by the expectations of the propagator are frustrated. Of these, 
the cactus tribe are instances, as well as the milky tribe, such 
as the succulent euphorbias, all of which are full of milky 

The sized pots I have been in the habit of using as prop- 
agating pots, are those of five inches diameter, and three 
and a half deep. Over the hole in the bottom, I put a large 
piece of broken pot or oyster shell, over which I place some 
finely broken crocks about the size of peas, and on this I put 
a little rough soil or moss, then my compost, composed of two 
thirds peat and one third mellow loam, with a little sand to 
keep the soil porous, that all superabundant moisture may 
freely drain off. With these materials, I fill my pots to with- 
in an inch or so of the top, and this inch I fill up with fine 
silver sand ; give all a gentle watering with a fine rose wa- 
tering pot, when they are ready for my cuttings. If the pot 
is well drained, this preparation will answer for most sorts of 
cuttings ; the sand on top retains just sufficient moisture for 
the well-being of the cuttings, and no more ; and the soil be- 
low the sand furnishes nourishment to the roots as soon as 
they penetrate through the sand. The shallower cuttings are 
planted, if they are well fastened, the sooner and better will 
they root, and there is less danger of their rotting or damp- 
ing off. From half an inch to an inch and a quarter may be 
considered a medium length to be inserted ; for ericas, epa- 

262 Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Exotics. 

crises, and all such fine-leaved, delicate kinds should not be 
planted any deeper than absolutely necessary ; but there are 
other sorts which will require to be planted deeper. 

After the cuttings are planted, and well fastened in the pots 
of sand, give a slight watering; place the bell-glasses over 
them ; and let each be taken to their respective departments, 
— the stove kinds to a bark bed with a moist heat, and the 
greenhouse kinds to the front shelves in the greenhouse, — 
taking care to shade them when the sun is powerful, and to 
wipe the bell-glasses dry every morning ; if this is not attend- 
ed to, the moisture accumulating on the sides of the glass will 
cause the cuttings to turn mouldy, and eventually die off, 
even after they have struck root. When the sand appears dry 
on top, give sufficient water in the morning to reach the bot- 
tom of the sand. From June to October, the greenhouse kinds 
may be plunged out of doors in a dry, shaded border, when 
any that remain without rooting must be taken to their former 
quarters. While plunged out of doors, they should be de- 
fended from heavy rains. 

The sooner cuttings are potted off, after they are rooted, the 
better ; let thumb-pots be used for this purpose, and, when 
potted and watered, let them be kept close for a time, till they 
get somewhat established, being careful that they are shaded 
regularly when necessary : if any of them are drawn up 
weakly, let their tops be pinched off, which will encourage 
them to push strong and bushy. Those of the stove kinds 
not struck must remain in the bark bed, and not be removed 
till rooted. Geraniums, verbenas, &c., may be struck in a 
warm border any time during the summer ; but when a large 
stock is required, the best time is September. There is an 
erroneous opinion entertained by many gardeners that a plant 
can only be preserved for a few years by cuttings, and that it 
is only by such that a plant can be raised so as to be propa- 
gated successively for ages. For my part, if I get a plant to 
strike root and thrive, I would not have any dread of losing 
it afterwards. 

Staten Island, N. Y., May 20, 1847. 

Mr. Kennedy's article will be continued in our next num- 
ber. It is unnecessary for us to say that his letters show him 
to be a perfect master of his professsion. — Ed. 

TJie Greenhouse and Conservatory in Summer. 263 

Art. VI. The Greenhouse and Conservatory in Summer. 
By the Editor. 

A GREENHOUSE OT Conservatory in our northern clime — where, 
for about eight months of the year, nearly all tender plants 
require protection from frosts — is a necessary appendage to 
every garden of any extent — or, we might say, to almost 
every dwelling ; — for it is near to, or immediately adjoining, 
the house, that the conservatory should always be constructed. 
Separate from the interest which winter flowering plants alone 
create, it is necessary to the beauty and brilliancy of every 
summer garden to have a place where great quantities of 
showy plants can be brought forward for decorating the bor- 
der and parterre throughout the summer. 

Every one admires the beauty of a well-kept collection of 
greenhouse plants. Whether we view it in autumn, when stud- 
ded with that showy flower, the chrysanthemum, — in winter, 
when gay with the beautiful camellia, — or, in spring, when the 
many-hued roses breathe their delicious odor, and the exquisite 
tints of the pelargonium dazzle the eye, — it is always the same 
delightful place. Secure from the heavy storms and wintry 
blasts, the floral treasures of all climes are ever before us, in- 
teresting us in their growth, and delighting in their variety and 

But of all places the most dreary, — the greenhouse, as 
usually managed in summer. — is the most so. No sooner 
does June — "rosy June" — arrive, than the plants are all 
tumbled out of the house as if they had no right to be there; 
all their former brilliancy and beauty is forgotten ; and, with, 
perhaps, the exception of the camellias, are huddled into 
some out-of-the-way place, — or under the shade of some old 
tree, where they remain all summer, — sometimes wet and 
sometimes dry, — as if they were so many cumberers of the 
ground. Mr. Repton, in his Landscape Gardening, speaks 
of the greenhouse as "generally a deserted and unsightly ob- 
ject," and alludes to one which he constructed in such a style 
that it might be turned into a pavilion, in summer, in order to 
avoid this dreary aspect ! It is true, at the time he wrote, 
that our gardens were not enriched with the variety of plants 

264 The Greenhouse and Conservatory in Sn7nmer. 

which the researches of botanists have brought to notice, and 
inany of which are so pecuharly adapted for summer orna- 
ments of the greenhouse. The gorgeous Japan UHes, the bril- 
liant achimenes, the superb fuchsias, and the elegant tribe of 
gloxinias and gesneras, then mostly unknown, will alone enrich 
and render the greenhouse as attractive in summer as at any 
other season of the year. 

Desirous that our amateur friends should enjoy the treat 
which has been of so much gratification to us, we have ven- 
tured to devote a page or two to a recapitulation of some of 
the plants, which will enable them to attain the desired object. 
We do not intend to enter into a full account of the growth 
and management of the plants, leaving that to another oppor- 
tunity, but merely to give a full list of such as we have, for 
two or three years, cultivated in the greenhouse throughout 
the summer months, or the interval from June to September, 
when it usually presents only a "beggarly account of empty 


The Japan lilies are, par excellence, the gems of the sum- 
mer ornaments of the greenhouse. Perfectly hardy though 
they may prove to be, the entire success which attends their 
cultivation in pots, — aside from the delicate tints of some, 
as well as the gorgeousnes3 of others, which would scarcely 
withstand exposure to the winds and storms, — will always 
render them the most prominent objects of attraction. No de- 
scription of them would be adequate to their merits, and, to be 
fully appreciated, they must be seen in flower. There are 
several species and varieties ; but those which are especially 
splendid are the following : — lancifolium dlbum, 1. punctatum, 
1. roseum, and 1. rubrum ; testaceum and Brownu. They 
commence blooming the latter part of June, and continue in 
flower till September. 


Next to the lilies should, perhaps, be ranked this beautiful 
family, though some might dispute its claim over the Gloxin- 
ias. There are about a dozen species and varieties, though 
we have only cultivated nine, as follows : — A. longiflora, 

The Greenhouse and Conservatory in Summer. 265 

grandiflora, rosea, hirsuta, coccinea, pedunculata, oblonga, 
(Niphoe^a oblonga,) picta, and patens, the last one yet very- 
rare : picta is, perhaps, the most attractive of the whole, as its 
flowers are not only very splendid, but the leaves are of a 
very velvety texture, and richly marked with dark-colored 
bands, presenting a fine contrast with the yellow and scarlet 
spotted flowers. They commence flowering in April, and con- 
tinue till October ; of the easiest cultivation in very light soil, 
composed of leaf mould and heath soil. Three or more plants, 
placed in a small pan ten or twelve inches wide, make a fine 
show when in full bloom. 


"One of the principal ornaments of our greenhouses," says 
a Belgian writer, in describing a new variety of this tribe, 
'•during the summer season, is the gloxinia in all its delight- 
ful species and hybrid varieties, whose brilliant flowers are 
admired for a long space of time, and among which are 
blue, violet, white, and rose, with their rich and velvety 
tints, and shining with a lustre inimitable. What would 
be our greenhouses without this plant? Grouped together 
in quantities, and in company with their allies, the achi- 
menes, gesneras, &c., what a variety of form and colors ! 
What flowers ! What a splendid sight !" To any one who 
has seen a good collection, well grown, this apparently imag- 
inative statement does not convey the reality. We may in- 
deed exclaim. What colors ! — What brilliancy and beauty ! 
We write after just having seen some magnificent specimens 
which are already covered with flowers. 

Since the process of hybridization has been applied to this 
tribe, some remarkably elegant varieties have been produced, 
the handsomest of which in our collection is the Cartoni, a per- 
fect gem. In Belgium, some still more striking varieties have 
been produced, one of which is a deep red with distinct stripes 
of blue, — a combination of colors rarely seen in flowers. Of 
the many kinds already introduced, the following are the 
best: — Rubra, speciosa, alba maxima, macrophy'lla varieg^ta, 
insignis, bicolor, Cartoni, and Celestial. 

Their cultivation is very simple. The bulbs should be 

VOL. XIII. — NO. VL 25 

266 The Greenhouse and Conservatory in Summer. 

potted in April or May, and placed in a hotbed or very warm 
part of the greenhouse to give them a start, and, when root- 
ed, they may l)e shifted into large pots, and placed upon the 
stage for the season. From October to March, they may be 
kept in any dry place, the pots turned down on their sides. 
Peat, leaf-mouldj and sand is the proper compost. 


The Gesneras are all very beautiful plants, and some of the re- 
cent additions to the tribe possess remarkably brilliant flow- 
ers as well as the richest foliage. Of this character are ze- 
brinaand Gerardid;ra. One, the tubiflora, is highly fragrant, 
and a single raceme of its showy flowers will perfume the green- 
house. The best are G. rubra, zebrina, splendens, Cooperii, 
Gerardidwa, and tubiflora : culture and treatment the same as 
for Gloxinias. 


The Fuchsia, in its numerous hybrid varieties, is one of 
the most valuable ornaments of the greenhouse, the balcony, 
the verandah, or the parterre. In either situation, it always 
shows to good advantage, and, when the specimens are well 
grown, their profusion of flowers renders them the most at- 
tractive objects. We have already said so much in favor 
of the fuchsia, and given such an account of the fine speci- 
mens we saw in English collections, that it is unnecessary to 
again repeat it. We may, however, say a word in favor of 
some varieties which we have found to bear the heat better 
than others, and which are, therefore, more desirable. These 
are. Defiance, Salter's 40 and Salter's 41, Chauvieru, Ex- 
pansa, New Globe, E'ppsii, and Queen Victoria (Smith's). 


The Chinese hibiscuses are the most gaudy objects in sum- 
mer, and, when the plants are large, and bloom freely, they 
add much to the effect of a well-arranged house. The plants 
should not be too numerous, but scattered here and there ; 
their large and showy flowers are always admired. There 
Hre four varieties, the scarlet, yellow, salmon, and rose. 

The Greenhouse and Conservatory in Sionjner. 267 

They require good-sized pots, and, in winter, they may be 
stored under the stage, or in a dry cellar. 


Veronica specisba. — A brilliant and beautiful object, flow- 
ering from June to August, and singularly elegant from its 
heads of rich, violet flowers, and smooth, shining, fleshy foli- 

Hydrangea japonica. — This new and fine species, which 
we have already given a fall account of, v/ith an engraving 
(p. 123), is a rich addition in the early part of the summer. Its 
heads of blue and white flowers attract universal admiration. 

Thimberg'm chrysops. — A climbing plant of peculiar beauty. 
Rather shy in blooming, but v/ell repaying for all the care to 
bring it into a flowering state. This is done by encouraging 
the plants to grow freely early in the season, and then to com- 
mence stopping the shoots as soon as they attain the length of 
three or four inches. In this way, we have succeeded in pro- 
ducing a fine display of flowers. Its cserulean petals, with a 
golden eye, are charmingly beautiful. 

Passiflbra. frctgrans. — A highly fragrant species, v^nth very 
beautiful flowers, and blooming freely, if trained up to a neat 
trellis. It should be in every good collection. 

Campaaula grandis. — A very showy plant, attaining the 
height of five or six feet when well grown; and clothed with 
flowers from the pot up. We have already fully described 
this, and given an article on its treatment, (XII. p. 346). 

Lis'ianlhiis Russeliiknus is also a very fine plant, though 
rather difficult to manage well : when grown in perfection, its 
numerous deep-blue flowers contribute much to the beauty of 
the greenhouse. 

Our list could be easily extended with other plants, many 
of which are already familiar to cultivators. We have no 
space to enumerate more at this time ; but, at another oppor- 
tunity, we shall name several new kinds which have just 
been introduced, and which are stated to be fine objects as 
snmmer and fall flowering plants. 

268 Hovey^s Fniils of America. 


Art. I. The F?mits of America, containing a Selection of 
all the choicest varieties cultivated in the United Stales. 
By C. M. HovEY, Editor of the Magazine of Horticulture. 
In Octavo and Quarto Ps'os. every alternate month ; with 
four splendid colored plates, and eight pages of letter-press. 
Boston. 1847. 

After the appearance of the prospectus to this work, which 
all our readers, who are interested in fruits, have probably no- 
ticed, it is not necessary that we should recapitulate the ob- 
jects for which it was published. Suffice it to say, that sucFi 
a work has been long needed, and is, in truth, necessary to 
extricate us from the confusion which exists in all collections 
of fruits. 

We have for some years contemplated a work of this kind, 
and have been collecting, from all the sources in Europe, as 
well as at home, every variety of fruit, with a view to form a 
collection which would enable us to study the habits and char- 
acteristics of the trees; to detect errors and identify kinds ; 
and draw up a truthful description of every desirable fruit. 
As a cultivator, Ave have long felt the want of this ; convinced, 
as we have been, that a greater part of the errors, and the con- 
fusion and disappointment attendant thereon, might have 
been, in a great measure, prevented, could we have had re- 
course to such a publication. In a country covering such a 
vast extent of surface and passing through as many hands 
as fruits usually do before they reach every state and territo- 
ry, it could not otherwise than be expected that some mis- 
takes would be made, even with all the care of the most care- 
ful cultivator : but when we recollect that a great many deal- 
ers in trees are not nurserymen, and have but little acquaint- 
ance with trees, these errors are constantly increasing; and, 
without resorting to original descriptions, and actual represen- 
tations of the wood, foliage, and fruit, there is no way to rec- 
tify, with certainty, these errors. 

Preparatory to the issuing of such a work, we neglected no 
opportunity to gather all the materials to render it valuabl e 

Hovci/s Fruits of America. 269 

and permanent — a standard for onr nomenclature. Our tour 
to Europe was undertaken with this in view ; and our visits 
to all the most extensive nurseries, and to the garden of the 
London Horticultural Society, the Jardin des Plantes and the 
Luxembourg garden, of Paris, were for the main object of 
making ourselves acquainted with certain fruits which, for 
years, have been cultivated under erroneous names, and erro- 
neously described in our treatises on Pomology. 

Premature descriptions of fruits only tend to perplexity and 
confusion : such has been the effect of too many of our works 
on fruit. The late Mr. Manning, after the experience of 
a quarter of a cerdury^ only began to describe the fruits which 
he had proved and identified during that time ; and the Lon- 
don Horticultural Society, with all the means at their com- 
mand, described bat a few additional fruits in their Catalogue 
for 1842, pubhshed ten years after their previous edi- 
tion of 1832, — and this is what gives it its chief value. Fruits 
so change, with soil, locality, and treatment, that neither one 
nor two years will enable any individual to judge with accu- 
racy of their true character. 

Long impressed with these ideas, we have been in no haste 
to give the results of our investigations ; but, trusting to a due 
appreciation of our efforts, undertaken with a view to accu- 
racy, we have issued the first number of a Avork which, we 
hope, will supply the desideratum so long wanted. Of its 
merits, we shall leave cultivators to decide. 

Of some of the peculiar features of the work, we may be 
permitted to speok. The first of these are portraits of trees 
of such kinds as are at all peculiar in their habit of growth, — 
for instance, the pear and apple. No pomological work has 
ever attempted this. 

Mr. Loudon, in his great work, the Arboretum Britanni- 
cum, has shown how important such portraits are, in identi- 
fying ornamental trees and shrubs : but how much more val- 
uable must they be, when brought to the aid of pomologists, 
to enable them to detect synonyms and identify varieties ! 

A second feature is, the outline engravings, with the text. 

These will enable the cultivator, after comparing specimens of 

fruit with the colored plate, to test them further by an outline ; 

on some thin paper the form may be traced off, and t.ien the 


270 Johnso7i's Dictionary of Modern Gardening. 

pear cut in halves, laid down upon the drawing, and exam- 

We need not say, how important are the representations of 
the wood and foliage. Professor Agassiz, a friend informs 
us, has made a collection of many kinds of our forest trees, 
hy the wood alone ; and, if we are correctly informed, he sta- 
ted that botanists should rely more upon the wood than the 
sexual formation of the flower. 

Our artist is too well known to need our praise ; but the 
specimens show that the art of chromo-lithography produces 
a far more beautifnl and correct representation than that of 
the ordinary lithograph, washed in color, in the usual way. 
Indeed, the plates have the richness of actual paintings, 
which could not be executed for ten times the value of a sin- 
gle copy. 

It will be the object of the work to figure and describe all 
the rare and choice varieties of fruits, both new and old^ which 
may deserve a place in any select collection. The first num- 
ber contains the Beurre d'Aremberg, Glout Morceau, and Van 
Mons Leon le Clerc pears, and the Baldwin apple. No. 2 
will contain the Vicompte de Spoelberch, Winter Nelis, and 
Sieulle pears, and the Northern Spy apple. 

Art. II, A Dictionary of Modern Gardening. By George 
William Johnson, Esq., Fellow of the Horticultural Soci- 
ety of India, &c : with One Hundred and Eighty Wood 
Ciils. Edited, with numerous Additions, by David Lan- 
dreth, of Philadelphia. 1 Vol. 12mo. pp. 635. Philadel- 
phia, 1847. 

The eagerness of our cultivators for Horticultural informa- 
tion has induced the republication of several English works, 
with annotations and additions, and they are about as numer- 
ous as those of American authors. This, however, is to be 
expected in a country yet in its infancy in Horticultural and 
Pomological science. With due allowance for variation of 
climate, English works may be made applicable and useful 
to every cultivator, and, until our own practice and experi- 

Johnsofi^s Dictionary of Modern Gardening. 271 

ence shall have become more extensive, they must be the 
source from whence we must draw largely for information in 
every department of gardening. Of the best of recent publi- 
cations of a general nature, that of Mr. Johnson holds a conspic- 
uous place, containing, as it does, a great amount of informa- 
tion in a small volume, and placed within the means of every 
cultivator who cannot afford the expensive Encyclopaedias of 

The American edition now before us has been under the 
editorial supervision of Mr. D. Landreth, of Philadelphia, and, 
in its arrangement, the usual style has been laid aside. The 
preface of the American publishers informs us that '•' the ordi- 
nary form in cases of a reprint, with additions and explan- 
atory notes, has been departed from in the present instance, 
with a desire to preserve the book from the awkward aspect 
which it would necessarily present if every addition by the 
American editor had been included within brackets, or print- 
ed in varied type." 

They also inform us that "this edition has been greatly 
altered from the original. Many articles of little interest to 
Americans have been curtailed, or wholly omitted, and much 
new matter, with numerous illustrations, added : yet the pres- 
ent editor freely admits, and has desired the publishers freely 
to state, that he has only followed in the path so admirably 
marked out by Mr. Johnson, to whom the chief merit of the 
work belongs." 

We must' willingly admit that a book whose every page is 
marred with a profusion of brackets, or a varied type, to des- 
ignate the editor's notes, has our especial dislike ; and, if we 
can know just what the original writer slates, and avoid this 
it is a great improvement in the republication of foreign works. 
Without having time to compare this with the Enghsh copy 
we notice that, on all important subjects, the editor informs 
us how far he has followed the original. 

The arrangement is alphabetical, and one of the most im- 
portant as well as earliest subjects is the apple. Here we 
have apparently nothing of the English edition, as the editor 
copies a list of apples from the catalogue of Messrs. Landreth 
& Fulton, with the remark that they are believed to be emi- 
nently worthy of culture. The descriptions of several vari- 

272 Johnson^ s Dictionary of Modern Gardening. 

eties follow, accompanied with outline engravings of seven- 
teen kinds. 

The Baldwin is among these, and the editor states, "though 
nearly confined to New England, it ought to be an apple of 
the world. It has few superiors, and is above average qual- 
ity in all respects : few taste it without admiration." 

The descriptive list of cherries is illustrated with engrav- 
ings of eight of the best varieties. 

The following biographical sketch, probably by the Amer- 
ican editor, will interest many of our readers, and afford a 
spechnen of the writer's style :— 

" LANDRETH, David, was a native of England, the son of a farmer of 
Berwick upon Tweed. Early in life, his aUeniion was attracted by plants 
and flowers, and, yielding to his fondness for them, and impulses which 
they only who love nature can fully appreciate, he determmed to adopt gar- 
denino- as a profession. At that day, the art was less widely and ardently 
pursued than at the present, and the sources of information, and consequent 
means of improvement, were limited. Then publications on the subject 
were not, as now, of almost daily issue. Periodicals on gardening and 
rural affairs were unknown ; and, save the works of Miller, there was 
scarcely one for reference. Since then. Horticulture has assumed its right- 
ful place as a delightful, if not a fine art, cherished and pursued by the in- 
tellectual and refined. 

The subject of this sketch, after having availed himself of the usual rou- 
tine of practice in the neighb irhood of his birth-place, as a mean most 
likely to promote his views, and extend his knowledge of the more approved 
rules of the profession which he had espoused, removed to the vicinity of 
London. Here he profited by an observance of the operations in the exten- 
sive nursery establishments and pleasure grounds around the metropolis; 
and having prepared himself for the efficient practice of his art, embarked 
for America. The hostilities between the mother country and her colo- 
nies, then existing, prevented his sailing for a middle port, and he accord- 
ingly took passage for Quebec, where he resided for three years. On the 
conclusion of the war, his longing desire to remove to a southern point, and 
climate more genial to his pursuit, could now be gratified ; and, in the au- 
tumn of 1784, he arrived in Philadelphia, the spot towards which his eye 
had been unwaveringly directed — but why, he has been heard to say, he 
could not tell. There, all were strangers, \^'ithin its wide extent, there 
did not live a solitary being with whom he could claim acquaintance, much 
less friendship. How many have since followed from their father-land, 
and found peaceful and happy homes ! 

With a pocket but scantily supplied, and winter approaching, when but 
little employment in his line could be expected, he availed himself of a 

Johnson^ s Dictionary of Modern Gardening. 273 

temporary engagement. It was not long, however, ere his qualifications 
and correct deportment secured the favoiable notice of Robert Morris, the 
distinguished revolutionary patriot, in whose employment he entered, and 
continued for several years, and with whose regard he was honored until 
the close of Mr. Morris' eventful life. 

Mr. L., on relinquishing the employment of Mr. Morris, was enabled to car- 
ry out his long-cherished and original design of establishing himself as a Nurs- 
eryman ; and shortly thereafter laid the foundation of what has been known 
throughout the I'nion, for more than half a century, as the " Landreth 
Nurseries." He ultimately associated with himself a younger brother, 
Cuthbert, who had followed him to America, and their united efforts ena- 
bled them successfully to conduct what was then considered an extensive 
business. A scrupulous regard to what was due to others secured respect 
and moderate competency. 

To the brothers Landreth, Philadelphia is, in a degree, indebted for the 
early development of horticultural taste, and in the facilities which they 
afforded for its gratification, the whole Union has participated. Their pro- 
ductiwns, ornamental and useful, have been distributed far and wide. Spec- 
imens of fruits a[id flowers from their grounds exist in almost every town 
and hamlet in the country. The earliest collection of Camellias in Amer- 
ica was made by them, and their importations of valuable plants and fruits 
were e.xtensive. Their collection of indigenous plants, obtained through 
the agency and friendship of traveling collectors, and local correspondents, 
was, perhaps, the largest of its day, if wc except the magnificent one of the 
Bartram Botanic Garden. 

How vast have been the enlargement of horticultural taste, and the means 
of gratifying it since Mr. Landreth first embarked in his floral enterprise ! 
Then a green-house, or, as it was popularly termed, a " glass-house," was 
an object of amazement, and a simple rose, exhibited in a window budding 
and blooming " out of season," attracted a wondering crowd. Now a res- 
idence in town or country is scarcely considered perfect which does not em- 
brace at least a room prepared for the preservation of plants ; and the thou- 
sands who throng the exhibitions of our Horticultural Society evince the 
extent of interest on the subject. 

The temperate and regular habits of Mr. Landreth promoted health, and 
protracted life beyond the ordinary term. In manners, he was plain and 
unobtrusive ; his temperament ardent, actively sympathizing with the afflict- 
ed, or warming with indignation at oppression. His fondness for plants in- 
creased with age, and, though their culture was the source of his support, 
he loved them for themselves alone. ' Trade' was, with him, an adjunct 
to the gratification of a refined enjoyment. Never did painter look upon 
his canvas, in glorious enthusiasm for his art, with an eye more abstracted 
from the lucre which his pencil brought, than did David Landreth in the 
contemplation of his floral family. A beautiful plant, a noble tree, or a 
landscape decorated by the hands of nature or of man, were to him objects 
of the purest pleasure. After an active and well-spent life, and with an 
enviable reputation, he died on the 22d August, 1836, aged 84." — pp. 337, 

274 Johnsoji's Dictionaiy of Modem Gaidenin^. 

The interest which is now extending in the cultivation of 
the pear has probably induced the American editor to add as 
much information as possible : and fifteen engravings of the 
best kinds accompany the descriptions, some of which are 
quite new. The latter are called the Haddington and Moy- 
amensing, both of which originated on the farm of J. B. 
Smith, near Haddington, Philadelphia. Both of these have 
been described, in a letter to the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, by Dr. Brinkle, of Philadelphia ; but, as we have not 
found time to insert them before, we copy them here : — 

" Haddington, {Smithes.) We have, by the merest chance, this excel- 
lent addition to our stock of winter pears. Mr. J. B. Smith, when on his 
farm, near Haddington, Philadelphia County, in 1828, reared, from the seed 
of the pound pear, a number of young plants for slocks. This one acci- 
dentally remained unworked, and, on Mr. Sniiiirs removal to the city, was 
brought by him and planted in his garden, where it now stands, singularly 
erect, and with iew horizontal branches. It comes into use in December, 
and keeps through winter. The skin is green ; when ripe, slightly yellow 
on the sunny side, and marked by minute russet dots or specks. The tex- 
ture of the fruit varies — some are quite melting, others incline to break; it 
never cracks, bears abundantly, and we conceive it quite an acquisition to 
our winter pears." 

" MovAMiiNsiNG, (Smith's Early Buller.) This is supposed to be a na- 
tive. It stands in the garden of Mr. J. B. Smith, I'hiladelphia ; is thirty 
feet high, open in growth, and uniformly sheds its leaves early in August. 
The fruit vary in shape : some are roundish, others obovate ; color, a uni- 
form light yellow. Stem, an inch long — in some specimens set in ashallow 
basin ; in others rising from the crown, with a fleshy and enlarged base. 
Calyx rather prominent, in a shallow plaited cup. Ripe from middle July 
to close of August. The texture is buttery — so much like a Beurr6 as to 
have received the above synonym. It is a desirable variety." — pp. 432, 433. 

The Strawberry is treated of at length ; and, after quoting 
from the English copy, the American editor makes the follow- 
ing remarks: — 

" The American reader, though he will find much which will instruct in 
the culture of this delicious fruit, will perceive there is loo much detail and 
tedious labor." 

" Many of the varieties named in the preceding article are comparatively 
unknown in this country, and others have been tested, and found wanting. 
Our American seedlings have, on the whole, given most satisfaction, and are 
most reliable ; whilst the efforts now being made to produce varieties prom- 
ise, from the success already attained, to give all that could be desired." — 
p. 571. 

Johnson^ s Dictionary of Modern Gardening. 27 o 

The editor has shown his good judgment in describing only- 
four or five varieties, as there are, in fact, less than that num- 
ber of superior kinds. Two only are figured ; namely, Hovey's 
seedling and the Gushing, a variety raised by Dr. Brinkle, of 
Philadelphia. It is gratifying to us to know that our seedling 
has proved so excellent everywhere. The editor states that 
" too much cannot be said in its praise." The editor has also 
the correct opinion of its character ; and adopts our conclu. 
sion, that it will not bear withoui being in the neighborhood 
of staminate kinds. 

Ross's Phoenix^ which has been so highly praised by some 
individuals, has, so far, proved imworthy of cultivation in the 
neighborhood of Philadelphia. Such has been the experience 
around Boston ; and its growth is now nearly given up. We 
never yet saw so small a quantity as one quart of the Ross's 
Phoenix, although it has been grown about Boston these six 
years. Like the Swanstone seedling, the vines nearly all burn 
up in summer, and what few remain are quite killed by the 
winter. Experience thus shows the fallacy of cultivating 
every new variety of strawberry because it is a seedling, and 
also the importance of giving a new variety a trial of more 
than one year before it is propagated and sold as superior to 
all others. 

The Cashing is stated to be V'"!ry large, high-flavored, and 
productive : we shall speak of it after we have given it a tri- 
al. A plant was exhibited before the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society, in 1846, with ticenty-six fine berries on it. Mr. 
Breck, who, in company with Mr. Haggerston and other cul- 
tivators, visited our garden last summer, to inspect a large 
bed of the Seedling and the Boston Pine, counted one hundred 
and forty -three berries on a single plant of the latter. W'e are ea- 
ger to possess a variety which will excel this in productiveness. 

In conclusion, we can commend the American edition for 
considerable originality, and for its adaptation to the wants of 
a large class of cultivators. The volume treats upon every 
subject which comes within the province of the garden. A 
full monthly calendar is given ; and, with the various classes 
of plants which are treated upon, a list of all the most select 
and choice varieties. It is printed in a small, neat type, and 
is embellished with a number of engravings. 

276 Journal of the Horticultural Society of London. 

Art. III. The Journal of the Horticnllnral Society of Lon- 
don. In Quarterly Numbers 8vo. Eighty pages each. 

We some time since announced the publication of this Jour- 
nal, which commences a new series, in a cheap octavo form; 
the old and expensive quarto having been discontinued, after 
running the society deeply into debt. This series commenced 
on the 1st of January 1847, and one volume complete, and 
parts 1 and 2 of the second, have been issued. We have al- 
ready given several extracts from the first A^olume, but very 
little has yet appeared which could be considered of much in- 
terest to a majority of our readers. The papers have been 
long, and some of them rather dry, — more theoretical than 
practical, — as a majority of the communications have been, 
and ever will be. The magazines of the day, appearing as 
they do weekly or monthly, are the sources to which the cul- 
tivator looks for information, and the source through which 
the practical man prefers to communicate with his professional 

The chief value of the Journal of the Society is the publi- 
cation of its own transactions, which interest a very large 
number of fellows who look to it for an account of what is 
doing in the Society's Garden, — for descriptions of all the new 
plants, trees, shrubs, fruits, vegetables, &c., which are intro- 
duced through the Society's Botanical collectors and corre- 
spondents — for the details of Experiments carried on in the 
garden — and for scientific discussions in the various branches 
of Horticulture. 

Among the scientific papers, one of the most valuable is an 
essay on " Hybridization amongst Vegetables," by the Hon. 
and Rev. Mr. Herbert, which fills a larger part of two numbers 
of the work. The Rev. author arrives at the following con- 
clusions relative to the specific diflerence of plants : — 

"When the generic characters, as ultimately stated by Enlicher, of 
Pisum, the pea and Vicia, to which the bean beU)ngs, are carefully com- 
pared, it will appear that, except a little prolongation and straighter posi- 
tion of the flower, which, in some other races, would be immaterial, the 
only fixed feature of difference is the asserted roundness of the seed in pea, 
audits lateral compression in the vetch and bean, a feature which, if the 
fact were undeniable, is insignificant in many other genera. If the pea, 

Journal of the Horticultural Society of London. 277 

vetch, and erect bean have sprung from one type, and are convertible, to 
what result does that fact lead us ? Can we maintain a multiplicity of cre- 
ated roses, cistuses, potentillas, cornflags, and irises, in the face of that 
fact? Are we not forced thereby to the points, which I urged above thirty 
years ago, that the genera are the substantial divisions in botany ; that the 
asserted difference between the species and local varieties of botanists has 
no firm basis ; and that it is a matter deserving grave consideration, whether 
even a multitude of established genera are not variations from fewer origi- 
nal kinds, of which the real limitation maybe found in a higher position 
amongst tribes, classes, or orders? And, if that point be established; as I 
humbly think it must be in the vegetable kingdom, upon what footing will 
the species and vaiieties of zoologists stand, when the analogies between 
plants and animals are fully considered, which it is not my province, and 
which I do not pretend to have sufficient depth of knowledge, to investigate?" 
—p. 103. 

In our early vohimes, (T. 11. and III), we gave two cap- 
ital articles on the cultivation of asparagus, which is rarely 
seen in good perfection. As many of our present readers may 
not possess those volumes, we extract the substance of a paper 
on its culture, as detailed in the first part of Vol. II. : — 

"In selecting the ground for permanent beds, choose a piece free from 
trees, and sloping to the south, if possible. I should prefer a strong sandy 
loam of the depth of three feet; if not naturally so deep, make it that depth 
artificially. Take out a trench two feet six inches wide and three feet deep, 
laying one third of the soil on the vacant ground where you commence, and 
carrying the other to the place where you intend to finish. Suppose the 
trench to be now taken out, and the ground ready for trenching, lay over the 
whole surface six inches in depth of dung from old hotbeds, shaking it well 
with a fork. Turn in the first spit and crumb with a full-length spade into 
the bottom of the trench, mixing the dung and soil thoroughly together with 
a fork ; then throw on the other soil, until the second trench is the same 
depth as the first ; and so proceed until you come to the last trench, into 
which throw half the earth taken back, and add dung equal to that for the 
first spit, mixing it and the soil well together with a fork, as before. Now 
that the ground has been once trenched over, and the bottom spit thorough- 
ly mixed, tread the whole surface, and again lay on it about six inches in 
depth of dung, shaking it well as before. Then proceed to trench the 
ground back, leaving the bottom spit that has been mixed with manure un- 
molested. Proceed as before : after the first spit and crumb have been 
turned in, mix the dung and soil well together with a fork, which will be 
two thirds of the trench mixed, throwing on the top the remainder of the 
earth unmixed with dung, until you come to the first spit that has been 
mixed, and so continue until the ground has been all trenched a second 
time ; then throw in the earth laid out at the commencement of the trench- 
ing, adding dung equal to that for the spit just thrown in, and well mixing 

VOL. Xni. — NO. VI. ^ 

278 Journal of the Horticultnral Society of London. 

it with the soil. There will now be an opening at the top, and one third of 
the earth left at the bottom. Tread the whole surface over, and again lay 
on six inches in depth of dung, forking it up the hill, and keeping the same 
opening. The whole mass of ear;h and dung will then be tlioroughly 
mixed from bottom to top, and the opening will take the remainder of the 
earth thrown out of the first trench. 

The work should be done in dry (not frosty) weather — say, in October. 
The ground being thus prepared, throw it up in rough spits, one spade deep, 
to be pulverized by the frost against planting time. 

My time of planting is, when I observe the plants to have grown about 
an inch above the ground in the seed-bed, choosing a dry day when the 
soil will work freely. After having marked out my beds four feet in width, 
and having allowed two feet for the alleys, I strain a garden line or each 
side, and, as before mentioned, with a rake draw the soil equally off the bed 
into the alleys about two inches and a half deep. I then strain the line ex- 
actly through the middle of the bed, and, with the point of a dibble, make 
light marks one foot six inches apart. That being done, I then strain the 
lines nine inciies from the margins of the bed, being a distance of one foot 
three inches from the middle row to the outside ones. These I mark in the 
same way as I did the middle one ; but so that the plants will not be oppo- 
site each other. Every thing being now ready, plants are obtained from 
the seed-bed, selecting the finest, and exposing them as little as possible to 
sun and air. I place one plant over each mark made in the bed, spreading 
the roots out as regularly as possible on the surface, and laying, as I pro- 
ceed, a little soil with the hand from the alleys on the plants, in order to 
fix them in their places. The bed being planted, I strain the lines on the 
outside, and, with a spade, throw the soil from the alleys over the crowns, 
covering thein about an inch and a half, but not deeper. If any burned veg- 
etable matter can be obtained from the rubbish heap, I shotild recommend 
coating the beds over about half an inch in depth with it, after they have been 
planted. In autumn, when the stalks are ripe, cut them down close, and 
clean off the beds, taking care not to disturb the soil, the crowns being so 
near the surface. Make a mixture of equal parts rotten dung and burned 
garden rubbish, and coat the beds with it three inches in thickness, just 
covering it with soil from the alleys. In this state, allow them to remain 
during winter, and, early in March, run it through with a fork down to the 
level of the bed when covered. 

1 have cut a few heads the second year afler planting ; but in the third 
year one half the fine asparagus that comes up may be cut without injuring 
the plants. The fourth year, the beds are in fine bearing condition ; and 
when in this state, my method is, to keep every thing cut, both large and 
small, up to the first or second week in June, with the exception of the 
heads selected for producing seed. After this time, I allow the whole to 
take its natural growth, and I find my beds to continue for years in a good 
bearing slate. Some of them were made ten years ago, and I have cut 
finer asparagus from them this season than I did three years back. And I 

General Notices. 279 

must mention, further, that I have not put a barrow-load of dung on them 
for four years. In the summer months, I keep the rubbish of the garden 
burning, preserving the ashes dry until autumn ; and as soon as the aspara- 
gus is fit to cut down, I take off half the soil above the crowns with a fork, 
laying it on the alleys. I then put on three inches in thickness of burned 
rubbish, running it through with a fork as near the crowns as possible with- 
out injuring them. I then take a portion of the soil that has been removed, 
and cover the beds with it, allowing it to remain on them tlirough the win- 
ter. Early in March, I mix the whole well together with a fork, and rake 
the beds otF regularly, watering with manure-water once a week through 
the growing season, if required. 

1 have grown a crop of turnips or lettuces on my beds every year since 
they were planted ; but I do not recommend the plan, if sufficient ground 
can be had for these crops in other parts of the garden." — pp. 39, 40, 41. 

Mr. Meek, the champion of Polraaise heating, has a long arti- 
cle on the subject ; but the success of the system has been con- 
fined to so few, that we shall not enter into a discussion of it 
till we have more evidence of its general application. 

Under our head of Floricultural Notices, we shall mention 
all the new plants of interest which are described in the Jour- 

Art. IV. A Brief Compend of American Agriculture. By 
R. L. Allen. 12mo. pp. 437. 2d Edition. New York. 


At page 487, (Vol. XII.) we noticed this work, and we are 
happy to learn that a second edition has already been called 
for, — the best evidence of its value. We again recommend it 
to the attention of every friend of Agricultural Improvement. 


Art. I. General Notices. 

Scarlet Pelarfronium'! for Winter Blooming Plants. — The Huntsman and 
General Tom Thumb scarlet geraniums, deserve more attention than is 
generally paid them, as winter blooming plants. There are few persons 

.280 General Notices. 

who will not admit, that they form objects of great beauty for the green- 
house or conservatory, during the dark and dreary months of winter ; and 
they are plants of such easy cultivation, that 1 am surprised we so seldom 
see them in bloom in the winter time. I have seen them in bloom from 
September till the return of Spring, by ihe plan of taking off cuttings 
about this time, or selecting some of the best dwarf plants, from the store 
pots, and potting or striking them in sixties, in good rich soil ; as soon as 
ihey are rooted, they can be finally shifted into twenty-fours ; then plunged 
over the rims of the pots in the open borders, or in beds of ashes. They 
will require little or no attention till taken up, except to top the shoots occa- 
sionally, and to pinch off the blooms till the plants attain a moderate size, 
"which will be about the end of August or beginning of September. In 
October, before the frost comes, they must be taken up, the pots washed 
and cleaned, and then they must be at once removed to the greenhouse or 
conservatory. They wi'.l be in full bloom, and a supply will come on in 
rotation. The little trouble that is occasioned will be amply compensated 
by a brilliant display of rich scarlet blooming throughout the winter. ( United 
Gardeners'' Journal, 1847, p. 241.) 

Root Pruning Trees. — Some three or four years ago, when the sub- 
ject of root-pruning was first discussed, we felt much interested in the 
subject, and republished an article by our correspondent, Mr. Rivers, of the 
Sawbridgevvorth Nurseries, England, showing the benefiis and advantages 
of the system. We also practically satisfied ourselves that the plan was 
an important one to every cultivator, enabling him to bring trees into bear- 
ing, when all other means had failed. But some of our amateurs and pro- 
fessional men have not been convinced of its utility, and even our friend, 
Mr. Ernst, in a recent article, (p. 57,) views the system " as a sort of 
horticultural heresy, calculated to do much mischief," which " will have 
its day, and then be permitted to slumber among the errors of the times." 
To all who entertain such impressions, we invite their attention to the fol- 
lowing remarks ; and when they have proved them by experiment, as we 
have, to be correct, we doubt not it .will be generally adojited where it is 
desired to grow a variety of trees in a small space, and speedily bring them 
into fruit. — Ed. 

As I was one of the first who called your attention to the root-pruning of 
pear trees, for the purpose of making them bear early, I was glad to find, 
on a visit to Sawbridgeworth Nursery the other day, that Mr. Rivers has 
carried out, with the most complete success, his management of the pear, 
so as to produce early fcuitfulness, and yet the most vigorous and healthy 
growth. I should say that you will scarcely find one tree in a hundred of 
his vast nursery of pears, (covering, I cannot recollect how many acres,) 
which is not covered with bloom. The trees are three to four feet high, 
trained conically, and, with few exceptions, all grafted on quince stocks. 
In addition to the dwarfing effect of this slock, he finds many of the best 
kinds of pears, which are worthless on pear stocks, produce excellently 
flavored fruit on the quince. There are, however, some kinds which he 
finds it impossible to cultivate on this stock, and therefore, in order to avail 

General Notices. 281 

himself of the advantages of the stock, he first grafts on it a common pear, 
and then grafts or buds the reluctant or refractory variety on the pear ; and 
by this mode of double working, he procures a good bearing tree, with all 
the advantage of the quince root. Five years ago, I had small pear trees, 
with bloom buds in November, which bore a good crop in the following 
year ; and any one who had laid in a stock of these little conical trees last 
autumn, might have this season had an orchard of pears in full bearing, 
always presuming that we do not have such a May to destroy our fruit as 
we had last season. It is astonishing what a collection of these trees may 
be contained in a small space ; from five to six feet apart, in rows running 
north and south, is quite space sufficient. I feel satisfied that not half suffi- 
cient attention is paid to this fruit for our desserts ; a very little care, and a 
judicious selection of sorts, would ensure them daily from the end of July 
till May. 1 found two sorts in Mr. Rivers' fruit house, both in excellent 
Older — the Fortune, an admirable pear, and the Ne plus Meuris, and I dare 
say these will be equally good a month hence. I think he told me he had 
nearly 900 kinds, of course very many of which are worthless, but there 
are many which he has not yet proved; and again, although his grounds 
affijrd a great variety of soil and aspect, yet as it is known that climate, 
aspect, and soil have a strong influence on the excellence of the fruit, we 
are still in want of information from your various correspondents on this 
subject. There are many kinds which produce finer looking fruit on walls, 
which, however, are much surpassed in flavor by the smaller fruits, as on 
espaliers or on conical shaped standards. I have adopted a suggestion of 
Mr. Rivers, in planting a conical trained standard near the wall between 
my peach trees, and find the fruit of the tender varieties better flavored than 
what is grown against the wall ; and these trees take up little or no wall. 
Mr. Rivers finds the trees grafted on quince stocks flourish better when the 
whole of the stock is covered with earth (he grafting at about six inches 
from the ground) as the stock is apt to get hard and hidebound, especially 
when the graft is of a kind of vigorous growth. He has planted several 
on mounds of earth, tonguing the stock to encourage the throwing out of 
small roots, and he proposes in the autumn to replant them, cutting away 
the bottom strong roots, and then obtaining little else than a mass of fine 
fibrous roots for the support of his tree, which will make fruitfulness cer- 
tain. When this matter was first discussed, that is, a systematic course of 
root-pruning, for we all admitted that it was occasionally done before, the 
objectors cried out that no good fruit would be produced ; that the fruit like 
the trees would be stunted and vviihout flavor and gritty. I can report that 
the fruit on my root-pruned trees has been finer than that produced on old 
trees which were left in their natural stale ; but these pruned trees must be 
duly attended to, manured, and must be mulched in a dry summer. — (Gard. 
Chron. p. 253.) 

Culture of the Chinese Primrose. — In pot culture, two difl^erent methods 

may be pursued. When the object is to obtain a number and succession of 

plants, three or four sowings should be made from the beginning of July to 

the end of September. As soon as the seedlmgs have formed two proper 


282 General Notices. 

leaves, they may be potted in small thumbs, and afterwards progressively 
shifted till they are in pots of the required size : four and six-inch ] ots will 
generally be found large enough. The soil proper for them consists of one- 
half sandy loam, the other half leaf-soil, or leaf-soil and peat. The seeds 
may be raised in a slight hotbed, where the plants may remain until they 
are establisiied in their first shift ; they must then be removed to a cold 
frame, open day and night, and covered with glass only during violent rain. 
On the approach of frost, they may be removed to a cool, airy part of the 
greenhouse, as near as possible to the glass, as, without abundance of light 
and air, the flower-stems will be drawn, and the colors will be dim. They 
require, at all times, an abundant supply of water, and, therefore, the pots 
should be well drained to ensure a due circulation ; for few plants are more 
impatient of stagnant water about their roots. Some recommend the plants 
being placed a little deeper in the pot at each shifting, but that is a bad 
practice, being calculated to cause them to damp ofl^ at the neck. In this 
way, a succession of flowering plants may be maintained from November to 
May ; those with the largest flowers and finest colors only should be re- 
served for seed ; the others may be destroyed as soon as their beauty is 
past. I anticipate that we shall, by and by, have spotted and variegated 
varieties: perhaps, by impregnating the white and pink with each other, 
something of the kind may be produced. Those intended for seed should 
be placed in a drier atmosphere and higher temperature than ihe green- 
house affords. 

In the cultivation of large specimens, either of the single or double vari- 
eties, healthy young plants may be selected in the beginning of August, in 
four-inch pots, with their roots just appearing at the outside of tlieball: 
they may at once be transferred to pots a foot in diameter, prepared in the 
most careful manner ; they should have not less than two inches of large 
crocks in the bottom, then a thin layer of fine pieces, which should be cov- 
ered with the fibres of turf or ])eat ; the soil may be the same as before rec- 
ommended, but the loam should be in large turfy pieces, and mixed with a 
third part of crocks and pieces of charcoal ; the whole should be carefully 
placed in the pots, and mixed with pure but sharp sand in such a manner 
that veins of it may run right through the mass; the soil ought not to be 
pressed into the pots, but merely slightly shaken, and the pot beat on the 
potting-bench. The plants should have been well watered a short time 
previous to potting, and will not require a further supply for two or three 
days. They may be placed on a gentle hotbed until they begin to grow, 
but must not be allowed to remain longer than a week, when they must be 
removed to a cold frame, and elevated upon inverted pots until their leaves 
are on a level with the edges of the frame. Air must be increased grad- 
ually for a few days ; afterwards, the lights may be taken off for two or 
three hours, morning and evening, and during the middle of the day, and 
at night, tilted upon the side opposite the quarter from whence the wind 
blows. A slight shower in the morning or evening will be of benefit to 
them, but not more than will sufliice to wet the leaves ; nor must heavy rain 
be allowed to fall upon them ; for a thunder shower of very short duration 

General Notices. 283 

would counteract the effect of all previous care. During bripht weather, 
slight syringings morning and evening may be given immediately before 
putting on the lights. They should not be too frequently watered, but, 
when water is given, it should be in such quantity as will thoroughly pen- 
etrate the soil, and run out at the bottoms of the pots. The soil in the pots 
should be maintained in a condition to admit a free circulation both of air 
and water, so that, when water is given, it may quickly disappear from the 
surface, and make its way through the mass. They may remain in the 
frames until the weather becomes too cold for them, when they must be 
removed to the greenhouse or conservatory. — {Gard. and Land Steward^ s 
Journal, 1847, p. 241 ) 

Thin^dng Annual Plants. — At this season, those who cultivate annual 
flowering plants must be on the alert to afford a timely thinning, for, if 
left in the crowded state in which they are sure to spring up, they will pre- 
vent each other from attaining any ihing like an average degree of perfec- 
tion. Much of the necessity of this operation may be obviated by sowing 
the seeds moderately thin in the fir?t instance ; but, as in all cases it is nec- 
essary to deposit more seeds than can be permitted to remain, if they vege- 
tate, there will be many plants to remove. If they are of rare or valuable 
species, they may be carefully taken up and transplanted into another part 
of the garden : if they happen to be of those kinds which are not required 
for such purpose, they should be pulled up, with reference only to the safety 
of those which are intended to be left. The number of plants which should 
be permitted to remain in a patch will vary according to the habits of the 
species ; thus a large vigorous growing plant, of good habit, should stand 
as a single plant, whilst any of a more straggling growth, two or three 
should be retained, and those sufficiently near each other to form an outline 
of perfect unity, but not so as to appear crowded. In the case of less vig- 
orous growing plants, about three plants should be retained ; prostrate plants 
must be regulated by a similar rule, according to the multiplicity or pau- 
city of their branches. In taking up the plants which are removed, care 
must be used that those remaining are not injured by the operation ; and, 
that this may be the result, it should be do"e at as early a period as possi- 
ble, that is, as soon as a few leaves are perfected. After thinning, more 
than ordinary diligence must be used to prevent injury from the depreda- 
tions of snails, slugs, &c. ; lime, from its caustic properties, is, perhaps, 
the best preventive, as it is not at all injurious to the plants when applied 
in moderation. The staking of the kinds of upright habit should also 
be attended to at an early period, and those of suitable habits should be 
pegged down to the soil, and will thus form very pleasing masses. — (/rf. 
p. 255.) 

Pol Culture of the Vine. — From long experience, I have proved the fol- 
lowing method of cultivating Vines in pots to answer most admirably. The 
Black Hamburfjh is, perhaps, the best kind f .r pot-culture ; but 1 have also 
found the While Frontignan and Musque Fronlignan (H) to succeed well ; 
the latter sets its fruit best in the coolest part of the house. 1 prefer buds 
from old spurs to any other. About the middle of January , the prunings are 

284 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

introduced into heat, to forward the buds previous to potting, and in the first 
week in February the buds are prepared in the usual way. I insert one 
only in a four-inch pot, just covering the wood ; I use leaf-mould finely 
sifted, mixed with a small portion of silver sand. The pots are then 
plunged half their depth into a bottom heat of about 70° ; if the young 
vines receive due attention, they will require a shift in the middle of April 
into eight-inch pots, using a mixture of well rotted cow-dung, leaf-mould, 
and strong 1 lam, in equal proportions. 1 then again subject them to bottom 
heat, until the roots fairly show that another shift is wanted, which is the 
final one. I employ at this shift fifteen-inch pots, and use a soil composed 
of three parts strong loam, and the other part cow-dung. I train near the 
glass, with a view to ripen the wood effectually, and pay strict attention to 
stopping the laterals, preserving the main branch to the length of eight 
feet. I always allow one foot in addition to the bearing wood, in case of a 
bud starting at the top, which it often does when the vines are luxuriant. 
During the growing stage of the vines in the fruiting-pots, I apply liquid 
manure once a week, made from cow-dung, and when the shoots exhibit a 
tinge of brown, I pick out the laterals with my finger and thumb, retaining 
the leaves, and two or three laterals at the extremity. When the wood is 
fully matured, water is gradually withheld, and the vines pruned to the 
required length and stored away in a dry shed exposed to the north winds ; 
there they remain until they are required for forcing. A week previously 
to introducing them into heat, the plants receive a thorough watering with 
clear liquid manure in a tepid state. Treated as above described, they 
fruit most abundantly ; the number of good-sized bunches I manage gener- 
ally to bring to perfection, is from ten to fifteen on each vine. I may men- 
tion that I moss the stems for about a foot and a half in height from the 
surface of the pots ; the stems root freely into the moss by keeping it con- 
tinually moist. When the fruit is swelling, I supply the plants liberally 
with the liquid manure above mentioned, and, in addition, I apply guano- 
water once in eight days, in the proportion of about a pound of guano to a 
gallon of water; by this application I have proved that three or four pounds 
of fruit may be brought to perfection on a vine. The pots are placed in 
pans on a flue, and trained near the glass. — ( Gard. Chron. p. 253.) 

Art. II. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, May 1, 1847. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held 
to-day, — the President in the chair. 

The committee appointed for fixing the days of the annual exhibition, 
reported that they had decided upon Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 
the 22d, 23d, and 24th days of September next ; anj the report was ac- 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 285 

The following members were elected : — Jonathan Chapman, C. H.Mills, 
A. W. Thaxter, Thomas Lamb, J. E. Thayer, J. W. Blodgett, Isaac 
Babbitt, T. P. Gushing, and 0. Everett, Jr., Boston; Joseph Murray, 
Med ford. 

Adjourned two weeks, to May 15th. 

Exhibited. — Fruit : Mr. J. F. Allen, of Salem, made a very rich display 
of grapes fortheearliness of the season — his collection containing just twelve 
kinds, of which the following are the names: — Early Black July, Miller's 
Bergundy, Early White of the French, and Pitmaston white cluster, (these 
four are the earliest grapes, and the Pitmaston the earliest and the best of 
these,) Zinfindal, Ferral, Black Hamburg, White Chasselas, C'hasselas de 
Bar Sur Aube, Aleppo, White and Grizzly Frontignan ; also. Black Figs, 
of St. Michael. From S. Needham, cucumbers, well grown. From O. 
N. Towne, a brace of cucumbers. From J. F. Allen, tomatoes. 

Maij I5th. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day, — the 
President in the chair. 

A letter was read from Prof. Gray, accompanied with a copy of his 
Flora Boreala Americana, and a copy of Mr. Ward's Treatise on the 
Groiulh of Plants in closely glazed cases. The thanks of the Society were 

A copy of the Transactions of the Worcester County Horticultural So- 
ciety was received from George Jacques, of Worcester, and the thanks of 
the Society were voted. 

Exhibited. — Floweks : From the President of the Society, a fine display 
of greenhouse plants of various kinds, among which were Azalea variegiita, 
A. nudiflora ornata, (a hardy variety,) and twenty seedling azaleas, some of 
them fine striped varieties ; thirty seedling calceolarias ; seedling cinerarias 
and petunias, and a variety of roses, including the Persian yellow, Madame 
Angehna, Paul Joseph, «Sic. ; also, cut flowers of camellias, including two 
new seedlings. From T. Willott, gardener to J. A. Lowell, a variety of 
plants, among which were the iVep6nthes distillatoria or pitcher plant, and a 
splendid specimen of Russ611ia ^'lincea. From N. Stetson, South Bridge- 
water, a fine plant of Cylisus racemosus and Madam Desprez rose. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., six plants of new and splendid pelargoniums, 
as follows : — Beck's Aurora, Rosy Circle, Isabella, Zanzummin, and Desde- 
mona and Chandler's Celestial ; nothing could excel the beauty of Mr. 
Beck's seedlings. From W. Quant, 12 pelargoniums of various kinds, 
seedling cinerarias, six fuchsias, a superb specimen of Stephanotus flori- 
bundus, and a variety of pot plants and cut flowers. From J, Thomas, 
gardener to J. L. Gardener, seedling verbenas, and a variety of cut flowers. 
Front J. L. L. F. Warren, 26 species and varieties of cactuses and bou- 
quets. Bouquets and flowers were also contributed by T. Needham, James 
Nugent, J. Hovey, J. W. Mandell, W. B. Richards, A. C. Fernald, 
A. Bowditch, and J. Breck & Co. 

Premiums were awarded as follows : — 

Pelargoniums, Class II. — For the best 6 plants, to W. Quant, ^. 
For the second best 6 plants, to W. Mellar, $i. 

286 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Fuchsias. — For the best six varieties, to William Quant, $6. 
Cinerarias. — For the best six varieties, to W. Quant, $3. 
Various sorts of Greenhouse Plants. — For the best twelve plants, 
to W. Quant, #8. 
For the second best twelve plants, to A. Bowditch, S5. 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, to W. Quant, 03. 

For the second best, to J. Nugent, $2. 
Gratuities. — To M. P. Wilder, for a display of greenhouse plants, $8. 
For the same, to Thos. Willott, $5. 
To Henry Reed, for Cytisus racemosus, $3. 
May 22. Exhibiled. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, 
twelve seedling calceolarias, some of them very beautiful ; cut flowers of 
seedling camellias, one of which appears to possess good properties, and 
other varieties ; Tea, Princesse Adelaide, and Solfitaire roses, the former 
quite rare ; also, Bourbon and Perpetual roses, and hardy azaleas, (forced.) 
From R. M. Copeland, fine hyacinths. From W. Quant, a splendid plant 
of Stephanotus floribiindus, cinerarias, geraniums, &c. From J. Thomas, 
six handsome verbenas, also a fine show of sweet peas, pelargoniums, cal- 
ceolarias, &c. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., beautiful seedling pansies. From T. Need- 
ham, cut flowers of verbenas, cinerarias, abutilons, &c. From Joseph 
Breck & Co., hyacinths in great variety ; fine varieties of Phlox subulata ; 
white swan and other double varieties of the Polyanthus, with a great va- 
riety of other perennial flowers of the season. From Mrs. L. Spalding, a 
fine pant of C^reus ext6nsis, in full bloom. From J. L. L. F. Warren, 
Burch^lla specidsa, a new and rare species ; also, Callistemon spl6ndens, 
bouquets, &c. Bouquets and cut flowers, from A. Bowditch, J. VV. Man- 
dell, and S. R. Johnson. 

The award of premiums was as follows : — 

Plants. — For the best six pot plants, to W. Quant, a premium of $2. 

To A. Bowditch, for the second best, a premium of #1. 
Bouquets. — For the best mantel bouquet, to A. Bowditch, $2. 
For the second best, to W. Quant, $1. 
For the best hand bouquets, to A. Bowditch, $2. 
For the second best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $1. 
Gratuities — To Wm. Quant, for a splendid plant of Stephan6tus flori- 
biindus, S5. 
To R. M. Copeland, for a very fine display of hyacinths, $3. 
Fruits. — Mr. Allen again made another fine display of his grapes, viz: 
Ferral, Black Hamburg, Zmandal, early Black July, Grizzly Frontignan, 
Pitmasion white cluster, and white Chasselas ; also, black and white figs 
of St. Michael, Azores. The Pitmaston white cluster is a small round 
berry, and, when fully ripe, of a fine amber color; it will ripen in from 
tea to twenty days less time than the Chasselas or Sweetwater. It is a 
very desirable variety. 
Vegetables. — From W. Quant, fine asparagus. 

Horticultural Memoranda. 287 

May 29. Exhibited . — Flowers : From Messrs. Winship a fine display of 
flowering shrubs, such as spiraeas, azaleas, Pyrus japonica, Wistaria, &c. 
&c. From J. Thomas, plants of verbenas, Tropaeolum minor, seedling 
calceolaria and Pelargonium Matilda. From Joseph Breck & Co., 200 
fine tulips, a beautiful new aquilegia, (A. secunda,) Jberis Tenoreana, va- 
riegated mountain ash, and other shrubs and flowers. 

From Messrs. Hovey &. Co., very fine seedling pansies. From E. Wins- 
low, beautiful tulips. From A. Aspinwall, a fine display of roses. From 
P. Barnes, a fine plant of Azalea Gledslan^su, seedling verbenas, &c. 
From J. L. L. F. Warren, £uph6rbm splt^ndens, Justicfa carnea and caly- 
tricha, double white and purple Chinese primroses ; a variety of rhododen- 
drons and other flowers. Bouquets and cut flowers, from W. B. Richards, 
E. Wight, James Nugent, A. Bowditch, P. Ivory, W. Mellar, E. M. 
Richards, Miss Russell, S. Walker, and others. 

Premiums were awarded as follows : — 

Plants. — For the best six plants, to J. Thomas, f2. 
For the second best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, SI. 

Tulips. — For the best 30 distinct varieties, to Joseph Breck & Co. $8. 
For the second best 30 varieties, to S. Walker, f6. 

Pansies. — For the best 12 distinct varieties, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $4. 
For the second best, to Joseph Breck & Co., $3. 
To P. Barnes, for a pan of fine blooms, a gratuity of #2. 

Bouquets, &c. — For the best 6 hand bouquets, to A. Bowditch, $2. 
For the second best, to J. L, L. F. Warren, f 1. 
A gratuity of ;^2 to J. Thomas, for a moss vase. 

Fruits. — From J. F. Allen, very fine grapes, as follows: — Chasselas 
bar sur Aube, Black Hamburg, White Frontignan, Sweetwater, Zinfindal, 
Aleppo, and Grizzly Frontignan ; also, white figs. From T. Needham, 
handsome black spine cucumbers. From W. Quant, fine black spine cu- 




Grape Vines will soon be swelling rapidly, and will require a liberal 
quantity of air — always given early in the morning — and a good supply of 
moisture, which should be created by watering the walks about four o'clock 
in the afternoon just after the sashes are closed for the night. If dry 
weather should set in, the border should be mulched with some coarse 
strawy manure. Continue to stop the laterals, and tie in all leading shoots. 
If the bunches have not been properly shouldered, they should be imme- 
diately attended to. Young vines raised from eyes should now be shifted 
into larger pots. 

288 Horticultural Memoranda. 

Pruning and staking all kinds of trees should now be attended to. A 
little attention to this will add greatly to their form and appearance. 

Grafted trees should be looked after, and the clay and matting removed, 
if the ties are girdling the stems. 

Thinnin'^ the fruit is an important object, when young trees have set too 
large a quantity. 


Catnellias should now be removed from the greenhouse or conservatory, 
into a half shady situation, and be properly arranged and placed upon 
boards, so that the worms cannot enter the pots. See that they are regu- 
larly syringed. 

Pelargoniums will be past their beauty the latter part of the month, when 
they should be removed to the open air, and their branches headed in and 
cuttings put in, if a young stock is wanted. 

Ericas should be removed to frames facing the north, or plunged out into 
the open ground in a half shady situation. 

Diosmas, epacrises, <^c. may receive the same treatment as the ericas. 

Oxahscs, Sparaais, locias, <Sfc., done blooming, should be placed in a dry 
place, and the pots placed on their sides. 

Japan Lilies will begin to flower this month ; let them be neatly staked 
up, and be liberally watered, and occasionally syringed. 

Fuchsias will now be in full flower, and should be occasionally watered 
with a weak solution of guano. 

Roses wanted for flowering in beds or clumps, should be turned out im- 
mediately. Those wanted for blooming in the autumn should be plunged 
in the ground in a sheltered place, and the soil mulched with litter. Where 
a young stock is wanted, they may now be propagated from cuttings. 

Achimenes and Gloxinias will now be great ornaments of the greenhouse, 
and a good stock should always be on hand for this purpose. Repot such 
as require it, and bring on a fresh lot for late blooming. 

Cyclamens may now be turned out into the open ground, selecting a half 
shady place. 

Noepolilan violets may now be increased, by dividing the roots and making 
new plantations. 

Hyacinths and tulips may be taken up the latter part of the month. 

Azaleas, removed from the house, should be placed in a half shady aspect, 
and plunged in tan or the open ground. 

Daphnes may still be propagated from cuttings. 

Ipomce'a Learii should now be turned out into the open border, and 
trained up to stakes at least eight feet high. It will form a complete pyra- 
mid of bloom in August. 

Heliotropes may be propagated for a stock for winter flowering. 

Greenhouse plants of all kinds may now be removed to the open air ; and 
a great number of kinds do much better if they are plunged out into the 
border, especially Abutilons, Alloysias, Euphorbias, Salvias, and scarlet 


O F 


JULY, 1847. 


Art. I. List of Trojncal Plants which may be acclimated in 
the Southern States. By Dr. A. Mitchell : in a Letter to 
Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. Communicated by Gen. Dear- 

Dear Sir, — Yours of the 18th was duly received, and its 
contents, as usual, perused with pleasure. I will here re- 
mark, that, agreeably to your wishes, and in observance of 
the rules of punctuality, I had previously requested Dr. Hen- 
ry Bacon, of St. Mary's, Geo., to give me a full history of the 
mode of culture of the Arrow Root in that region. And as 
this matter is connected exclusively with our present desires 
to show the success in the acclimation of tropical plants, in 
our country, it becomes necessary to show the difference in 
the mode of culture and soils, comparably with that of the 
West India Islands. As you well know that a competent 
knowledge of the physical causes which affect the growth 
and nutrition of plants points out the more obvious means 
of insuring success, when I receive from Dr. B. the commu- 
nication on this subject, a full detail shall be immediately en- 
closed to you. 

It is my opinion, that all plants, however opposite the zones 
in which they exist, can be transplanted and acclimated with 
success, if the natural order of those plants can be specified 
and detected as an inhabitant, indigenously growing in the 
respective and opposite latitudes, where there are existing 
proofs of such facts. 

We will here subjoin a list of those plants that can be cul- 
tivated with success in Florida, and gradually introduced ; 
some of them, I am well aware, have been cultivated to a. 

VOL. XIII. — NO. VII. 27 

290 AccUmatioJi of Troj>ical Plants. 

certain extent in our country; but anew mode of chemical 
process, and knowledge of facts connected with scientific in- 
quiries may revive them with more purity, and render them 
a lucrative article of commercial exports. Such observations 
would more properly include the indigo plant ; likewise the 
madder plant (i^ubia tinctorium) ; the Turkish poppy, (Papa- 
ver somniferum) ; saffron plant, (Crocus s^tivus) ; olive tree, 
(O^lea europae^a) ; tea plant, {T/iea viridis) ; coffee plant, 
{Coffea arabica) ; sago plant. (Cycas revoluta) ; black pepper, 
(Piper nigrum) ; nutmeg, (Myristica officinalis) ; Mahogany 
tree, (Swietenm Mahagojii) ; the banana and plantain, (Musa 
paradisiaca, and M. sapientum) ; papaAV tree (Carica papaya) ; 
Mammee tree, (JMammea americana) ; date palm, cocoa-nut 
tree; likewise the Teak-tree {Tecthna grandis) which could 
be introduced and rendered valuable. The sugar cane (ilrundo 
saccharifera) is gradually improving in the amount of saccha- 
rine matter contained in its annual cuttings, and, since its in- 
troduction and cultivation in the southern portion of our coun- 
try, its joints have become more extensively filled with the 
saccharine juice, and it will not be long before it will yield 
equal to that cultivated in the West India islands, constitu- 
tionally adapting itself to regions farther north. I am, dear 
sir, respectfully yours, Augustus Mitchell. 
Portland^ Maine, June, 1847. 

Our thanks are again due to General Dearborn for the com- 
munication of Dr. Mitchell's paper. The subject is one of deep 
interest to our agriculturists, and the suggestions of Dr. Mitch- 
ell, that the plants of the opposite zones can be cultivated with 
success in the southern portion of the country, are undoubt- 
edly correct. It only wants some zealous cultivators to feel 
an interest in the matter to make a full trial of the kinds he 
names. The lamented Dr. Perrine, who labored so long in 
this great object, had just begun to see some of the fruits of 
his many years devotion to it, when the Florida war com- 
menced : its long continuation delayed and frustrated his 
plans, and he finally fell a victim to the ferocity of the sav- 
ages, who then spread over that part of the territory. Now 
that there is every opportunity open to prosecute the work, 
we hope Dr. Mitchell may find friends who will assist him 
in carrying out his suggestions. — Ed. 

A Way to keep a Record of Trees. 291 

Art. II. A Way to keep a Record of the Place of every 
Tree in an Orchard, — with or ivithont Labels. By M. W. 
Philips, Edwards, Miss. 

I QUOTE the first part of the above sentence from page 156. 
as used m the heading of an article on this subject, and 1 
might state an advertisement, offering a farm for sale. 

I herewith give you m}^ plan, and, thinking it so simple, I 
would not have thought of telling any one how, but for the 
article alluded to. 

My peach orchards I designate as "Griffiths " or " S. W. or- 
chard," — " Downing's," or " East orchard," and "The or- 
chard." The first contains 25 rows, of 16 trees each ; the sec- 
ond, 28 rows, of 16 trees each ; the third not complete. 

I begin at a farm road leading south, and number the first 
orchard as roAvNo. 1 West, No. 2 E., No. 1 W., &c : trees in 
each row, Nos. 1, 2, 3, &c., going north to south — all of which 
rows are laid off" with a compass. 

I have a book in which I keep registered the names of trees, 
with all the necessary information ; an example I give from 
my East orchard. 

East. Row No. 1. 

No. Variety. Bloom. Leaf. Color. Ripens. Qualify. 

I. Snow. Small, White. Reniform g. {Fruit not ripened here yet.) 

I am examining every tree I get, as to bloom and leaf, 
without regarding any description from books : I note it : af- 
ter I have thus a history of all my fruit trees, I will erase ev- 
ery name that does not come up to description ; and if a fruit 
is worthy of a name, that comes to me under a wrong one, 
and I find it differs, I will name it, for future examination. 
My apple orchard contains 575 trees, and rather too large for 
plotting. My pear orchard now numbers 165 ; and I have 
some 1200 peach trees. I could not strike out any simpler 
plan than mine. My peach book is more extended than any 
other, because the peach is our own fruit, and I am desirous 
of paying the closest attention to it. My pear book will note 
color of wood; any peculiarities in leaf; growth, shape, size, 
color, ripening, and quality, of fruit, if for table or dessert. 
But it will be years before my pears will tell. 

292 -^1 Wai/ to keep a Record of Trees. 

If the SO or 90 trees add so much to the vahie of Mr. H.'s 
farm, how shall I cipher up the worth of mine ? I have not 
told you any thing of my plums, cherries, figs, quinces, walnuts, 
peccans, &c., &c. I can only say, in the way of slipping in 
an advertisement, that, if any one Avill give me his price per 
acre, I will throw in some 5000 buds and grafts of all sorts of 
fruit, together with a few Berkshires, grade Durhams and 
Devons, Saxons and Southdowns, Bantams, Bremen, Polands, 
with horses and mules, to help along, and my corn fodder and 
tools thrown in. 

As to labels, I think I mentioned, some time since, that I 
had tried cedar and zinc. I have now a little more experi- 
ence with them. I split the cedar about one eighth of an inch 
thick, three to four inches long, and about two wide. I put 
them into my pocket ; and, whilst at leisure in the field attend- 
ing to my hands, or in the shade, I smooth them with my 
pocket knife, and cut them into some fanciful form. I then 
write, with a lead pencil, the name, No. of row, and No. of tree 
in the row : with a sharp-pointed implement I scratch this in, 
then follow with my pencil. I have some of these over one 
year old, and the wood has blackened so much, by stain of 
trees, &c., that the name is not intelligible ; others, that I 
gave a coating to of linseed oil, and then one of copal varnish, 
are as clean, bright, and neat, as the day they were placed on 
the tree. 

My zinc labels, with the preparation your correspondent 
gave me, are rusty already, except where I gave a coating of 
varnish : these are bright and plain ; and so are the labels that 
were written on with a lead pencil ; and to this period of time, 
[ would as lief have the lead pencil, as both do best with the 
varnish, and the lead better than the preparation — if no var- 
nish be used. 

I have now 1000 zinc plates, and a lot of copper wire, cut 
for the purpose of labelling my trees, and only wait for the 
idle time of summer. I wish to learn the name of every tree 
I have, and can only do so by having the name and the tree 
in my mind at the same time : and, the labor being my own, 
it is my loss. 

May 10, 1847. 

Cultivation of the Grape Vhie, Sfc. 293 

Art. til On the Cultivation and Treatment of the Grape 
Vine in the Greenlwuse or Conservatory^ with a Diary of the 
Progress of the Vincs^ Temperature, t^*c. By the Editor. 

From the first pubhcation of our Magazine, we have devot- 
ed many pages to the cnhivation of the grape vine under 
glass, and a great number of articles will be found in our sev- 
eral volumes by various correspondents, both amateur and 
professional cultivators. The management of the vine in 
pots was fully detailed by ourselves in our first volume, (p. 37), 
in the Greenhouse and Grapery, in some able papers in the 
same volume, by Mr. Russell, (pp. 48, 94, &€.), in the Grapery, 
by Mr. O. Johnson, (VIII. p. 201), and in the Cold-house, in 
a very valuable article, (XII. p. 384), by Mr. Russell. We 
now have to add our own experience on its treatment in the 
Greenhouse exclusively, where a valuable collection of plants 
is cultivated ; and, at a future time, we hope also to give an ar- 
ticle on its management in the early vinery, which will make 
our Magazine a complete treatise on the growth of this deli- 
cious fruit. 

Our information on the cultivation of the vine has been, in 
a great degree, gathered from the experience of English Cul- 
tivators, and, without making any allowance for variation of 
latitude, clmate, &c., we have followed them so strictly that 
an impression has been formed that the grape could not be 
grown in the greenhouse without great injury to the plants ; 
or, in other words, that either the vines or the plants must 
sufljer, whichever the cultivator may deem of the least im- 
portance. Now in the cool, cloudy, and rainy climate of 
England, where every gleam of sunshine, especially in win- 
ter, is necessary to the health and vigor of both plants and 
fruits when grown under glass, it is important that there 
should be no obstruction to its free penetration to every part 
of the house ; but, under our burning sun, where, often for 
weeks in succession, there is scarcely a cloud to obstruct its 
rays, it is absolutely necessary to the well being of most kinds 
of plants that there should be some shade. If this is not 
to be obtained by vines on the rafters, it must be had by whi- 
tening the under surface of the glass, or by fitting up curtains, 

294 Cultivation of the Grape Vine 

which may be rolled up and unrolled as occasion may re- 
quire. It is thus apparent to all, that, however so much En- 
glish practice may disclaim against the growth of the grape 
in the greenhouse in that climate, in this country it may 
be successfully cultivated without injury to the plants. 

Our collection consists of a great quantity of plants, and 
particularly of choice assortments of the camellia, azalea, rose, 
heath, pimelea, cactus, &c. &c., and, for the camellia, we 
have, in addition to the shade of the vines, had to whiten a 
portion of the glass. These plants have all been cultivated 
in the highest condition, and are vigorous, healthy, and not 
the least injured by the grape vines. By the time the vines 
require a high temperature to swell the fruit, the plants should 
all be removed from the house, but their places may be im- 
mediately filled with those which are suited to a greater heat, 
and the greenhouse still keep up its cheerful and brilliant ap- 
pearance, as we have already shown in our last number 
(p. 263). At the time we now write, (June), the berries of the 
grapes are as large as bullets, and the conservatory one blaze 
of flowers, and the temperature 9G° at noon. 

Our conservatory is upwards of eighty-four feet long, twenty- 
two wide, ten feet high at the sides, with a sjtan roof, and 
sashes on all sides from the sill to the plate. The inside ar- 
rangements are two central walks, one the whole length, and 
the other from the street front to the lawn front ; another walk 
leads all round the house next the glass, thus leaving two 
spaces which are constructed with stages, and two which are 
level with the walks, on which the large specimen camellias 
and other plants are placed. With this description, we shall 
return to the growth of the vines : — 


When the conservatory was erected in 1841, the growth of 
vines was not contemplated for the reasons we have just 
alluded to. But, in 1842, as we were desirous of proving 
some new kinds, and the correctness of others, of whose names 
we were in some doubt, we commenced the formation of the 
border, intending to plant the vines another year, not with 
the expectation that we should raise any grapes worth the 

in the Greenhouse or Conservatory. 295 

trouble — we were more solicitous about the welfare of the 
plants — but merely for the above object. Consequently, the 
border was made only fourteen feet wide, and two and a half 
deep, and as the conservatory was set well up with a view to 
have a fine gravelled terrace, the border was eighteen inches 
above the level of the lawn. The border was formed by 
carting in sods and good loam from an old pasture, and mixing 
wiih them about one quarter of well decomposed manure from 
the stable yard, and from old hotbeds. This was done in 
July and August at leisure time. In the fall, the whole was 
trenched over in a rough manner, and about thirty bushels of 
ground bones added. In this way the soil lay till the next 
spring, when it was again trenched over and ready for plant- 
ing. We are not thus particular in order to show how a bor- 
der should be made, but merely that it may be seen that a 
Jine crop of grapes can be obtained without all the quackery 
so often recommended in their formation, such as a bed of 
oyster shells or boiled bones, dead horses, cattle, and dogs, 
slaughter-house manure, blood, soot, &c. All that is neces- 
sary, in our opinion, to produce the very best grapes, is a 
good, rich, loamy soil, well top-dressed, every year, with old 
stable manure and guano, in order to bring the roots to the 
surface, rather than that they should go to the bottom after the 
dead carcases. 


Owing to the delay in trenching the border, it had not be- 
come sufficiently settled to plant the vines before July. They 
were young plants one year old, and had been prepared by 
heading them down early in the spring, and training up 
one shoot which had now attained the height of six or eight 
feet. Holes were opened about four inches deep, and two feet 
broad, and the roots, after the tops had been drawn very care- 
fully through the holes in the sill, so as not to injure the 
leaves, well spread out, shaking the ball completely free from 
soil. A good watering was then given to settle the earth, 
and the shoots tied up. If the work is well done, though 
as late as July, the vines will not receive the l.^ast injury. 
We do not advise late planting when it can be done earlier in 
the season, but even August is much belter than to lose a 

296 Cultivation of the Grape Fme 

year, as the vines will then make a shoot from ten to twenty 
feet long. 


After the vines are planted, it is only necessary to see that 
the roots are well watered, should the weather prove dry, and 
the surface mulched with a little coarse stable manure. The 
leaves should also be well syringed every evening after the 
house is closed for the night, which should be rather earlier 
than usual. No other care is required but to keep the shoots 
tied up, looking after them every few days, and nipping off all 
laterals at the base of the first leaf. If duly attended to, 
they will reach the top of an ordinary grapery by the end of 
the season. 

It will have been noticed that our conservatory was so con- 
structed that the sides are ten feet high ; in consequence of 
this, it required a longer time to get a good shoot up to the 
rafters ; and, as no good grapes could be expected until they 
reached them, the vines in December were headed down to 
within two feet of the floor. 

Second Season. — About the 1st of March, the vines began 
to break their eyes : as soon as fully out, all were nipped off 
but two ; these were allowed to grow until they attained the 
length of two or three feet, for fear one might, by accident or 
carelessness, be broken off: at the end of that time, the weak- 
est one was cut quite out, and the remaining one grew rap- 
idly, reaching the top of the house early in the season, and 
making a thick and vigorous cane. The same treatment 
was followed as the last year : all the laterals were nipped off 
at the first leaf, and this repeated every time the remaining one 
pushed, until the wood was fully ripe, when they were cut 
clean off to the main eye : if done too early, it will cause the 
eye to push, but if at the proper season, which can only be 
told by the vigor of the shoots, and the ripeness of the wood, 
it greatly strengthens the eye at the base. Syringing should 
be well attended to before the plants are brought into the 
house, and, in September, it should be thoroughly aired to 
ripen the wood, on which much depends. In December, the 

in the Gi-eenhoiise or Conservatory. 297 

vines were primed, and cut back to three good eyes from the 
bottom of the rafter ; these were left to produce fruit. 

Third Season. — From this period our diary commences; 
but, as it was not kept with the accuracy of the following 
year, and as there was but a few grapes, it would only occu- 
py time and space to give it entire ; we shall therefore only 
quote some of the remarks which were casually noted down, 
showing the progress of the vines, that the amateur, who 
wishes to follow our practice, may know how far he is suc- 

March Ath. — Vines in the middle of the house have burst 
their eyes : those at each end much swollen. 

12th. — Some of the earliest vines are so far advanced as to 
show their fruit buds. 

22c?. — Yinesmost advanced have shoots about twelve inches 
long; those which started latest about two inches. (It may 
be proper to remark, that a flue run across the centre of the 
house and returned again). 

April 5th. — Vines most advanced have made shoots two 
feet long, and the largest bunches of buds are one inch long : 
the latest now show fruit buds. 

19th. — The most forward vines have shoots now about five 
feet long. The two side shoots, (there being one main and 
two side ones), have had the ends nipped off two eyes above 
the fruit buds. 

May 3d. — The most forward vines now begin to open their 
flower buds : longest shoots about eight feet. The conserva- 
tory up to this time, since the vines began to push, has been 
syringed every night in favorable weather, — both plants and 

16th. — During the last week, the temperature has been kept 
higher, and rather closer than usual, The most forward vines 
have now their fruit well set: the latest just coming into 
flower. 'I'he most rapid growing vines have already reached 
the top of the house, twelve feet. 

2(!>th. — Vines very vigorous, so much so, that the leading 
shoots have to be turned and trained along the ridge, and the 
laterals left at full length to prevent the main eyes from break- 

298 Diary of the Cultivation of the Grape Vine 

Z\st. — The most forward vines have swelled their berries 
so fast that thinning has already been commenced. They 
are the size of large peas. All the vines now having their 
fruit well set, syringing has been commenced again. Dur- 
ing the whole of May, the conservatory has been well aired, and 
the plants are in the best condition. 

June 7lh. — Nearly all the plants have been removed from 
the house. 

XAih. — The grapes have swelled up rapidly, and a few of 
the clusters, not having been sufficiently thinned, have been 
looked over again : house opened early, and closed in good sea- 
son, and well damped and syringed. 

2Sth. — During the past fortnight, the vines have grown 
well, and the fruit continues to swell freely. The house kept 
well damped. 

July 12th. — Vines continue to grow linely, and copious sup- 
plies of water are thrown over the walks at noon and night. 
The wood now beginning to ripen, some of the lowest lat- 
erals, which were left to prevent the breaking of the eyes, 
were now cut oif to within two buds of the main shoot. 

August ist. — The berries of the Black Hamburgh begin to 
color, and the Muscadine appears to be approachhig maturity. 
The house closed early, and the walks damped, — wood ripen- 
ing well. 

16th. — The Hamburghs have now all attained an even 
dark color. The house is closed early, but damping the walks 
to any extent is now discontinued. The Muscadine grape 
nearly ripe. 

31st. — Some of the Hamburghs have swelled to a fine size. 
The wood has ripened exceedingly well, and the vines ap- 
pear in fine condition. 

This ends our Diary for this season. The grapes were cut 
in September, and, though only from two to five bunches were 
allowed on each vhie, they were of superior quality. 


Before commencing our Diary, we should remark, that the 
vines were very strong, and were pruned back to half their 

in the Greenhouse or Conservatory 


length, about six feet. This was done in December. The 
shoots were then bent down, and nailed horizontally along the 
front in order to keep them back as much as possible. This 
is always necessary, as the heat is so much greater on the 
roof that they would start too early. 

By the 25th of February, the eyes began to swell, and, on 
the 28th, they were so much pushed that they were imme- 
diately loosened from their places, and tied loosely to the trel- 
lis. From this period our Diary commences : 



E . 





















































13 54 


18 44 

19 46 

70 56 

Some of the vines have burst a few of their 

Weather warm during the week, and the eyes 
have swelled rapidlJ^ 

Weather warm for the season. 

Vines breaking well : since they were tied to 

the trellis, they have been freely syringed, 

both morning and evening, in good weather. 

Some of the eyes about one inch long, and 

show their fruit buds. 

Very cool morning, with considerable frost. 

Nearly all the eyes are so far pushed as to show 
fruit. A few vines which do not appear to 


Diary of the Cultivation of the Grape Vine 



















break even, have had the top of the shoots 
tied down towards the main stem. 

Some of the eyes have now pushed to the length 
of eight inches, and show two or three fine 
clusters of fruit buds. Syringing continued 
every night. 

Weather mild and fine for the season. 

Many of the spurs on the old wood, which 
were pruned to two eyes, having thrown out 
a number of shoots, all were rubbed off, (dis- 
budded), except one of the strongest, which 
is to form the bearing spur for next year : 
each of these were carefully tied up to the 

The month has been very favorable for grapes, 
there having been but little cloudy or stormy 
weather. The vines have consequently done 
well, and some of the shoots, which were 
upwards of fifteen inches long, have been 
topped two eyes beyond the fruit buds. 
Both plants and vines have been well syr- 
inged every evening in good weather. 

All the vines were now tied up to the trellis 
with strong matting, to prevent the weight 
of the grapes from breaking them down. 
The vines which were bent down, have 
broken evenly. Disbudded the shoots again 
on the spurs, and topped the bearing branch- 
es two eyes beyond the fruit. Weather fine, 
with cool, frosty nights. 

in the Greenhouse or Coiiservatory . 










Weather warm and pleasant. 

The weather has continued so pleasant and 
fine, that very light fires have been required 
the past week. Every vine has been tied 
in its proper place on the trellis, and all have 
broken very well. Wilmot's Black Ham- 
burgh is a little later than the old variety. 
The leading shoots are now about four feet 
long, and have had the laterals pinched ofi* 
at the first bud. The clusters of fruit buds 
now swell out. Syringing continued both 
night and morning. 

Cool, frosty, and very windy. 
Very cool. Syringing discontinued on account 
of cool weather. 

Weather fine again, and warm. 

Weather continues fine : camellias and other 
plants syringed freely every night. 

Exceedingly warm for the season. 

Cooler with rain. Good fires required to keep 
up temperature. Vines have grown rapidly, 
and some of the laterals have pushed so 
much as to require stopping again. Some 
of the main shoots have reached the top of 
the house, about six feet. 
VOL. XIII. — NO. vn. 28 

302 Diary of the Cultivation of the Grape Vine 











56 I 82 
65 180 

Cool, with white frost. 

The month has been a favorable one for the 
growth of the vines, on account of the few 
cloudy days. Fires have been lighted to 
keep up a good temperature ; but allowed 
to cool down except during a few cold days. 
Some of the most forward vines now begin 
to open a few flowers. The border not yet 
having been dug, it was manured with ten 
or fifteen pounds of guano, and spaded 
about six inches deep. 

Vines now growing rapidly, and flowers are 
open on several of them. Syringed the 
house, and all the plants for the last time 
until the fruit is set. Temperature slightly 
raised, and house closed earlier than usual. 
A light fire kindled every night. 

Cool frosty morning. Vines looked over care- 
fully, and all shoots tied in regularly, cut- 
ting ofl" any superfluous ones, and thinning 
out the bunches of fruit where more than 
two small ones, or one large one, appear on a 
spur. All the vines are now in full bloom, 
except Wilmot's Black Hamburgh. The 
main shoots, having all reached the top 
of the house, have been stopped, but the 
laterals allowed to continue their growth 
for the present. 

Cloudy, wind E. 

in the Greenhouse or Conservatory. 
















Very cool and windy, 

Many of the berries well 






29 62 

30 60 

31 60 





75 60 

Since the 11th, the weather has been warm 
and pleasant. Berries swell up lapidly, and 
some of them being as large as peas, com- 
menced thinning. The old spurs and lat- 
erals, which pushed their eyes, have all been 
topped again, and the leading shoots tied 
up. Wilmot's Black Hamburgh now in 

Weather cooler, with white frost. Rather 
strong fires required to dispel damp. Re- 
sumed syringing the plants twice a week. 
Continue thinning the fruit. 

Weather cool, and good fires required. 
Finished thinning to-day. 
Cool and cloudy. 

Weather since the 24th cool, with mist and 
rain. Fires required to prevent damp. Com- 
menced shouldering the clusters of fruit. 

Weather continues cool and cloudy. 

Continues rainy and cool, without sunshine 
since, the 23d. The month has been fa- 
vorable except the last week, but rather 
more fire has been required than usual to 
keep up a good temperature, but not suffi- 
cient to injure the plants in the conservato- 
ry : both vines and plants are in good health. 

304 Diary of the Cultivation of the Grape Vine 




Weather warm again, and grapes now swell 
up rapidly. 

Grapes have swelled very fast within a few 
days, and are now the size of Miller's Bur- 
gundy when fully grown. 

The vines having been allowed to make an 
abundance of lateral wood at the top of the 
house, where they were stopped on the 7th 
of May, in order to prevent the breaking of 
the eyes intended for the next year's crop, 
they have now been cut quite out to two 
eyes, as the grapes are now so far advanced 
as to take the supply of sap, and prevent 
any danger of breaking. The large clus- 
ters have all been shouldered, and such as 
seemed too much crowded with berries have 
had a portion of those in the middle of the 
bunch cut out. House thoroughly damped 
over all the walks, every warm day, as soon 
as the house is closed in the afternoon. The 
greater portion of the camellias and other 
plants have been removed to the open air. 

The weather having been quite dry, the bor- 
der has been mulched with coarse manure, 
and about a barrel of water given to each 

Weather cooler ; dry east wind ; house closed 
early and well damped. 

Weather warm and dry. House well damped. 

m the Greenhouse or Conservatory. 













































Gave the border about ten barrels of water. 
House well damped morning and evening. 

Weather rainy and cool. Light fire kindled 
at night, and, to prevent any danger of mil- 
dew as well as red spider, the hot water 
pipes and flues, were dusted with sulphur. 

Fire kindled in the morning in consequence of 
the cool, damp weather, with heavy show- 

Since the 21st, the weather has been cool, 
cloudy and rainy, and light fires have been 
required twice to keep up a good tempera- 
ture. The vines having been allowed to 
ramble freely, all the laterals were now cut 
in to one eye beyond where they pushed, 
and all the spurs neatly tied in. 

Cool, cloudy, and rainy. 
Fine again. 

House well aired after being kept 

rather close during the dull weather. 

During the month, the vines have continued 
to advance rapidly, and, since the refresh- 
ing rains of the 20th to 28th, the berries 
have swelled very fast. The house has 
been kept at a good temperature by light- 
ing fires five or six times only during the 
cold and cloudy days. 

Weather warm and dry. House well damped 
both morning and evening. 



Diary of the Cultivation of the Grape Vine 



























































































Fine weather since the 1st of the month. 

Grapes continue to SAvell up fast. House well 

Very warm during the last three days. 

Warm with refreshing showers. The vines 
have pushed out a strong growth on the lat- 
erals since the 25th of June, and the whole 
were looked over and cut back to one eye 
beyond the last pruning. 

A few berries on one of the Black Hamburgh 

vines show signs of coloring. 
Wilmot's Black Hamburgh begins to color, 

and the berries of the White Muscadine have 

a transparent appearance. 

The weather since the 12th has been cool for 
the season, with east winds, and the house 
has been kept rather close, in order to keep 
up a good temperature. 

Warm again. 

Cool and rainy. Light fire kindled, and flue 
dusted with sulphur. 

Cool and rainy weather continues, and fires 
are required to keep up a good tempera- 

Vines looked over again ; the laterals having 
grown considerably since the 12th, they 
were again cut back to one eye beyond the 

i?i the Greenhouse or Conservatory. 














































last stopping. Wood now begins to ripen, 
and the main shoots are well colored to the 
top of the house. 

The weather, since the 29th, has been warm 
and fine, and the berries have changed color 
very rapidly. The Black Prince and Griz- 
zly Frontignan begin to color well. The 
walks are still watered three times a day, 
and the house closed rather early, as the 
grapes always double their size, after they 
begin to color, if properly treated. During 
the day, an abundance of air is given from 
both top and side lights. 

Warm, with light showers. 

Cooler with showers. 

Weather fair and warm. Watering the walka 
still continued, night and morning, and the 
grapes swell up rapidly, and color well. 
Muscat Blanc Hatif, a new grape, and 
Macready's Early White, both exceedingly 
fine sorts, are now ripe, and might have 
been cut, in good condition, the latter part of 
July. Pitmaston White Cluster and White 
Muscadine are also fully ripe. All the 
Hamburghs have now assumed a fine dark 

308 Diary of the Cultivation of the Grape Vine 















94 79 



























91 69 





























The weather having been dry since the 10th, 
gave about a barrel of water to each vine. 

Cloudy and cool, with east wind and rain. 

Cut specimens of the Muscat Blanc Hatif, 
White Muscadine, Pitmaston White Clus- 
ter, White Frontignan, Macready's Early 
White, and Wilmot's Black Hamburgh for 
exhibition, — the latter colored well, but not 

Cold easterly storm ; but the grapes being ripe, 
no fire required. 

Warm again. House well aired now, both 
sides and top, leaving the sashes open late 
in the afternoon, in order to color the fruit 
well and ripen the wood, previous to bring- 
ing in the plants for the winter. 

All the fruit in the house is now ripe, with the 
exception of the Esperione and Black Prince. 
The last is late, and has the valuable prop- 
erty of hanging very late. 

From this date, the diary was discontinued, as the tem- 
perature was of no importance merely to ripen the wood. 
Abundance of air is all that is now required till the vines are 
pruned in December. 

From the 23d of August, the grapes were gradually cut 
until the 1st of November, when the last of Wilmot's Black 

in the Greenhouse or Conservatory. 309 

Hamburgh were taken off. Besides the noble appearance of 
this new grape, it is remarkable for hanging late on the vine. 
The number of vines in the conservatory is nineteen, embra- 
cing ten kinds, which we have arranged about in the order 
of their ripening : — 


Macready's Early White, 

Aug. 1, 


White Muscadine, 

" 5, 


Pitmaston White Cluster, 

" 8, 


Muscat Blanc Hatif, 

" 10, 


White Frontignan, . 

" 15, 


Grizzly Frontignan, . 

" 20, 


Black Hamburgh, . 

" 20, 


Black Prince, . 

" 25, 


Wilmot's Black Hamburgh, 

" 25, 



" 30. 

To this list, many others may be added, when a variety of 
kinds is wanted. Our selection was principally made for the 
purpose of proving the kinds we have enumerated. The 
Muscat of Alexandria should be one of the number in a choice 
collection, giving it the warmest situation in the house. We 
have already inarched one of the duplicate vines in order to 
have so splendid a variety. Other new sorts have also been 
recently introduced at each end of the conservatory, and as soon 
as we prove them, we shall give an account of their merits. 

Trusting that our diary will be the best guide to the ama- 
teur in the treatment of the grape vine in the greenhouse or 
conservatory, we shall conclude our article with a few obser- 
vations on thinning the grapes, and pruning the vines. 


This is an operation which is generally altogether too care- 
lessly done. Our attention was first drawn to this subject 
after reading a small treatise upon the vine by Mr. Roberts, 
one of the best modern cultivators of the grape in England. 
The ordinary mode of thinning grapes is to cut them out here 
and there in sufficient quantities to allow the swelHng up of 
the remaining berries, regardless of the true form of the bunch. 

310 Diary of the Cultivation of tJie Grape Vine 

We cannot do better than to quote Mr. Roberts's own words 
detailing his practice : — 

'' The time of thinning I recommend, is when the berries 
arc well set, or attain the size of No. 2, or 3, shot, beginning 
at the bottom of the bunch, leaving the leading berry if pos- 
sible, and according to the kind of grape, having care to thin 
judiciously, as there is great difference between the Cannon 
Hall Muscat and Frontignacs as to size. As you proceed 
thinning upwards on the bunch, say, for an inch or two, more 
or less, from the bottom, you find the peduncles, or footstalks, 
or what more technical term you may apply to them, to con- 
sist of three berries (the leading one, and one on each side), 
my practice is to leave the lead or centre berry, taking off the 
other two. As you approach higher up the bunch, or ap- 
proaching the middle part, such sorts as the Hamburghs form 
a sort of secondary shoulders, and upon the sides of these you 
will find them set on in threes ; proceed to thin, as for the 
bottom, leaving the leading berries, taking off the side ones as 
before, proceeding upwards to the top of the bunch to the 
main shoulders, suspending or raising the shoulders with 
strands of soft matting, and thinning the same as before men- 
tioned, taking care to remove all inside berries, as they scarce 
ever color well, and if the grapes have to hang long on the 
vine, they contribute to mouldiness in damp weather. The 
above system of thinning leaves a bunch equally balanced, 
each berry acting its own part, and not robbing another, will 
be found to assunae a strong bold footstalk, and be regular as 
to size in every part of the bunch." 

If a bunch of grapes is carefully examined, it will be seen 
that Mr. Roberts has adopted the only proper mode of thin- 
ning, — a mode which keeps the peculiar form as well as the 
size of the cluster, while, at the same time, they are more 
thoroughly thinned than in the ordinary way, as the central 
berries, which often do not color, and frequently rot before 
the clusters are ripe, are all removed, and room allowed for 
the others to swell up. In performing the operation, care 
should be taken not to injure the berries. They should be 
handled as little as possible, and if the hands of the operator 
are moist, from great perspiration, he should wear a glove, or. 

in the Greenhouse or Conservatory. 311 

in the large shouldered kinds, a small stick may be made use 
of to lift the shoulder up so as to cut out the inner berries. 


This is a matter of much importance to the future health 
and well doing of the vines. On no account overbear young 
vines. There is no rule by which to be governed, as some 
vines are stronger than others, and something depends on the 
border. It may be safe to say that the spurs should not be 
nearer than one foot apart, and that each spur should not be 
allowed to mature but one bunch : they often show three, and 
amateurs are too apt to leave two or more on. Experience is 
the only sure guide ; but it is better to have too small a crop 
than too large £tone. The bunches should be cut out as soon 
as the berries are sufficiently swelled to see which are the 
best shape. Our vines matured and colored well, about twenty 
clusters each, averaging one pound to the bunch. 


At the end of the fourth season, the vines will have reached 
the top of the house, and the future pruning will be merely 
to secure a good spur every year ; for we premise that the 
spur system will be adopted, as it has been with us. Some 
cultivators cut the old spur clean out : this is Mr. Russell's 
plan. Our mode is to cut back to the first or second eye, — 
generally the second, as it is larger and fuller than the first, 
but always select a prominent one, even if the third. This 
eye will produce the fruit ; but, as the spur which it forms 
must be cut out after it has borne, provision should be made 
for one to take its place : this is done by selecting one of the 
shoots which spring from the numerous buds at the base, at the 
time of disbudding, and tieing it in to the trellis, stopping 
it, and otherwise managing it during the year in the same 
way as the fruit-bearing ones. At the autumn pruning, the 
old spur is cut off close to the main stem, thus leaving it 
straight and clean. If this plan is not adopted, the old spurs 
would become crooked and unsightly, and, in a short time, 
extend far beyond the trellis. The same practice is to be 
followed every year, always bringing up a new spur to take 

312 Root-Grafting Apple Trees. 

the place of the old one, and always pruning off to a good 
roimd plump eye. No system can be more simple, and we 
are sure none more successful in securing a good crop of 

Art. IV. Root-Grafting Apiple Trees. By a Flushing Prop- 

Allow me to give to the public, through your valuable jour- 
nal, some account of the quickest and the easiest mode of 
raising apple trees by root-grafting, as I am desirous of en- 
couraging young nurserymen and propagators in the raising of 
apple trees. 

1st. In the fall, all the seedling apple stocE:s intended for 
grafting should be carefully taken up, and placed in a heap 
in a cellar, and then the roots taken off and carefully pre- 
served by mixing them by sand : all the scions intended for 
use should be cut before the frosty weather sets in, and care- 
fully placed in sand or earth. Grafting may be commenced 
as early as convenient ; it will not matter if you begin as early 
as November, and work at it through the winter till March, 
provided the roots, after being grafted, are heeled into boxes, 
and placed in the cellar till spring. 

2d. All the roots, as you want them, should be washed, 
and then cut into pieces about four inches long or less, accord- 
ing to their length, and placed regularly on a table or bench, 
and the scions cut about three inches long, and placed in a 
heap near at hand ; and then begin to graft. The system 
which I have always tried, and which succeeded best, is 
tongue-grafting, making a nice fit with the barks, and then 
bind slightly with muslin strings. These strings are made 
by mixing six ounces of Burgundy pitch, six do. of tallow, 
three do. of beeswax. These should be melted, and then put 
on to the muslin with a brush. It may then be cut into strips 
nine inches long, and half an inch in breadth. This is bet- 
ter than matting, as it does not require to be cut otf. The 
boxes should be made twelve inches deep, two feet in width, 
and three feet in length, and filled with fine sifted mould or sand. 

Trees grafted by tliis system are the best, grow very thrifty, 

Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Exotics. 313 

and are generally fit for sale in two years, if placed in good 
soil. A man accustomed to grafting can do from nine to 
twelve hundred a day very easily, and tie his own strings. 
Weak growing kinds generally grow stout and remarkably 
straight by this plan, and as it can be done in the winter, 
when nothing else of consequence can be done, there is a great 
saving of time. 

In the spring, the boxes should be taken out of the cellar, 
and placed in some frames, pits, or the greenhouse, to start 
them into growth : or, if none of these are at hand, place them 
out of doors in a warm situation, as it is necessary to start 
them two or three inches before planting out ; they will not be 
injured if you do not plant them out till the middle of May. 
Such has been my practice of root-grafting, and, if properly 
done, it will never fail to succeed. 

Flushing J L. /., Jime, 1847. 

Art. V. On the Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Ex- 
otics : in a Series of Letters. By James Kennedy, Gardener 
to S. T. Jones, Staten Island, New York. 

Letter III. Propagation ly Offsets. 

This is the mode by which bulbous and tuberous rooted 
plants are propagated. They are, however, sometimes in- 
creased by seed, but being so much longer than offsets in 
reaching a flowering state occasions this mode to be but sel- 
dom resorted to. 

There are some kinds, however, from which I would prefer 
propagation by seed. Of these, the amaryllis, of which there 
are many varieties. I have found hybrids to be much pref- 
erable, as they often surpass the originals in beauty, and in- 
variably flower more freely under good management. 

In a situation I had the honor of filling as head gardener, 
in England, about eight miles from London, I succeeded in 
obtaining some beautiful hybrids by transferring the pollen 
from Amaryllis Johnsomi to A. reticulata, from reticulata to 
vittata, from fulgida to vittata, from fulgida to Johnsonii, and 

VOL. xni. — NO. VII. 29 

314 Propagation of Stove and Greetihouse Exotics. 

from Johnsonti to equestris, — the seed, as soon as ripe, should 
be collected, sown m pots, thoroughly dramed, and placed in 
a hotbed, where they should be regularly shaded, when nec- 
essary, and watered sparingly. Under this treatment, they 
will vegetate quickly, and, when two leaves are produced, 
they should be potted off separately into thumb-pots, well 
drained, as above remarked. 

Care must be taken not to pot them deep, but to have the 
young bulbs level with the surface of the mould, and, when 
potted, give as much water as will reach the bottom of the 
soil. They should then be placed in the hotbed for a few 
days, and regularly shaded from the sun. When the bulbs 
recede from the surface, they should have a shift into pots a 
size larger, and so on during the summer, until, they are thor- 
oughly rooted. By this treatment, many of them will flower 
abundantly the following spring. I should have mentioned 
that they require regular supplies of water, but not too much. 
The following compost I have found exactly to suit: — Three 
parts light turfy loam, two parts white sharp sand, and one 
part turfy peat ; along with which treatment, an occasional 
watering with clear liquid manure would not, by any means, 
do injury. 

The bulbous genera generally, such as the Gladiolus, Mo- 
rse^a, Ixia, Antholyza, &c. &c. should, when done flowering, 
be allowed to dry till the following October. This is the 
time for increasing by offsets, as then they are in a dormant 
state, and will not receive any injury in separating them from 
the parent. Nor will the parent's flowering principle receive 
any check for the coming season. Small pots thoroughly 
drained, and a compost composed of equal parts rich mellow 
loam, peat earth, leaf mould, and sand, with the addition of a 
little cow manure, will be found exactly suitable. After pot- 
ting, let them be placed in a cool frame, when the only atten- 
tion required is protection from heavy rain and frosts. No 
moisture should be given further than the soil in which they 
are potted furnishes, until the pots are full of roots, when they 
should be shifted into pots a size larger, using the compost 
above directed. They should then be taken into the green- 
house, where many of the largest of them will flower if kept 
regularly watered. 

Staten Island, N. Y., June, 1847. 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 315 

Art. VI. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of New and 
Beautifid Plants figured in Foreign Periodicals ; with De- 
scriptions of those recently introduced tOy or originated i?i, 
American Gardens. 

Achimencs patens. — This new and beautiful species, which 
has been figured in the Journal of the London Horticultural 
Society, and pronounced one of the most beautiful of all that 
have yet been introduced, is now finely in flower in our col- 
lection. It is a fine species, having a compact and neat 
habit, with small, deep-green, shining foliage, and flowers of 
the richest violet hue, about the size of A. grandiflora, and 
fringed at the edge of the corolla. 

Platycbdon grandifihrum — a most beautiful campanula- 
ceous plant — is no\v coming into flower. It is represented as 
the most showy of all the campanulas, to which genus it 
has been stated to belong, under the name of C. grandiflo- 

Hydrangea japonica has been one of the most popular and 
generally admired plants in our collection. Our engraving, 
at p. 123, gives a fine representation of its habit of growth 
and bloom. Its great attraction consists in the contrast be- 
tween the outer flowers and the inner ones, the former being 
large and white, while the latter are small and of a deep blue. 
It is of the simplest cultivation, and must become an indis- 
pensable addition to every collection of plants. 

10. Da'phne FoRTU^Ni Lindl. Mr. Fortune's Daphne, (Encacecs). 

A half hnrdy shrub ; growing two to three feet high ; with lilac hlossonvs ; appearing in spring ; 
a native of China; increased by cuttings and grafting; cultivated in peat and loam. Journal of 
HQrt.Soc.Vol. II. p. ^4. 

This "charming shrub" is one of Mr. Fortune's discoveries 
in China, where it was found growing in a nursery garden 
near Shanghae, in the winter of 1843. Being deciduous, it 
was then leafless, but, as it was taken to the south of China, 
to be shipped with the other plants, the warmth forced it into 
bloom, and it proved to be a fine shrub. The next spring, 
Mr. Fortune found it growing wild on the hills in the province 
of Chekiang, where it forms a dwarf shrub two to three feet 
high. In March and April, the flower-buds expand, and then 

316 Floricnltiiral and Botanical Notices. 

the whole of the hill sides are tinged with its beautiful lilac 
colored blossoms, and have a very gay appearance. It flow- 
ered in England for the first time, in the spring of 1846, and, 
as yet, it is extremely rare. Mr. Fortune states that it grows 
freely in a loamy, well-drained soil, and that it is readily in- 
creased by cuttings. The Chinese name is Nu-lan-ee, and 
the bark, like the mezereon, is acrid and poisonous. In Eng- 
land, it has been treated as a half-hardy shrub, but as it is 
found growing where the thermometer falls to within a few 
degrees of zero, it may prove hardy in our dry and cool win- 
ters. Mr, Fortune remarks that, whether hardy or not, " it 
Avill always be a favorite amongst spring flowers in the green- 
house, where it richly merits a place in every collection. 
{Hort. Soc. Journal, 1847). 

11. AzaYea obtu^sa Litidl. Obtuse-leaved azalea. (En'mce«). 

A half-hardy shrob ; growing two to three feet high ; with blush-colored flowers ; appearing in 
spring ; a native of China ; increased by cuttings ; cultivated iu peat and loam. Journal of Horl. 
Soc. Vol. n. p. 127. 

"A distinct species" of the azalea, which Mr. Fortune 
found growing on the sides of the green tea hills in the prov- 
ince of Chekiang, and also on some of the islands of the 
Chusan Archipelago, where it is called the "silver silk flow- 
er," by the northern Chinese. There are two varieties, both 
of which have been introduced, one with flowers of a rich 
white color ; the other pink, and both are beautifully dotted 
with dark spots on the under petals. The corolla in form is 
nearly round, and not unlike i?hododendrum chamaecistus, or 
a finely-shaped pelargonium, in appearance. Its flowers are 
produced in great profusion in the months of April and May. 
The habit of the plant is compact and neat, and it is alto- 
gether a fine addition to this beautiful family. It is increased 
like other azaleas, and grown in similar soil. {Hart. Soc. 
Journal, 1847). 

12, Came'llia japo'nica var, Comte de Paris. The Compte 

de Paris's Camellia, (Ternstromiaccfs). 

A new and beautiful variety of the camellia, which was 
obtained from a plant of the Duchesse d'Orlcans in the collec- 
tion of M. Van Ghiersdale of Ghent. A single branch having 
sported in color, it was inarched or grafted on a good stock, 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 317 

and the sport thus retained. It differs from the Duchesse 
d'Orleans, in having the ground color rose striped with red, 
while the parent is white striped with rose. The flower is 
finely imbricated and perfect, and the variety must rank as 
one of the finest which has been produced. {Flore des Serres 
et des Jardins de U Europe, 1846). 

13. ToRE>^iA asia'tica L. Asiatic Torenia, {SchrophuIaridcecB). 

An annual plant ; growing two feet high ; with blue and purple flowers ; a native of India ; in- 
creased by seeds ; cultivated in m\y good soil. Flore des Serres, &c., Vol. II. pi. 151. 18W- 

A new and most beautiful annual, cultivated in a similar 
manner to the petunia, growing about two feet high, and pro- 
ducing beautiful sky blue flowers, finely marked with a large 
spot of deep purple on each petal. The plant is of a diff'use 
habit, with ovate leaves, and terminated with numerous flow- 
ers. It is easily raised from seed, and is a great acquisition 
to our gardens. {Flore des Serres, ^c.) 

14. Fd'nkia GKANDiFLO^A Sieb. 4* Zucc. Large-flowered Funkia. 


A greenhouse plant ; growing two feet high ; with white flowers ; appearing in summer ; a na- 
tive of Japan -, increased by division of the root ; cultivated in any good soil. Flore des Serres, 
&.C., vol. II. pi. 158.1846. 

This is stated to be one of the most splendid plants intro- 
duced by Siebold from Japan. It flowered for the first time 
in Belgium, in the garden of the Horticultural Society des 
Pays Bas, in July, 1846. Its general appearance is the same 
as the other species, but it throws up a fine stem, which is 
clothed with flowers of the purest white. Its cultivation is 
the same as the other species. It will probably stand in the 
open groimd as well as the F. japonica, but the situation 
should be well drained. It is readily increased by division of 
the roots. {Flore des Serres, ^c, 1846). 

15. RiBEs GoRDONiA^uM, (Garden hybrid.) Mr. Gordon's 

Currant, {Ribes'mcew.). 

A hardy shrub ; growing two feet high ; with salmon-colored flowers ; appearing in June ; a gar- 
den hybrid ; increased by layers. Flore des Serres, ic. Vol. II pi. 165. 1847. 

A new and beautiful flowering currant produced in Bel- 
gium, between the M. sanguineum and aureum; the flow- 
ers are produced in the same form as the first named, 
but the calyx is red, and the corolla yeUow ; it is probably as 
hardy as the aureum, and will be a splendid shrub for our 
gardens. {Flore des Serres, (^'C, Nov. 1846). 

318 General Notices. 


Art. I. General Notices. 

Root-pruning, and the management of the Pear Tree. — In our last number 
we copied an article from the Gardeners'' Chronicle, (p. 280) on Root-prun- 
ing pear trees, and particularly called the attention of all fruit cultivators to 
the subject. The article was prepared for our May number, but was 
crowded out for want of room. In a subsequent number of the Chronicle, 
some writer, who signed himself a " Constant Reader," proposed a number 
of questions to the writer of the article, and doubted the possibility of rais- 
ing the pear to perfection on any other stock than the pear. He states that 
he has been for years interested in the proper stocks for trees, and then 
shows his ignorance by asking, " how much the fruit partakes of the flaA'or 
of the quince" ! Mr. Rivers himself took up his pen in reply, and his re- 
marks must be satisfactory to all, that the quince stock and root-pruning 
are the materiel to produce pears in abundance and fine perfection. — Ed. 

I feel that it is a duty I owe to your correspondents and the gardening 
world generally, to notice the letter of a " Constant Reader," in No. 21. 
It will, perhaps, be the better mode to take his questions and remarks seri- 
atim. He says, " I have been for years much interested in the proper stock 
for fruit trees ; my impression is, that the pear cannot be produced in its 
highest state of perfection (whatever the mode of treatment or the stock 
used) on any other stock save the pear stock." To this I can answer most 
positively that the very finest pears I have ever seen or tasted have been 
produced on pear trees grafted on the quince. I use no stocks but the pear 
and the quince ; the former for orchard trees, or for those who prefer the 
pear stock ; the latter solely for garden trees, principally to form prolific 
pyramidal trees, for which they are unrivalled both in beauty and fertility. 
I fear "Constant Reader" has also been constant to his home: has he 
never seen or tasted the magnificent pears in some of the fruit gardens near 
Paris ? has he never seen the pear trees in the Potagerie at Versailles 1 or 
tasted the fruit from themi (Mind, trees there are nearly all grafted on the 
quince.) If he has not done this, he has yet something to see and taste. 
I repeat, that I use only the pear and the quince as stocks, and I find the 
pear stock submit as kindly to root-pruning (or even more so) as the quince. 
I can illustrate the good effects of root-pruning very forcibly in my speci- 
men orchard, and at any time your correspondent may see and believe ; 
however, 1 must tell my tale, and then proceed 

About thirty years ago, my father planted some rows of pear trees in a 
portion of the nursery, then a recent purchase ; these were all common 
sorts of pears, standards, grafted as usual on the pear stock. They grew 
most luxuriantly for some eight or ten years, when their leaves began to 
'Change from their usually vivid green to a light yellow ; in a year or two, 
this yellow tint increased till their foliage was really of a bright straw color ; 

General Notices. 319 

the trees soon after all died, so that, at the end of fifteen years, not a tree 
was left on this portion of the nursery, the subsoil of which, I must add, is 
hard white clay, full of chalk stones ; this peculiar soil occupies a very 
small space, not more than a quarter of an acre, as the neighboring soil is a 
tender, sandy loam. 

When I came to years of thinking, the untimely fate of these pear trees 
was often present to my mind, fori remembered so vividly with what pleas- 
ure I had filled my pockets from them. I at that time also found that, to 
be able to know any thing about pears, I must have a specimen tree of ev- 
ery kind that I cultivated. No other but this " pestilent spot" of earth 
happened to be just the place most eligible as a site for my specimen ground. 
What could I dol I did not then think of root-pruning, but I thought that 
I should find some way or other to avert the untimely fate of my trees ; I 
therefore planted them in the usual way, digging the holes about two feet 
in depth, and mixing some manure and compost with the earth taken from 
the holes, but leaving the hard clayey subsoil below, to the depth of two 
feet, untouched. I watched my trees narrowly after four or five years, as 
I then expected to see traces of the effects of the clay soil upon them. I 
think some eight years must have passed and gone before their foliage 
turned yellow. My first thought said, remove them to a different site and 
soil ; second thought, take them up and give them some fresh compost, 
they will last a few years, and you can then find a good place for them ; 
third thought, if you can renovate them for a few years by taking them up 
and replanting, why not do this periodically, so as to keep your trees 
healthy ; the site is good, — make the soil equally so ; fourth thought, what 
•occasion is there to remove the tree ? cut its principal roots, leaving those 
that are fibrous ; and so I became a pruner of roots. Now for effects, and 
^' A Constant Reader" must recollect that any day the Eastern Counties 
rail will carry him either to Harlow or Sawbridgeworth, each equally con- 
venient, for a few shillings, to see with his own eyes all that I state. 

In my specimen ground are several standard pear trees from eight to ten 
years old ; these terminate long rows of standards, left to grow as nature 
dictates, both root and branch, except occasional thinning of their heads. 
These, it must be recollected, are among my root-pruned specimen trees, a 
great number of which are from twelve to fifteen years old. They have 
had their roots pruned three times within these eight years, the last time in 

December, 1844. They are now full of health, and foliage, and fruit, in 

fact, all that I can wish them to be. The standard trees, with roots un- 
pruned, have their leaves yellow, and are, I fear, hastening to death. 

I now proceed to give a list of such sorts of pears that on my soil are de- 
cidedly higher in flavor when grafted on the quince, and not, (as your cor- 
respondent almost ludicrously says) " partaking of the flavor of the quince." 
Pray, have you or Mr. Thompson ever ate a quince-flavored pear? that is, 
a pear having such a flavor from being grafted on the quince, (as I well 
know there are many pears with a very odd flavor.) Does the Ribstone 
Pippin taste of the Crab because it is grafted upon it ? Does the peach ac- 
quire the flavor of the Mussel plum because it is budded upon it? Does the 
Green Gage ever taste sour and austere? and yet it is almost invariably 


General Notices. 

grafted upon the common wild plum, which is uneatable, from its peculia r 
astringent acidity. I do hope, for the credit of your paper, that your cor- 
respondent is not your " Constant Reader." To* return to my list, I must 
first premise that every sort of pear is, as far as my experience at present 
goes, improved by being worked on the quince; but the following, in list 
1, are remarkable for growing freely on the quince in most soils, without 
being double worked, bearing large fruit of the highest flavor : — 

List I. 

1. Beurr6 d'Amanlis,* 

2. Beurr6 Ananas, 

2. Beurr6 d'Aremberg, 

4. Beurre de Capiaumont, 

5. Beurr6 Diel, 

6. Beurre Easter, 

7. Bon Chretien, Williams's, 

8. Chaumontelle, 

9. Citron des Carmes, 

10. Colmar, 

11. Colmar d'Aremberg, 

12. Comptede Lamy, 

13. Crassane, 

14. Doyenn6 Gris, 

15. Doyenn6, white, 

16. Duchesse d'Angouleme, 

17. Duchesse d'Orleans, 

18. Forelle, or Trout pear, 

19. Fortunee, (Parmentier) 

20. Franc Real, Summer, 

21. Glout Morceau, 

22. Gratioli of Jersey, 

23. Jargonelle, 

24. King Edward's, 

25. Louise Bonne of Jersey, 

26. Napoleon, 

27. Passe Colmar, 

28. Poire Chenille, 

29. Princess Royal, (Groom) 

30. Saint Denis, 

31. St. Germain, 

32. Van Mons Leon le Clerc, 

33. Vicar of Winkfield, 

34. Wiihelmina. 

There are many other sorts that I feel almost assured will do equally 
■well on the quince stock as the above. I forbear to add them till I am fully 
convinced by proving them. No. 3 : Of this I ate my best specimens about 
the middle of last April ; they were vinous, juicy, and delicious, from 
plants on the quince. Specimens from plants on the pear stock kept only 
till the end of February. 

No. 5. This pear seldom ripens well from trees on the pear stock ; on 
the quince, the fruit are larger, more handsome, of perfect flavor, and they 
invariably ripen well. 

No. 6. On the pear stock here ; (it must be borne in mind that I am al- 
ways referring to trees in the open quarters — not wall trees ;) this is a most 
crab-like pear, bearing but very seldom, and never ripening ; on the quince 
it bears well, is of high flavor, and always ripens in April and May ; it is, 
however, inclined to be gritty at the core, and this at present is the only 
pear I have found to be so from the quince stock. 

No. 19. This is a perfect crab from trees on the pear stock ; from the 
quince it is very melting and juicy, and really a good, small, late pear. I 
ate my last and only specimen this day. May 26. 

* D'Amanlis, according to most French authors} d'Amalis, according lo Horticulturftl 
Catalogue of Fruits. 

General Notices. 321 

No. 21. Grows freely here on the pear stock, and blooms freely, yet sel- 
dom bears any clear fruit ; they are generally full of spots, and often do not 
ripen. at all kindly. On the quince stock it bears clear handsome fruit, 
which invariably ripen, and are very highly flavored. 

No. 23. On my finest soil here, a tender loam six feet in depth, subsoil 
sand, this sort always cankers, and very seldom produces any good fruit ; in 
short, it is a very shy bearer when on the pear stock ; on the quince it grows 
freely, and bears most abundantly ; fruit, fine and clear, and of high flavor. 

No. 25. This, of all the pears I know, is most benefited by working on 
the quince. My specimen tree, on a pear stock now twelve years old, has 
scarcely borne a dozen good clear fruit, and some standards of nearly twenty 
years' growth canker at the lips of their shoots, and their fruit is, in most 
seasons, spotted and misshapen. On the quince, how diflferent ! I have 
trees, from three to five years old, full of fruit, and these have hitherto, 
every season, been large, remarkably high-colored, beautiful, and of the 
highest flavor. " Constant Reader" will, I think, see that I have some 
confidence in the quince stock, when I state that I have a young plantation 
of this variety, on the quince, of 1500 trees, which I hope to make up in 
the autumn to 3000 ; these are to bear to supply the London market. At 
the expense of being thought a little egotistical, I must tell him that I am 
not only a pear tree grower, but also a pear grower ; Providence has kindly 
blessed me with fifty acres of good land, on vvhich roses and pears, and I 
know not what, seem to be "very happy:" this is a favorite phrase with 
one of our best gardeners, who, when he sees a tree in fine order, or one 
the contrary, designates them " happy and unhappy trees." 

No. 27 bears here, on the pear stock, a tremendous quantity of fruit ; 
these are often inclined to speck, and they seldom ripen well in the fruit- 
room. On the quince stock the fruit are clear, always ripen well, and are 
of the highest flavor. I have, as above, given my remarks on a few well 
known and preferable sorts ; they may be applied, with slight modifications, 
to all the varieties in List L 

List IL 

Pears that require double working before they will succeed on the quince; 
this is merely grafting or budding some free-growing sort of pear on the 
quince, and then re-grafting the graft, the following season, with the " re- 
fractory sort," to use the expression of your friend "Dodman." 

1. Bergamot, Autumn, 

2. Bergamot, Gansell's, 

3. Beurre Bosc, 

4. Beurr6 Ranee, 

5. Broom Park, 

6. Brougham, 

7. Crassane, Althorp, 

8. Crassane, Winter, 

9. Dunmore, 

10. Hacon's Incomparable, 

11. Inconnue, Van Mons, 175, 

12. Jean de Witte, 

13. Marie Louise, 

14. Monarch, Knight's, 

15. Nelis, Winter, 

16. Ne Plus Meuris, 

17. Saint Marc, 

18. Seckel, 

19. Suflblk Thorn, 

20. Thompson's, 

21. Urbaniste. 

322 General Notices. 

No. 3 is exceedingly "refractory," and I am not quite sure that it will 
live and flourish for any lengthened period, although double worked on very 
thrifty stocks. In some soils, this fine pear does not ripen well on stand- 
ards ; it is therefore very desirable to get it to do well on the quince, as it 
will, I have no doubt, bear when the tree is young; at present, it is, while 
young, a shy bearer. 

No. 4. My standards of this sort, on the pear stock, too often bear mis- 
shapen fruit, inclined to speck and crack, and, in some seasons, not ripening 
well on the quince. Its fruit is clear, fine, and remarkably high-flavored 

No. 11. I notice this pear, as I remarked, a short time since, one of your 
correspondents inquired of you its origin, which you could not give. I re- 
ceived it, with several other sorts, from M. Van Mons, I think about eight- 
een years ago ; I understood him at the time that they were seedlings, not 
then named ; this is a very hardy and excellent late pear, about the size of 
Beurre d'Aremberg, but larger, first rate in quality as a melting pear, and 
fit for the table from February to April ; the sorts then received were placed 
in the nursery catalogue as " Inconnue Van Mons," and numbered. They 
all still stand under the same name, with different numbers attached. 

The sorts I use to form a stock on the quince for re-grafting are Beurr6 
d'Amanlis, Jargonelle d'Automne, Fondante de Brest. These all form the 
most luxuriant stocks. Grafting on the quince often fails. I have known 
eighteen out of twenty to succeed in some seasons, and the same number 
to fail in others. It is an uncertain mode ; budding is preferable. For 
double working you may always graft, that is, if you prefer it, or if your 
buds fail. Grafts succeed perfectly on the shoot of the pear produced from 
the quince stock the preceding season. I earth up my trees, to encourage 
them to root close up to the junction of the graft with the stock, but not 
with the view of making the graft root. I wish to avoid this, as the effect 
of the quince stock is then lost. If you wish for cultivated pears on their 
own roots, there is much time and labor lost by this mode ; for any variety 
of pear may be layered, and good plants obtained, ia about two seasons. 

And now for the last paragraph of your " constant" friend. Can we al- 
ways find " soil and locality in every respect suitable" to the growth of 
foreign varieties of pears 1 Is not our method of placing them against 
walls and espalier rails, &c. " unnatural ?" The peach tree, which, in the 
United States, in a natural state, bears such enormous crops, bears here at 
least equally fine fruit, but in most " unnatural" places. My root-pruned 
pear trees, many of them, I have purposely made to contend against nature ; 
in a soil that is naturally death to them I make them flourish. To use the 
oft-quoted sentence, " a man that can make a blade of grass to grow," &c. 
is a benefactor to his race, and if I can, by precept and example, enable the 
numerous occupiers of small gardens to grow pears and apples for their des- 
sert nine months in the year, and plums and cherries during the summer, 
shall I not also be a benefactor in a humble way ? I hope so. 

Allow me to advise your correspondent to visit the Horticultural Gardens 
at Chiswick ; he may there see pear trees of some twenty-five years' growth 
on the quince stock, with roots protruding from the stock close to its junc- 

General Notices. 323 

tion -R-ith the graft. Pictures of health and fertility, they have borne many 
bushels of fruit, and yet I have never heard the Fellows of the Horticultu- 
ral Society complain that they tasted like quinces. Some fine trees of 
about the same age, on the quince, are also in the border. These were all 
removed about two years since, and, of course, their roots were pruned ; on 
them may therefore be seen the effects of root-pruning. 

I will conclude with the words of " Dodman :" "A very little care and 
judicious selection of sorts would insure them (pears) daily, from the end 
of July till May." I may add, that any garden ten yards square, or even 
less, will, with the quince stock for pears, the Paradise stock for apples, 
the Cerasus Mahaleb as a stock for cherries, judicious root-pruning and 
surface culture, supply a very ample dessert of delicious fruits. — (T. Riv- 
ers, in Gard. Chron. p. 372.) 

Propagation of Gloannias. — These may be raised either from seeds, or by 
cuttings of the young shoots, or by leaves. The seeds should be sown in 
shallow pans of sandy soil, on a thin bed of silver sand, a little of which 
should afterwards be dusted over them. Place the pan in a brisk hotbed, 
and cover it with a bell glass until the seeds vegetate. The cuttings should 
be taken off when the young shoots are about three inches long ; plani them 
in silver sand, and set them in a hotbed. Leaf propagation may be done 
in two ways : — 1. Insert a leaf in sand, like a cutting, the base soon forms 
a knob, from which a bud is subsequently developed. 2. Cut the principal 
rib at the back of the leaf through with a knife, in several places, an inch 
or more apart ; then press the leaf flat upon the sand, and place a few small 
stones on the top, near the incisions, to keep it down flat ; the ribs are to 
be placed downwards ; then cover with a bell glass, and place in a brisk 
heat ; little knobs will be formed at the incisions, which, in due time, will 
put forth buds. Keep them all, while growing, in a warm, moist atmos- 
phere, and, when their leaves are mature, allow them to become comparatively 
dry, in which state they may be set away in a cool frame for a month or 
two ; after which they should be potted in fresh soil, of equal parts sandy 
peat and leaf-mould, set in a warm pit, and gradually watered until they 
are fairly started, when they must have plenty of heat, light, and water, 
and a little weak liquid manure once or twice a week. — ( United Gardeners^ 
and Land-Stewards'' Journal, 1847, p. 321). 

Chrijsanlhemums. — When the stormy and withering blasts of November 
have laid desolate the gems which adorn the flower-garden, the comforts of 
a well-managed greenhouse or conservatory begin to be valued ; and, in 
order to render them as pleasing and delightful as the means placed within 
our power will allow, preparations, some time previous, are absolutely 
necessary, we having but few plants which bloom naturally at that period ; 
and these, in many instances, do not receive that care and attention to 
which they are entitled. In no instance is that more generally observed, 
than in the culture of the chrysanthemum ; arising, no doubt, from the 
vague idea, that it is diflicult to grow handsome plants, on account of their 
straggling habits. If the following remarks are fully carried out, I have 
no doubt but those who hold that opinion will be induced to think other- 

324 General Notices. 

wise. There are various methods resorted to in propagating the chrysan- 
themum — viz., by offsets, layers, and cuttings ; but, as I consider the latter 
the best method, I shall confine my remarks solely to it. From the middle 
to the end of May is the best season for putting in cuttings : select the 
points of the shoots of the current year's growth, not more than two inches 
long ; cut them close to a joint; remove one or two of the bottom leaves ; 
plant very thinly under hand glasses ; and, if a gentle bottom heat can be 
conveniently applied, it will accelerate their rooting : bottom heat is not, 
however, absolutely necessary, as they will strike readily without it in a 
mixture of leaf-mould and sand ; shade the glasses for a few days; and, 
when the cuttings have taken root and begin to grow, remove the glasses 
and pinch out their tops, which will cause them to push three or four shoots 
each ; when they have grown about an inch, lift them with as good a ball 
as possible, and pot in large sixties, in a mixture of loam and rotten dung 
in equal portions ; place them in a close frame, and shade a few days till 
they have taken with the pots, when they may be set out of doors, allowing 
them plenty of room to prevent their being drawn ; supply them liberally 
with manure water. When they have grown about three inches, pinch 
out their tops again ; this will cause them to throw out from ten to twelve 
shoots, and will be the means of keeping them dwarf. When they have 
grown about an inch, repot them in thirty-two's, or six-inch pots, in a mix- 
ture the same as previously mentioned ; set them in some place out of doors, 
where they will be shaded for a few hours during the heat of the day, but 
by no means place them under the drip of trees. After that time, which 
will be about the middle of August, they •will want nothing more than keep- 
ing the pots clear of weeds and suckers, and watering — alternately using 
manure or guano-water. About the beginning of October, a few of the 
most forward may be placed under the protection of glass at night, being 
fully exposed during the day, as the chrysanthemum will not suffer forcing : 
the others may be taken in as the weather may render necessary. I may 
mention that they will stand two or three degrees of frost, without sustain- 
ing any injury. By following the above directions, 1 have grown upwards 
of 200 plants in one season, varying from a foot to eighteen inches high, 
with from eight to twelve stems each, and from 30 to CO full blown flowers 
on each plant, without a yellow leaf, and without the assistance of wooden 
legs. When the plants have done flowering, they may be cut down and 
stored away in some convenient place, where they will be sheltered from 
the frost. Allow them but little water till the end of April, when they 
may be exposed to the open air till the cuttings are wanted ; and when these 
are taken off, the plants may be either thrown to the rubbish heap, or a few 
of the early flowering sorts may be planted in the shrubberies ; shorten all 
the stems to within six inches of the pot ; this will cause them to throw out 
more shoots, which may be again stopped ; you will thus keep this nat- 
urally untidy, straggling plant, within due bounds; and, instead of being 
(as is often the case) tied up in a bunch, or left at random, they will be fine 
dwarf flowering plants without the least assistance of stakes, blooming at a 
period when but few flowering plants adorn the shrubberies. — [lb. p. 324). 

General Notices. 325 

Carnations, Picofees and Pinks — their propagation. — The propagation of 
these plants by pipings, may now be commenced ; the following method we 
have found the most successful : — Make up a bed two feet in height in a 
shady situation — let it be composed of rotten manure, which possesses a 
gentle warmth ; place a one, two, or three-light box over it, according to 
the number of pipings you intend to plant. The compo^ for this purpose 
should consist of one part rotten turf, one part horse manure two years old, 
and one part loam and road sand, in equal quantities ; this should be sifted 
through a very fine sieve, and turned frequently in the open air to incorpo- 
rate and sweeten ; after which, place a layer of it, four inches in thickness, 
over the bed that is prepared ; level it on the surface, and water it freely 
with a fine rose watering pot the night previous to planting. The glasses 
we use for striking are octagon shaped, and measure ten inches in diam- 
eter, five inches deep at the sides, and raised at the top two inches ; we 
occasionally use larger glasses, but seldom find them answer so well. In 
taking the pipings from the parent plants, be careful not to strip the main 
stem — the better way is to cut them off with a knife. We prefer the top- 
most shoots for piping, for two reasons ; first, they are generally of a slen- 
der growth, and will more readily strike ; secondly, if left on the plants, 
they are difiicult to layer without breaking. It is necessary to leave five or 
six of the young shoots on each of the mother plants for layering ; if they 
are over-pruned, it is detrimental to the plants, and injurious to their future 
blooms. The pipings should be prepared by taking the two side leaves off 
at the third joint from the top, and cutting the stem through horizontally, 
just below it ; shorten the two leaves above it, and the piping is complete. 
Having prepared and carefully labelled the number of sorts you intend to 
plant, proceed in the following manner : — First, sprinkle a small portion of 
silver sand over the bed, then make an impression with the glass that you 
may know the distance to plant them ; fill a garden-pan with water, and 
place it inside the frame, that each variety may be immersed during the 
time of planting ; take each piping between the finger and thumb, and gently 
run it into the soil three quarters of an inch in depth ; the distance between 
each piping should be half an inch, and the same between the rows. After 
planting, they must be watered sufficiently to moisten the soil through ; let 
them be well dried before covering them over with the small glasses, or 
they are likely to mildew. The advantage of double glassing will be found 
of great benefit in cold and wet seasons. 

Pinks. — These flowers will require great attention during the next three 
weeks: the pods must be carefully examined from day to day, and tied with 
bass to prevent them from bursting. We advocate the use of bass for this 
purpose, in preference to the India-rubber rings, or any other material. 
The rings are strongly recommended by some parties, but, in our opinion, 
they are a decided failure ; we lost from twenty to thirty blooms in one sea- 
son by trying the experiment. The short round pods that are difficult to* 
open, require the bass to be placed twice round them, and secured firmly 
by a double knot ; those of a better shape will do very well with a single 
VOL. XIII. — NO. VII. 30 

326 General Notices. 

tie. The bass should be placed evenly round the pod just below the shoul- 
der.— (7^<. p. 375). 

Treatment of Azaleas. — The main stock of these will now be out of bloom ; 
and, after the gorgeous display which we have seen this season, T think I 
was not far wron^ in saying a few weeks back they were likely to become 
very general favorites. The jfirst thing to be done with them now will be 
to remove the flowers and seed-pods as quickly as possible, and get them 
into a house or pit where they can be properly shaded, and where a moist 
atmosphere can be maintained at all times. Pot such plants as require it, 
using plenty of sand and a little three-years' old cowdung with the peat ; 
but as they will do for a long time in small pots, do not overdo them. The 
best of my plants, which have done blooming, are now standing in a pit, 
under sheet glass, where they are shaded, but kept at a brisk growing tem- 
perature during the day, and syringed copiously, and shut up closely every 
afternoon just before the sun leaves the pit, but air is admitted again about 
nine o'clock. The second plants are under the shade of a late vinery, anil 
receive just the same treatment as Vines, the fruit of which is just set : 
here they will remain until they have made their growth, and then they will 
be placed under sheet-glass to set the bloom. Prune in any straggling 
shoots, and endeavor to get nice, round, compact plants. — {lb. p. 358). 

Exposing Greenhouse Plants in Summer. — It is a common practice all 
over the country, to set greenhouse plants, heaths, &c., out of doors dur- 
ing the summer months, without any protection whatever, either to the tops 
or bottoms of the plants, under the vain impression that the plants will be 
benefited by such treatment. Plants, when fully exposed to the sun and 
air, after a time become so dry as to nearly make it impossible to render 
them moist again; hence, the scorched and stinted looking plants which 
may be seen in summer. The pots of plants should always be moist : per- 
sons with common observation will have noticed that all the youngest and 
most tender roots of plants always extend next to the pot ; consequently, 
they are the most liable to injury from any sudden check, occasioned by the 
sun drawing all the moisture out of the pot, and, therefore, out of the soil 
also. It is no uncommon thing to see the soil quite dried away from the 
pot, and when the water is supplied, it sinks down the outside of the soil as 
fast as it can be poured in, and the soil inside is not wetted in the least. How 
can any person expect plants to grow by such unnatural treatment? Be- 
sides, it is a great waste of time to be so frequently watering, as is very 
often the case ; the whole morning and evening are often spent in this way. 
If plants must be turned out of doors, they ought always to be plunged in 
some porous substance ; although, at the same time, it ought to be some- 
thing that will hold moisture ; for instance, very rough peat, moss, or saw- 
dust. I have seen sand used by some, but I consider it holds the wet too 
much, which is an evil almost as bad as the former. The pots should al- 
ways be placed on slates, or some other material that will prevent the worms 
from entering, as they are great pests if once allowed to enter. They 
should also be shaded from the sun with some light material, and protected 
from heavy rains. By following the above plan, a great deal of time will 

General Notices. 327 

be saved in watering ; and the plants, having a more natural treatment, will 
present a more natural appearance. — {lb. p. 307). 

CuUivalion of Ahijsia Citriodora. — Do you possess a neglected plant of 
the too much neglected lemon-scented Verbena, or, as it is now called, 
Aloysia citriodoral If so, lose no time in propagating a stock of healthy 
plants from young shoots produced in a forcing-plant pit. When propa- 
gated, encourage luxuriance by liberally potting in coarse loamy soil and 
leaf-mould; inducing compactness of growth by frequently pinching off the 
tops of the young shoots until the last week in May, when, having pre- 
viously inured them to the external atmosphere, turn them out of their pots 
into spare beds in the reserve garden, the compost being open, and mod- 
erately rich, with a substratum of old mortar or rubble. If large bushy 
plants are desired, plant them sufficiently distant from each other, and con- 
tinue stopping the growing shoots whenever they attain the length of two 
or three inches. In September following, re-pot them into large pots, and 
place them in a close cold-pit, giving scarcely any water, when they will 
soon become deciduous. Here they may remain until required in succession 
for forcing through the winter in a plant-forcing structure. Their utility, 
when their delightful fragrance is taken into account, need not be descanted 
on, inasmuch as the perfume of this odoriferous shrub is too universally 
appreciated to require eulogium. — [lb. p. 307). 

Tlie Heartsease or Pansy. — These plants are easily propagated by cut- 
tings or side shoots, which may be taken off them at almost any time of the 
year. To ensure success in striking, I should recommend the cuttings to 
be planted early in the spring, or late in the autumn, they will do equally 
well at either season. The side shoots which appear from under the 
ground, when sufficiently long, are the best for increase ; they strike root 
much earlier, and generally make the best and soundest plants. The com- 
post for this purpose may be composed of one part turfy loam, one part 
light vegetable earth, and one part horse manure, two years old. It is 
necessary that a small portion of road-sand should be added to this com- 
post to prevent the water from hanging too much about the necks of the 
plants. After planting them, water freely, whether in pots or in the open 
ground, and protect with hand-glasses, if requisite, but be sure to dry the 
cuttings before covering them over, as confined damp is very injurious to 
their future growth ; they must be placed in a shady situation. — {lb. p. 311). 

Scarlet Pelargoniums for icinler floicering . — The employment of scarlet 
pelargoniums for decorating the greenhouse or conservatory during winter 
is limited, considering their fitness and appropriate beauty, when judiciously 
cultivated for this purpose. Having experienced considerable success in 
their cultivation, I am induced to state the method I have adopted, the rela- 
tion of which will doubtless interest those of your i-eaders who are engaged 
in the winter cultivation of this general favorite : — In August or Septem- 
ber, strong cuttings of Giant, Scarlet, Sol, Smith's Superb, Huntsman, 
General Tom Thumb, &c., were propagated and potted inrimediately into 
five-inch pots to winter, their efforts of growth being repeatedly retarded by 
pinching off the growing shoots until March, when they received a liberal 

328 Domestic Notices. 

potting in poor soil, which induced the formation of numerous " eyes," or 
embryo shoots. By the last week of May, these became strong shrubby 
plants, and were turned out into strong wicker baskets, sunk out into a bed 
or border, of rough turfy loam and fibrous peat soil, with a limited quantity 
of silver sand and leaf mould. The baskets were filled with similar com- 
post, and distributed six feet asunder, to allow the plants to grow into large 
bushy specimens, which, as ihey advanced in size and symmetry, were fre- 
quently stopped, to render them dwarf, and as compact as possible. They 
were not permitted to bloom in this situation, and, in the second week of 
September, tiie baskets (which were constructed in halves, to enable me 
to remove them from the enclosed ball) were divided, and the entire balls 
potted into very large pots, admitting the addition of fresh compost and 
good drainage. This accomplished, they were removed to a cold pit for a 
fortnight, and, in the first week of October, the best specimens were placed 
in the greenhouse conservatory, and soon commenced blooming, continuing 
in great beauty until Christmas, when they were succeeded by the remain- 
der in the dry cold pit. At that time, the specimens first introduced into 
the warm conservatory were pruned back moderately, and plunged in the 
pit of a plant forcing structure, where they grew rapidly, receiving, as be- 
fore, frequent stoppings, and waterings of w-eak manure-watei. In the first 
week in March, these were restored to the conservatory again, in readiness 
to bloom immediately, and were succeeded in the forcing structure by the 
secondary lot, treated similarly on being introduced there. These latter 
afforded plenty of cut flowers in April and May, and finally the whole were 
shortened back considerably, and turned out for decorative purposes in June, 
making a very respectable display in the flower-garden in August and Sep- 
tember. So much for the winter treatment of this useful and very orna- 
mental plant, which, in my estimation, may be brought to much greater 
perfection as a specimen pot-plant than at present it appears to have attained ; 
and, in expectation of more valuable communications on the subject, I am 
inainly induced to forward the foregoing observations. — [lb. p. 324.) 

Art. II. Domestic Notices. 

Weather in Pennsylvania. — We have had a good deal of rain during the 
past two weeks, and crops of every kind bid fair to give more than an average 
yield. We have had no frost this spring to injure any thing, and the foli- 
age of the forest is exceedingly rich, and fruit of every kind very abundant; 
apples, perhaps, will not be so abundant as they were last season, owing to 
the trees having been somewhat exhausted. — A. Huidckoper, Mcadville, Pa. 
June, 1847. 

CuUivating the Peach Tree. — Have you ever experimented any in grow- 
ing peach trees from cuttings ? I have been in the habit of growing tomato 
plants sepaiately, in boxes about six inches square, until they were in 

Domestic Notices. 329 

bloom. The boxes are very loosely put together with small nails, and, 
when taken carefully apart, the very numerous roots of the tomato keep the 
earth together, and the whole can be put in the ground without the tomato 
being in the least retarded by transplanting. This spring, to support the 
plants which I had started in this way in my grapery, I used some trim- 
mings of a peach tree, and, on setting out the tomatoes a few days since, I 
found that not only each peach twig was in leaf, but that most of them had 
thrown out small roots an inch or two in length. The earth I used was 
well decayed chip manure and garden mould. As this is apparently an easy 
way of multiplying select peach trees without the trouble of budding,! make 
the suggestion (perhaps not a new one) that, if you think it worth while, 
you may make the experiment yourselves. — Yours, <Sfc., ^i. Huidekcper, 
Meadville, Pa., June, 1847. 

New Horticultural Society. — A short time ago, p. 188, we noticed the 
formation of several new Horticultural Associations. Since then, we have 
been favored with accounts of several additional ones in various parts of the 
country as follows : — The Detroit Horticultural Society, Detroit, Mich.; 
the Albany Horticultural Society, Albany, N. Y. ; and the Montreal Horticul- 
tural Society in Canada. The constitutions, by-laws, and lists of officeis of 
each have been sent us by some of our correspondents or subscribers. We 
are happy to notice this increased evidence of the spread of Horticultural 
taste. — Ed. 

The American White Winter CalviUe Apple. — In your March number, 
you have something about the White Calville apple. T have an old tree of 
that name, and the fruit is pretty well described in that article. I think, 
with our other fine apples, it came from France. The tree is nearly dead, 
and is the only one I know of. — 1 am yours, respectfully, John Frothing- 
ham, Montreal, April, 1847. 

Reid's Seedling Pear. — With your remarks in the Magazine about the 
name of Reid's Seedling, which I noio consider the correct one, I am 
much pleased ; they harmonize entirely with my views. I perceive 
by Mr. Allen's article, in the Horticulturist for May, that Mr. Reid sowed 
the seed from which the tree sprung. I hope you will insist upon this 
name, as it is full time that the piopensity to rename old things and to 
change the names of new ones, had a check given to it ; it is becoming ex- 
ceedingly annoying as well as expensive to those who are not constantly 
alive to all these manoeuvres and deceptions now practising in the horticul- 
tural world, and it is the duty of the editors of horticultural magazines, who 
are the recognized guardians of horticulturists, to protect them and detect 
these deceptions. A case in point occurred here last autumn. A nursery- 
man purchased from another a number of strawberry plants ; from some he 
lost the labels — one of those proved to be of superior character, probably 
well known to many, but took not at all as he is a new beginner. He im- 
mediately dubbed it the " Excelsior strawberry," and advertised it as anew 
variety, in the Cultivator of last September or October. This is downright 
cheating, and is but one of many cases that are occurring every day. It 
has a very injurious tendency, as many persons, who are not well informed, 


330 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

are deterred from purchasing any new things from positive fear of decep- 
tion. — Yours ^ W., June, 1847. 

Art. III. Obituary. 

Death of the Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert. — The Gard. Chronicle, of 
June 5th, announces the death of the Dean of Manchester, which took place 
suddenly, at his house in Hereford street, at 1 o'clock on Friday, the 28th of 
May, in the 69th year of his age. 

The Chronicle truly states that his death " is the greatest loss which 
horticulture has sustained since the death of Mr. Andrew Knight, not 
merely on account of his skill as an experienced cultivator, but because of 
his scientific attainments and profound knowledge of the laws of hybridizing, 
which had been so fully elucidated by himself in the experience of a long 
life, which he had applied with admirable judgment, and to which we must 
continue to look for years to come as the surest aid to the improvement of 
the races of plants. Fortunately for the world, his latest views on the 
subject have been preserved in the two valuable papers ' Upon Hybridiza- 
tion among Vegetables,' which have been published in the Journal of the 
Horticultural Society, and which constitute a rich mine of valuable facts 
and not less valuable reasoning." 

Mr. Herbert was the originator of quite a number of new plants, and 
among them some fine camellias. The Chronicle thus closes a notice of 
his death : — 

" The Dean of Manchester was early and constantly attached to natural 
history. In youth he was an indomitable pedestrian and an excellent shot, 
and made his gun subservient to the study of ornithology, as well as his 
pencil and paint-brush, with which he was tolerably expert. The edition 
of White's Selborne, published by Professor Rennie, in 1832, contains 
many closely printed pages of his ornithological observations ; and the title 
page gives a spirited specimen of his^ draughtsmanship. In more domestic 
periods of life, the science of botany, and the art of horticulture, (two 
very different things) were pursued by him with great success. The Bo- 
tanical Magazine and Register received from him frequent communications. 
His greatest work in this line, ' The Amaryllidaceaj,' accompanied with a 
treatise on hybrid intermixtures, was published in the year 1837. And 
such leisure as remained to him, in the succeeding years of connection with 
a great manufacturing city, and of declining strength, was employed on the 
Iridaceffi, which, had longer time or better health been granted him, would 
have been as complete as the former." 

Art. IV. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, June 5th, 1847. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was 
held to-day — the President in the chair. 

The following members were elected : — Albert BuUard, T. H. Foster, 
John J. Adams, and George T. Bigelow, Boston. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 331 

[III our account of the meeting May 1, we omitted to give the names of 
all the members which were elected at that time. They are as follows : — 
Adolphus Davis, T. T. Boiive, Edmund Quincy, Hez. S. Chase, Samuel 
May, and Lewis Decker, Boston ; H. P. Fairbanks, Charlestown ; George 
Quant and John Thomas, Brookline ; E. S. Furber and E. W. Sampson, 
Dedham; Thos. Sinclair, Brighton; Otis Arthur Gay, Hingham ; Ralph 
Crooker and C. E. Grant, Roxbury.] 

It was Voted, that the Chaiiman of the Committee of Publication be re- 
quested and authorized to have the seal of the Society altered and enlarged, 
by causing the words " Mass. Horticultural Society," and the date of its 
incorporation annexed thereto. 

Voted, That the several committees be instructed to have placards pre- 
pared, requesting contributors to furnish to the chairman a list of their con- 

Adjourned for two weeks — to June 19th. 

Exiiibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, a variety of 
cut flowers an 1 plants, viz : — Cactuses in var. ; two new spotted seedling cal- 
ceolarias, and a variety of others ; camellias ; fuchsias, var. Salterii major, 
Paragon, Bowdin, Brookmanii, Chauverii, and robusta ; six or eight varie- 
ties of elegant cinerarias ; petunias, Eliza, Contributor, Tunandra, and a 
fine plant of Hebe, well grown and in perfection ; six varieties of lilacs, 
viz., Duchesse d'Orleans, De Nemouis, Charles X, Prince Nolger, double 
purple, and a dark red. From Breck & Co., a fine bunch of Wislarta 
ConsequoTia, with more than fifty racemes of its elegant flowers drooping 
in the most graceful manner. The plant from which this was taken was 
grown in the open air without the least protection, and made a growth last 
season of twenty-two feet in one direction ; also, a variety of cut flowers, 
paeonies, »&c. From Messrs. Winship, a great variety of cut flowers, in- 
cluding many sorts of flowering shrubs, paeonies, honeysuckles, &c. Bou- 
quets, plants and cut flowers, from Messrs. Hovey & Co., W. Quant, A. 
Aspinwall, P. Barnes, E. Wight, A. Bowdiich, J. L. L. F. Warren, T. 
Needham, W. Kenrick, W. B. Richards, J. Ilovey, J. Thomas, E. M. 
Richards, Jas. Nugent, J. M. Mandell. 
Award of Premiums : — 
Plants in Pots. — For the best six pot plants, to Wm. Quant, $2. 

For the second best six, to J. Thomas, $ 1. 
Bouquets, Designs, &c. — For the best large bouquet, to William 
Quant, $2. 
For the second best large bouquet, to Messrs. Winship, $ 1. 
For the best six hand bouquets, to A. Bowditch, $2. 
For the second best six hand bouquets, to J. L. L F. Warren, $ 1. 
For a design, a moss vase with flowers, to J. Thomas, $2. 
For the second best do., to Miss Russell, $ 1. 
Fruit : From J. F. Allen, very fine specimens of the following grapes : 
Zinfindal, Black Hamburgh, White Chasselas, Aleppo, Grizzly Frontignan ; 
also, May Duke cherries. Black figs, and Bergamot limes. From A. 

332 Massachusetts Horticiiltiiral Society. 

Moore, Concord, sweet apples in fine preservation, a new variety, which 
promises to be a valuable kind. From \V. E. Carter, fine specimens of the 
Hubbardston Nonsuch apple. From T. Needham, a brace of cucumbers. 
Vegetables : From T. Needham, fine lettuce. 

June 12lh. Exhibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, 
fine new hardy Ghent azaleas, white camellias, Brugsn ansza Knightn, 
calceolarias, petunias, spiraeas, tree paeonies, roses, and cut flowers in va- 
riety. From Capt. Sweetlin, of the ship Augustine Heard, from Valpa- 
raiso, a cactus from the Araucaria mountains, in Chili. This was a noble 
specimen of this tribe of plants, measuring nearly five feet in circumference, 
and very formidable from the immense number of its thorns. From J. E. 
Teschemacher, a plant of Ismene calathina, or white Peruvian Wedding 
flower, very fragrant; plants of Echinocactus Ott67t?5, and E. mammillari- 
oides, a seedling from Vera Cruz, (curious) ; also, a fine plant of E. 
Eyriesu, with three blooms of its elegant long, tubular, white flowers, and 
nine buds. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., nine varieties of new hardy azaleas; also, 
hand and table bouquets. From J. L. L. F. Warren, several kinds of tree 
paeonies, very fine ; also, rhododendrons, bouquets, &c. Bouquets, roses 
and cut flowers from A. Aspinwall, W. Quant, W. Mellar, T. Needham, 
J. Nugent, J. Breck & Co., E. M. Richards, J. Thomas, P. Barnes, W. 
Kenrick, Messrs. Winship, J. Hovey, and S. Walker. 
Award of Premiums : — 
Pot Plants. — For the best six plants, to Wm. Quant, $2. 

For the second best, to A. Bowditch, $ 1. 
Hardy Azaleas, Hawthorns, &c. — For the best display of hardy aza- 
leas, to Messrs. Winship, $3. 
For the second best display, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the best display of hawthorns, to Messrs. Winship, $ 3. 
For the second best, to S. Walker, $2. 
Bouquets, Designs, &c. — For the best design, a moss vase, (dissimilar 
to former ones shown) with flowers, to J. Thomas, $2. 
For the second best design, to Miss Russell, S 1. 
For a vase bouquet, to J. Thomas, $2. 

For the best table and mantel bouquet, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the second best, to Messrs. Winship, $ 1. 
For the best six hand bouquets, to A. Bowditch, $2. 
For the second best six, to Messrs Hovey & Co., $ 1. 
Gratuities — To S. Walker, for a display of ranunculus, $3. 

To J. L L. F. Warren, for six hand bouquets, $ 1. For this and a 

previous display of rhododendrons, $3. 
To. J. E. Teschemacher, for a plant of Ismene calathina, and plants 
of Echinocactus, spec. Ononis, mammillarioides, (a seedling) and 
Eyriesu, $3. 
Fruit ; From J. F. Allen, six varieties of grapes, fully ripe ; also, figs 
and May Duke cherries. 
Vegetables. — From T. Needham, string beans and a brace of cucum- 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 333 

bers. From A. D. Williams, lettuce, rhubarb, and a brace of cucumbers. 
From A. Robeson, New Bedford, by Wm. Brims, rhubarb. From J. L. 
L. F. Warren, Giant and A'ictoria rhubarb. 

June 19. Exhibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, 
several new and fine fuchsias, among which were Empress, a white vari- 
ety, Lady of the Lake, Vesta, Frostii, and Venus Victrix; two spotted 
seedling calceolarias, &c. From S. Walker, a seedling phlox, from mac- 
ulata, being more dense flowered than that old species ; also, the double 
iychnis viscaria. From John Thomas, four plants of pelargoniums and 
four of calceolarias. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., a superb specimen of the new and elegant 
Hydrangea japonica ; also, bouquets. Bouquets, plants and cut flowers 
from Breck & Co., J. L. L. F. Warren, A. Aspinwall, A. Bowdiich, E. 
M. Richards, W. Kenrick, James Nugent, S. R. Johnson, W. B. Rich- 
ards, W. Mellar, G. C. Crowninshield, O. H. Mather, and Messrs. Win- 

The following is the award of premiums : — 

Plants in Pots. — For the best six plants in pots, to John Thomas, $2. 
For the second best six, to George Quant, $ 1. 

A gratuity to Messrs. Hovey & Co., for Hydrangea japonica, of $3. 
Bouquets, &c. — For the best six hand bouquets, to Messrs. Hovey & 
Co., $2. 
For the next best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $ 1. 
A gratuity to A. Bowditch, for six hand bouquets, of $ 1. 
For a design, with an oval bouquet, to John Thomas, $2. 
For a moss vase, filled with forty varieties of flowers, to John Thom- 
as, $2. 
For the best large bouquet, to W. Mellar, $ 2. 
For the second best, to W. B. Richards, $ 1. 
For the best pair of mantel bouquets, to Messrs. Winship, $2. 
Fruit: From 0. Johnson, very fine specimens of Coolidge's Favorite 
peaches. From J. F. Allen, six varieties of grapes; Early Tawny nec- 
tarines. Black figs, and Coolidge's Favorite peaches ; also, May Duke, 
Elton, and Black Tartarian cherries. 

From John Hill, Early Virginia strawberries. 

Veget.vbles : From Messrs. Winship, 12 stalks of Myatt's Victoria 
rhubarb, weighing 12^ lbs. ; also, water cresses. From B. V. French, 12 
stalks of the same, weighing 15 lbs. Victoria rhubarb from W. Quant. 
New potatoes from H. Hazleiine, Somerville. 

June 2i}th. ExhUnted. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, 
a variety of new peonies, among which were sulphurea, a yellowish vari- 
ety of the shape of Whittlejii, prolifera tricolor, triumphans, grandiflora 
carnea, Hericartiana, &c. ; also, Gladiolus Willielminus, scarlet, with 
white stripe; Lisette, orange, with pink stripe, both fine; and a fine dis- 
play of roses in variety. From John Thomas, a fine specimen of Miltonia 
speclabilis, three pelargoniums, and other plants. From T. Needham, fine 
cut flowers of Phlox Van Houttii, with other flowers. From Messrs. Win- 

334 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

ship, a beautiful specimen of Virgil/a lulea, and a quantity of hardy roses, 
azLileas, &c. 

From INlessrs. Hovey & Co., a splendid display of roses, in upwards of 
200 varieties, thirty of the finest of which were as follows: — Carangeon, 
Sir W. Scott, Provence, Boula de Nanteuil, Chenedole, Coupe d'Hebe, 
Geo. IV, Bizarre Marbree, Paul Perras, Madame Plantier, Melanie, Anar- 
elle, Emeline, Ernest Ferray, La Ville de Londres, Aspasie,Neron, Frank- 
lin, Gil Bias, Bijou des Amateurs, Mazeppa, Kean, Capitaine Sissolet, Le 
Meteor, Loui-e Leker, d'Audigne de la Blanchaire, Letitia, Yandael, Pau- 
line Garcia, and Gazelle ; twelve varieties of moss roses, twenty varieties 
of perpetuals, including La Reine, and eight kinds of Noisettes ; also, hand 
bouquets, &c. From J. L. L. F. Warren, six pot plants, including Zilium 
Thunbergmnum. Roses in variety, bouquets, &c., from Breck & Co., W. 
Mellar, W. B. Richards, W. Kenrick, E. Wight, E. M. Richards, A. As- 
pinwall, Capt. Macondry, S. Downer, Jr., A. Bowditch, and S. Walker. 
Premiums were awarded as follows : — 

PEONIES. — For the best 12 flowers, to J. Breck & Co., $5. 
For the next best 12 flowers, to S. Walker, $3. 
For the best display, to J. Breck & Co., $3. 
For new varieties, a gratuity to Col. Wilder, $5. 
PiNKS.— For the best display, to W. Mellar, $2. 
A gratuity to J. Breck & Co., for fine flowers, $2. 

Roses. — Class I. Hardy Roses. 
For the best 30 varieties, to Breck & Co., $8. 
For the next best 30 varieties, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $6. 
For the next best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $4. 
For the best display, to Breck & Co., $3. 

Class II. 
For the best 12 varieties, to Messrs. Winship, $5. 
For the next best, to A. Bowditch, S3. 

Class III. Hardy Perpetuals. 
For the best 12 varieties, to Breck & Co., S5. 
For the next best 12 varieties, to A. Aspinwall, $4. 
For the best display, to Breck & Co., $3. 
Plants in Pots. — For the best six plants, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $2. 

For the next best, to J. Thomas, $ 1. 
Bouquets, Designs, &c. — For the best design, to Messrs. Hovey & 
Co., $2. 
For the next best, to Miss Russell, $ 1. 
A gratuity to J. Thomas, for a design, $ 1. 
For the best pair of mantel bouquets, to Messrs. Winship, $2. 
For the best pyramidal bouquet, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the second best pyramidal bouquet, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $2. 
For the best six hand bouquets, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $2. 
For the next best six, to A. Bowditch, $ 1. 
Fkuit: From the President of the Society, fine specimens of Boston 
Pine and Princess Alice Maud strawberries. From A. Aspinwall, abas- 

Horticultural Memoranda. 335 

ket of extra fine Hovey's Seedling strawberries. From N. Stetson, very 
fine specimens of Boston Pine and Jenny's Seedling strawberries. Tw'o 
boxes of Early Virginia strawberries, by O. Johnson. From S. Downer, 
Jr., Hovey's Seedling, Ross's Phoenix, Early Virginia, Willey's Seedling, 
and Wood strawberries. From John Duncklee, of Brighton, Hovey's 
Seedling strawberries. From Isaac Fay, Fay's Seedling strawberries. 
From Josiah Richardson, Hovey's Seedling and Boston Pine strawberries, 
very fine; also, seedling strawberries. From F. Putman, Salem, seedling 
strawberries, branches and fruit large, appearance good; represented to be 
a great bearer. From James M. Richardson, from the garden of Capt. 
Lee, seedling strawberries. From Azell Bovvditch, Stoddard's Seedling 
strawberry; the committee state that they were "poor specimens of the 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., two large baskets of Boston Pine straw- 
berries, fine specimens. From Hon. T. H. Perkins, by Mr. Wm. Quant, 
Black Hamburgh, Grizzly Frontignan, Golden Chasselas, and Muscat of 
Alexandria grapes. From J. F. Allen, twenty-two varieties of grapes, — 
among them we noticed Tottenham Park Muscat, Wilmot's new Black 
Hamburgh, fine ; Austrian Muscat, new ; Purple Muscat, new; Zinfindal, 
fine; Muscat of Alexandria, fine. The grapes by Mr. Allen were tasted 
by the committee ; they were ripe and in great perfection ; also, figs, 
plums and nectarines. From J. L. L. F. Warren, seven varieties of straw- 
berries, viz., British Queen, Prince Albert, Hovey's Seedling, Willey's do., 
Mottier's do., Early Virginia, and Alpine. Red and White Wood, and 
Boston Pine strawberries, by John Owen. Mr. Cole presented an apple for 
a name. From A. Bowditch and Mr. 0. Johnson, peaches. 

Premiums for Grapes. — The Society's first premium of $ 10 for grapes, 
exhibited before the 4th of July, was awarded to J. F. Allen. 
The second premium of $8 for the same, to Wm. Quant. 

Vegetables : From Josiah Loritt, 2d, thirteen stalks Victoria rhubarb, 
vpeighing 21 lbs., some of the stalks measuring 43 inches. From T. Need- 
ham, fine cucumbers. From T. H. Perkins, by Wm. Quant, fine Palestine 
lettuce. From Mrs. Pratt, by A. McLennan, Royal Cape lettuce. 




Grafe FiTies will now need but little attention, such as the occasional 
stopping of the laterals, as often as they push beyond two or three joints, 
and the airing and damping the house. Our diary, in another page, is so 
complete that we need not repeat what we have there so fully detailed. 
The berries will now begin to color. Vines in pots should be liberally wa- 
tered, using liquid guano occasionally. Isabella and other grapes in the 

336 Horticultural Memoranda. 

open air will now need much pruning, — such as nipping off the young 
shoots two eyes beyond the bunch, and cutting out all other wood not 
wanted for bearing next year. A little attention to this will secure larger, 
better, and higher flavored grapes. 

Strawberry beds will need care now ; weed and clean all new beds, and 
lay in all the strong runners and clip off others. Two and three year old 
beds may be renovated by immediately digging in part of the roots, allowing 
the new runners from those remaining to fill their place. 

Summer-pruning trees should be attended to now. All the strong shoots 
should iiave about four inches of the end nipped off; this will induce them 
to form fruit spurs at the base, and on the old wood. 

Plum, Cherry and Pear trees may be budded now. 

Insects should now be looked after, especially the pear-tree slug and 
aphis. A good quantity of whale-oil soap should be kept in readiness, and 
one washing will immediately destroy them. 


Pelargoniums will now be the main objects of attention, where there is a 
choice collection. The old plants should be headed down very close, and 
placed in a half shady situation until they begin to push. The cuttings 
may be put in in pots or in frames, either in the open air — which we think 
best — or in a cool part of the greenhouse. 

Chinese primrose seeds should be sown now. 

Hyacinths, Tulips, and other winter bulbs, should be taken up. 

Ten week arid Victoria Slochs seed should be sown now for winter flow- 

Carnations and Pico tees may be layered this month. 

Camellias may be potted this month, and grafting the plants may also be 

Oxalis Mr la and Boweii should now be potted for early flowering. 

Roses, intended for early flowering, should be plunged in the open ground 
in a sheltered situation. 

Mignonette should be sown now for flowering early in autumn. 

Azaleas should be repotted this month. Specimen plants should be kept 
growing in a warm part of the greenhouse, and the others plunged in the 
open air. 

Hardy roses should be layered this month. 

Dahlias will require pruning and staking, and, if the weather proves dry, 
they should be liberally watered, and the ground mulched around each 

Heliotropes may now be propagated for next year's stock. 

Cyclamens should be plunged in the open ground in a half shady situation. 

Tree violets should have all the lateral shoots pinched off, and they will 
soon form upright plants. 

Tree pa^omes may be grafted the latter part of the month. 


O F 


AUGUST, 1847. 


Art. I. Descrijjtions and £!?ig?'avi?igs of Select Varieties of 
Pears. By the Editor. 

We continue our descriptive list of pears. Some of the 
number which are enumerated below are tolerably well known, 
and part of them very highly esteemed kinds. The Ananas 
is of more recent introduction, and is a very fine early autumn 

73, FiGUE DE Naples. Hort. Soc. Catalogue, 3d. Ed. 1842. 

Comtesse de Frdnol, > jjort. Soc. Cat., 3d. Ed. 

Ue Vigne Pelone, > 

Fig Pear of Naples, Book of Fruits, (first series,) p. 91. 

' S- of some English and American collections, 
r ourcroy , ) 

The Figue de Naples is tolerably well known around 
Boston under the name of the Beurre Bronze, it having 
frequently been exhibited under that name, though incor- 
rectly. Mr. Manning fruited it for several years, and, in his 
Book of Fruits, he described it as a "very productive vari- 
ety, bearing young, juicy and good." Last year, a tree in our 
collection, received under the name of Beurre Bronze, pro- 
duced several fine pears, and we were somewhat surprised to 
find it so fine a variety. Whether from the season, the locality, 
or the soil, we considered it as one of the best pears of the season. 
It possesses a rather thick skin, but the flavor is peculiarly rich, 
musky and delicious. Since our description was made, we have 
observed that Mr. Thompson has described it in the Gardener's 

VOL. xin. — NO. VIII. 31 

338 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

Chronicle^ and he remarks that " it requires particular man- 
agement after gathering. It has a thick, tough, softly rus- 
seted skin, which appears to permit occasionally a too rapid 
evaporation of the juices, in consequence of which the flesh 
does not become melting, but actually the reverse, until it 
finally decays. To prevent this, it is necessary to pack the 
fruit away from the free action of the air." 

The tree grows very vigorously, with upright brown shoots, 
sprinkled with brown russet specks, and is very productive : 
the fruit all have a remarkably clean skin, free from specks. 
It grows freely, and bears well on the quince. Our descrip- 
tion of the Figue de Naples {fig. 26), is as follows : — 

Fig. 26. Fiffue de Naples. 

Size, large, about two and a half inches in diameter, and 
three long : Form, oblong, slightly contracted in the middle, 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 339 

and very obtuse at the stem : >S'A*m, fair, smooth, pale green, 
becoming lemon yellow when mature, marbled with dull red 
on the sunny side, and very regularly and thickly covered 
with small green dots and russety specks : Stem^ medium 
length, about one inch, moderately stout, rough, dark brown, 
fleshy and swollen at the base, and inserted without any cav- 
ity : Eye, rather large, open, and slightly sunk in a broad, 
shallow, smooth basin ; segments of the calyx broad, long, 
pointed, and quite reflexed : Flesh, yellowish, fine, melting, 
and very juicy : Flavor, rich, sugary, vinous and excellent, 
with a fine musky perfume : Core, medium size : Seeds, me- 
dium size, plump, brown. Ripe in November, and is in eat- 
ing three or four weeks. 

74. FoRELLE. Hort. Trans., Vol. V. pi. 17. 

Poire Truite, ) ^^^^ g^ ^^^^ 3^ ^^ ^g^^ 

Forellenbirne, ) 

Trout Pear, of some gardens. 

The Forelle is, without doubt, the most beautiful pear 
which has ever been produced, and would deserve cultivation 
for its appearance only, if it were even a second rate pear. 
But it stands almost as high for its excellence as for its beauty. 
Dr. Diel, in his Pomology, speaks of the Forelle as compet- 
ing with the best French varieties, and Mr. Thompson states 
that it " merits his eulogium in all respects." 

The Forelle {fig. 27), takes its name from the resemblance 
of its beautifully speckled skin to the Trout, and, in the French 
collections, it is generally called the Truite pear. When the 
fruit is produced in perfection, it is deeply colored with ver- 
milion, and profusely covered with grayish russet dots, which 
are margined or rayed with crimson. The tree grows very 
rapidly, more resembling, in the color of the wood, which is 
of a rich violet red speckled with grayish white, an apple than 
a pear: young shoots woolly : leaves, roundish ovate. It is 
very productive, and grows either upon the quince or pear 

Mr. Manning, who described it among the many kinds 
which he proved in his collection, (Vol. III. p. 49), stated that 
with him it had not come up to the character given it in the 

340 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

Pom. Mag., but we suspect he had not produced it under 
favorable circumstances. Our drawing is from a specimen 
produced in the collection of Mrs. Heard, of Watertown, in 
1846, and, in beauty as well as quality, it was a first-rate 
fruit. Where the locality is unfavorable as a dwarf or stand- 
ard, we would recommend it as deserving a wall or an espa- 

Fig. 27. Forelle. 

Size, large, about two inches in diameter, and three long : 
Form, oblong obovate, regular, rather the largest in the mid- 
dle, and tapering to an obtuse point at the stem : Skin, fair, 
smooth, dull yellow in the shade, broadly shaded with ver- 
milion on the sunny side, and beautifully speckled with gray- 
ish dots, which are deeply margined with crimson : Stem, 
rather short, about three quarters of an inch, slender, nearly 
straight, and obliquely inserted in a small, shallow, contract- 
ed cavity, with a swollen lip or projection on one side : Bye, 
medium size, partially open, moderately sunk in a small and 
rather abruptly depressed basin ; segments of the calyx broad 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 


and closed np, little reflexed : Flesh, white, very fine grained, 
buttery, melting and juicy : Flavor, rich, sprightly, vinous, 
shghtly perfumed and excellent : Core, medium size : Seeds, 
medium size, nearly black. Ripe in November, and fre- 
quently keeps till January. 

75. Ananas. Bon Jardinier. 

Poire Ananas, of French collections. 

The Ananas {fig. 28), is a new pear, recently introduced 
into our collections from the French gardens, and it proves to 

Fig. 28. Ananas. 

be a very delicious variety. Of its origm, we have no infor- 
mation. It is not mentioned in the last edition of the Cata- 
logue oi Xhftlion. Hort. Soc, and is probably not known in 

342 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

English collections. It first fruited in 1844 or '45, and our 
drawing is from a specimen produced in the collection of Col. 
Wilder last autumn. 

The tree is a very vigorous grower, making stout and 
strong annual shoots, of a rather light olive shade, with very- 
large grayish specks. It thrives well upon the quince, pro- 
ducing abundant crops. 

This is not the Ananas d'Ete of the Hort. Soc. Catalogue, 
but an entirely distinct variety, ripening later, and a much 
richer pear. It is well worthy a place in every select collec- 

Size^ large, two and a half inches broad, and three inches 
long : Form, pyramidal, slightly angular, large at the crown, 
and regularly tapering to the stem : Skin, fair, smooth, thin, 
orange yellow when mature, little russeted on the shaded 
side, slightly tinged with red next the sun, little clouded with 
green, and covered with russet specks: Stem, rather short, 
about half an inch, stout, rough, brown, wrinkled, and fleshy 
where it adjoins the fruit, which is slightly on one side : Eye, 
small, closed, and rather deeply sunk in a narrow, angular 
basin ; segments of the calyx narrow, long and pointed : Flesh, 
yellowish, rather coarse, melting, and very juicy : Flavor, 
rich, sprightly, vinous, and delicious, with a pleasant aroma : 
Core, small : Seeds, large, plump, pale browQ. Ripe in Oc- 
tober, and will keep some time. 

76. Bezi de la Motte. Hort. Trans., Yol. Y. p. 132. 

Bien Armudi, > jj^^^ g^^ ^^^^ 3^^ ^d. 

Beurre Blanc de Jersey, ) 

This old pear, which was first described by Quintinye, in 
1685, upwards of a century and a half ago, and pronounced 
by him of such excellence as to be likely to take the place of 
the White Doyenne, is yet very little known. As late as 
1830, when it was figured in the Pomological Magazine, it 
was quite new to English collections, and to the present day, 
with us, it has been confined principally to the gardens of am- 
ateur cultivators. It is, however, one of those pears which 
belong rather more to the orchardist than the amateur, as it 
is a hardy and vigorous tree, a regular and abundant bearer, 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 343 

ripening freely and keeping well, and admirably suited for a 
profitable market fruit. The Pom. Mag. (1830), states that 
it possesses " all the good qualities of the White Doyenne," 
while Mr. Thompson places it in the Catalogue of the Hort. 
Soc. for 1842 as of 2d quality. This is our estimate of it, 
strictly as to its eating qualities. In some seasons, we have 
tasted specimens which were first-rate, while, in the average 
of years, it will not come quite up to that character. Its other 
qualities, however, claim for it a place in every good collec- 

The Bezi de la Motte {^fig- 29), is supposed to have origi- 
nated in the East, as the Bien Armudi, a Turkish variety, 

Fig. 29. Bezi de la Motte. 

has proved to be the same in the Garden of \he Horticultural 
Society. A warm and dry season like that of 1846 probably 
suits this variety better than a cool and wet one, as the fruit 
last year was excellent. The tree is of vigorous and rapid 
growth, forming a regular and compact head, and it succeeds 
well upon the pear or quince : on the former stock, it does 

344 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pears. 

not, however, come into bearing until the fifth or sixth year. 
Wood ohve gray, with brownish specks. 

Size, large, about three inches in diameter, and two and 
a half long : Form, roundish, somewhat angular, broad and 
flattened at the crown, and tapering slightly to the stem : 
Skin, rather rough, dull greenish yellow, thickly russeted 
around the crown, the russet extending over the surface in 
very large, distinct, and conspicuous dots : Stetn, short, about 
half an inch, moderately stout, nearly straight, greenish brown, 
and rather obliquely inserted in an angular, moderately deep 
cavity : Eye, medium size, open, and deeply sunk in a large, 
open, sliglitly angular basin ; segments of the calyx broad, 
pointed, reflexed : Flesh, yellowish white, rather coarse, melt- 
ing and juicy : Flavor, sugary, pleasant, and excellent, with 
a slight perfume : Core, large : Seeds, very large, dark brown. 
Ripe in October, and in eating two or three weeks, 

77. Belle et Bonne. Pomological Magazine, pi. 118. 

Sohone and Gute, Hort. Soc. Cat., 3d. Ed. 

Belle de Bruxelles, of some collections, (incorrectly.) 

Lindley, Thompson, and Manning describe the Belle et 
Bonne {fig. 30), as a valuable pear; and Mr. Kenrick, fol- 
lowing the Pomological Magazine, quotes its language, viz., 
that it is "a delicious Bergamot of the best kind." It is one 
of those pears which are more variable than others, according 
to the season, abundance of the crop, &c., as in some years it is 
quite first-rate, and in others not coming up to this character. 
It is a large and fine fruit, and the tree \z vigorous and heal- 
thy, not coming into bearing early, but producing great crops 
when the tree has attained age. 

It was introduced into the collection of the London Horti- 
cultural Society about the year 1826, from the nurseries of the 
Messrs. Baumann, of Bol wilier, and Mr. Manning first fruited 
it in our gardens, and received it from various sources as the 
Belle de Bruxelles. Wood, dark brownish ohve, sprinkled with 
dark brown spots, short-jointed, with deep green, oval, lance- 
olate leaves. 

Size, large, about three inches broad and two and three 
quarters deep : Form, roundish, narrowing a little towards the 

Descripiloiis of Select Varieties of Pears. 


stem, slightly angular, and often depressed : Skin, fair, yel- 
lowish green, having a faint ruddy tinge on the sunny side, 
and regularly covered with dull green and dark russet specks, 
thickest on the shaded side : Stem, medium length, about one 

Belle et Bonne. 

inch, stout, smooth, curved, light brown, and deeply inserted 
in a large narrowed cavity : Eye, large, closed, and consider- 
ably depressed in a very broad, somewhat furrowed basin ; 
segments of the calyx very large, broad and pointed : Fleshy 
white, coarse, slightly gritty at the core, buttery and juicy: 
Flavor, rich and sweet, with a pleasant musky perfume : 
Core, medium size : Seeds, small, dark brown. Ripe in Sep- 

73. Thompson's. Hort. Soc. Catalogue, 3d. Ed. 1842. 

Of the newer and more recently introduced pears, the 
Thompson's (^fig. 31), holds a conspicuous place. It is a 

346 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Pea?'s. 

Flemish variety, first received by the London Horticultural 
Society, and has been named in compliment to the able super- 

Fig. 31. Thompson's. 

intendent of the fruit department, Mr. R. Thompson, by the 
Society. It is, as its name should indicate, a most excellent 
pear, possessing a peculiarly delicious perfume, a very melt- 
ing flesh, and has the sugary character of the Passe Colmar, 
but relieved with a sprightliness which that variety does not 

Mr. Manning received the scions of the Thompson's from 
the London Horticultural Society, and first fruited it in 1841, 
at which time he gave some account of it in our Magazine, 
(Vol. VHI. p. 64). Since then we have repeatedly tried it, 
and the last season we had some very fine specimens from 
the collection of the Hon. J. S, Cabot, from one of which our 
drawing is made. We have never eaten it of secondary 

The tree is rather late in coming into bearing, of vigorous 
growth, with yellowish olive-colored wood sprinkled with 

The Strawberry Question. 347 

grayish specks, and the leaves are of medmm size, dark 
shining green, with very wavy margins. 

Size, medium, about two inches in diameter, and two and 
a half long : Form, obovate, regular, tapering towards the 
stem, below which it is slightly contracted : Skin, fair, smooth, 
lemon yellow when mature, considerably russeted around the 
stem, and on one side : Stem, short, about half an inch long, 
rather slender, slightly knobby, and inserted with scarcely 
any cavity by the side of a slight projection : Eye, medium 
size, open, and slightly depressed in a small basin ; segments 
of the calyx short, broad, and apparently united : Flesh, 
yellowish, fine, melting and juicy : Flavor, rich, sugary and 
delicious, with a peculiar delicate aroma : Core, medium size : 
Seeds, large, long, and nearly black. Ripe in October, and 
keeps some time. 

Art. II. The Strawberry Question. By the Editor. 

Start not, dear reader ! We do not intend to open anew 
the whole subject of the strawberry question which has been 
agitated for several years, and now so satisfactorily settled. 
Oui object is merely to notice the opinions of some writers in 
regard to our Seedling, and to show how little they know of 
its true character. 

In our last volume, (XII. p. 359), we fully discussed the 
subject of the fertile and sterile character of strawberries, and 
stated that a series of carefully conducted experiments had 
convinced us that the blossoms never change their form. If 
pistillate or staminate, they forever remain so. We also stat- 
ed, in reply to Mr. Saul, of the Highland Gardens, (p. 455), 
that every cultivator who found staminate plants in his beds 
of Hovey's Seedling might rest assured that he did not possess 
the True variety. 

Mr. Downing, who ought to know our strawberry without 
looking at the blossoms, — for we have scarcely a gardener in 
our grounds who cannot pick out Hovey's Seedhng by the 
leaf alone, among a dozen other sorts, — has stated that his 

348 The ^traivherry Qiiestio?i. 

beds of plants change from staminate to pistillate, and from 
pistillate to staminate, according to the age and vigor of the 
plants. So convinced had he become of this being a " fixed 
fact," that, with becoming modesty, he offered to prove his 
doctrine by sending to the Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety, in 1847, twelve plants, in pots, of the staminate Hovey's 

Now mark the result. Agreeably to his statement, Mr. 
Downing did send twelve plants to the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society in June last, for the Committee to examine 
and substantiate his views. But judge of the disappoint- 
ment which followed this liberal offer to prove his theory. 
The plants duly came to hand, and the committee were to- 
tally surprised at the result. Was it possible so great an 
error could be committed by a nurseryman and an author 1 
In the place of Hovey's Seedling, which every cu] tivator could 
detect at once, some spurious variety was received, having 
no resemblance to the original whatever, the foliage being 
small and narrow, and the trusses of flowers of an entirely 
different form. So apparent was this, that the plants did not 
need examination, and those who saw them could not con- 
jecture how a pomological writer could venture to send such 
plants until he had taken some pains to ascertain their genu- 
ineness by some other mode than the staminate blossoms : for 
it argued that the true variety, though now spread all over 
the United States, was quite unknown to Mr. Downing. 

Such is the basis of his modified theory that '-some perfect 
blossomed sorts have a tendency to vary mto barren forms" ; 
and these twelve plants are evidence, introduced by himself, 
to show that a little observation, and the least prac^/ra/ knowl- 
edge of the subject would have long ago convinced him of its 
utter absurdity. 

We might notice some of the statements which are occa- 
sionally made, that mdividuals who procured their plants of 
Messrs. Hovey & Co. have found some staminate sorts among 
them : those who are conversant with the habits, character 
and cultivation of the strawberry are aware that seedlings 
are constantly springing up from the berries which partially 
decay on the vines : if there are any who do not know this, 
they are referred to English writers, and we may here allude 

Transplantation of Coniferous Forest Trees. 349 

to an article in the Transactions of the London Horticultu- 
ral Society by Sir George Stuart Mackenzie, (Vol. VII. p. 
342). He states " that many berries decay and are passed 
over, and inferior ones are not gathered. The seeds from 
these drop, and new sorts come up, and if runners from these 
are taken, of course they are not the true kind." This ac- 
counts for the staminate plants, which, after a year or two, 
spring up, and if, in making new beds, the plants are not 
selected by those who know them by some other way than 
the " staminate flowers," the error will be perpetuated, and 
inferior sorts be the result. 

Not long since, we noticed that some western cultivators 
had purchased staminate Hovey's Seedlings of some of the 
Eastern nurserymen, who had found such in their beds, 
and supposed they were the original form of the variety : and 
notwithstanding we have repeatedly asserted that the origi- 
nal plants were the same as they are now — imperfect.^ hav- 
ing the stamens, but few or no anthers — still they imagine 
that their short acquaintance with the variety is better than 
the testimony of the originator, before whose eye they have 
constantly been for thirteen years. It would be quite useless 
to argue the question with those who hold such absurd no- 

We may, therefore, repeat that Hovey's Seedling, when 
true, must have some staminate variety to impregnate it, and, 
for this purpose, Ave use exclusively the Boston Pine, "which 
is fully equal to it in every quality but size; being a week 
earlier, the most productive of all strawberries, of delicious 
flavor, and only about one quarter less in size than Hovey's 
Seedling, averaging four inches in circumference. 

Art. hi. On the Transplantation of the Coniferous Forest 

Trees {Pines, ^'c), of New England to the Southern States. 
By Dr. A. Mitchell, Portland, Me. In a Letter to the 
Hon. H. a. S, Dearborn. Communicated by Gen. Dear- 

Since my last communication to you, I have received a let- 
ter from Dr. Bacon, informing me that he has been suflering 
VOL. XIII. — no. VIII. 32 

350 Transplantation of Coniferous Forest Trees. 

from a sev^ere attack of rheumatism, which has prevented him 
from making a full report on the culture of the Arrow Root ; 
and promises to do so as soon as he recovers. In my previous 
communications to you, I hinted at making a few cursory 
observations on the difference of success in the cultivation of 
plants, and transplantation of trees, from altitude of moun- 
tains and elevated lands in the same line of latitude, and those 
taken from a similarity of soils, more on a level Avith the 
ocean in adverse latitudes, whether high or low. It appears 
you have communicated my previous letters, which were pub- 
lished in the Boston Magazine of Horticulture., edited by C. 
M. Hovey, Esq., of which t acknowledge the receipt of May 
and July numbers. I was truly pleased with the perusal of 
a paper so admirably adapted to the wants of this country, 
eliciting so much valuable and practical information, which 
should meet the most sanguine wishes of every lover of Hor- 
ticultural pursuits and Botanical science : liberal favors should 
be extended to such a work as the present, and also the one 
to be published on the Fruits of America, which, we hope, 
will meet with a large share of public patronage. 

In the autumn of 1840, I suggested to several gentlemen of 
Charleston, S. C, the probability of success in the transplan- 
tation of some of our coniferous forest-trees, to their region. 
They replied to me that the experiment had been tried for 
several years, and had invariably failed ; although every thing 
had been tried to crown their efforts with success. Notwith- 
standing this discouraging answer, I was determined to try 
the experiment, and impose on them the enterprise ; knowing 
that many of their specimens were taken from the elevated 
table-lands of that State, or the swamps of our country — with 
the roots denuded of earth, often shipped in the spring — arriv- 
ing there withered by exposure. With these hints of the sup- 
posed cause of failure, I accordingly selected a soil in this 
country, as our sandy plains in exposed situations, to take up 
my trees, having in view the similarity of soils in Carolina, 
in which I was to transplant them ; they were principally the 
Balsam-fir, intermixed with varieties of the Spruce, amount- 
ing to some hundreds, varying from one to six feet in height, 
taken up the latter part of October, with a large ball of earth 
on their roots, and packed in crates. They arrived there safe 

Transplantation of Coniferous Forest Trees. 351 

with the exception of some of them being heated and spoiled 
by remaining too long under the hatches, and wonld have 
been liberally purchased, had there not been a popular clam- 
our against them, that they would not live ; yet I suggested 
the propriety on the plan proposed of a gradual acchmation, 
by not placing them at first in too exposed situations. I, how- 
ever, succeeded in distributing them for a small remuneration ; 
and, as a lone solitaire of the Balsam-fir was said to exist in 
the precincts of the city, I busied myself in hunting it up. 
On finding the tree alluded to, it proved to be a species of the 
white pine, (Pinus *S'tr6bus), growing in the garden at the 
neck, belonging to the Hon. Joel R. Poinsett, a gentleman well 
known in the science of Horticulture, as well as his able com- 
peer, the Hon. Thomas Bennett. Some weeks elapsed, and 
I made an excursion into the country, and, when visiting a 
plantation belonging to Mrs. Lynah, 1 accidentally discov- 
ered a tree of the Balsam-fir growing in this lady's garden on 
the banks of Stone River. This tree was thriving luxuriantly 
in the most exposed situation, under the direct rays of the 
sun, on an elevated sandy ridge ; this native of my hills had 
undergone, by acclimation, a remarkable change, its acerose 
leaves nearly twice as large, presenting a brilliantly varnished 
appearance, with its foliage of a rich deep-green, and a healthy 
structure throughout. The lady informed me that a gentle- 
man from Massachusetts presented this tree to her some time 
in the fall — six years previous. This encouraged me as to 
the future success of those I had transplanted; and I had the 
satisfaction of seeing many of them without much care pass 
through the first and second summer in a thriving condition, 
as, out of the city in some places, five out of seven succeeded ; 
since that, 1 can give no farther information concerning them, 
but have not the least doubt that success would have been 
certain had the trees been younger, or seeds had been obtained 
from trees growing in exposed situations in soils similar to 
those of the south. 

The surest way for the collection and arranging of facts, in 
the acclimation of plants, is to devote our attention to Botan- 
ical Geography. Thus, plants or trees of the same family do 
not thrive nor succeed so well when transplanted from elevat- 
ed and mountainous regions to the plain, however contiguous 

352 Transplantation of Coniferous Forest Trees. 

the localities or habitations of such plants may be, as those 
from opposite latitudes or zones of a great distance, with a 
similarity of soils. This is applicable also to seeds derived 
from the parent stock of stunted growths, otherwise physi- 
cally deteriorated constitutions of such plants growing on 
mountains, in sheltered positions, shady ravines, or in soils or 
positions presenting no similarity. It is well known to every 
accurate observer, that powerful summer heats are capable of 
causing trees and shrubs to endure the most rigorous winters; 
which would militate decidedly against the opinion of some 
as to the acclimation of plants from Southern to Northern lat- 
itudes. Seeds contained in pericarps germinate sooner if 
planted immediately after being separated from their natural 
covering. I do not think that the mean annual temperature 
of various countries in the temperate zones and tropical regions 
affect the growth and nutrition of plants so much as has been 
supposed. The habits and life of a plant may be changed. 
and brought to exist on food not naturally suited to its consti- 
tution by the care and cultivation of the same by man, who 
is the most active agent in the dispersion of plants. Many 
plants, as those the most useful to mankind, by slow and 
gradual acclimation, become distributed over a vast region ; 
as a proof of this position, we have only to point to the Indian 
corn, rice, cotton, and sweet potato, growing in our own coun- 
try. Again, — plants, whether herbaceous or perennial, as in 
medical botany, may, by removal from opposite zones, become 
stunted in their growth, with less luxuriance of appearance, 
yet there will be a greater concentration of active properties, 
than what is possessed in its original habitation. The designs 
of our Creator are obvious in all of his works. Without care 
or much protection by man, we see the delicate plant, Nas- 
turtium peruvianum, or Indian cress, braving the different 
climes, and lingering on the verge of our Northern winter. 
This plant is a native of Peru ; its systematic name is Tropoe^o- 
lum majus, from TQixmaiov, or Tropaion, a warlike shield or tro- 
phy. " This fanciful but elegant name was chosen by Linnaeus 
for this singular and striking genus, because he conceived the 
shield-like leaves and the brilliant flowers, shaped like golden 
helmets, pierced through and through, and stained with blood, 
would justify such an allusion." It was first brought to 

Descriptions of Eight New Varieties of Prairie Roses. 353 

France from Peru, S. A., in 1684: in its original state, it is 
said to be found growing to a considerable height, forming 
quite a tree. 

I cannot refrain from expressing the most earnest wishes 
for the success of our enterprise in establishing an Experi- 
mental Garden in Florida, for the cultivation and acclima- 
tion of tropica] plants. The feasibility of the plan is so clear 
that the national advantages derived therefrom cannot but 
strongly impress the public with the ulterior benefits which 
will grow out of its foimdation when brought to maturity. 
As it will be the means of introducing many of the most val- 
uable plants of the tropics from distant regions, promoting 
agricultural science, increasing the original material of our 
manufactures, adding largely to our staple commodities and 
commercial exports, and, above all, diffusing a love for the 
cultivation of plants in the rising generation, that will perma- 
nently base and characterize us as an agricultural nation. 
With great esteem, I am, dear sir, very respectfully yours, 

Augustus Mitchell, M.D. 

Hon. H. a, S. Dearborn. 

We have already expressed our opinion of Dr. Mitchell's 
papers, which possess great value, and we are gratified in be- 
ing the medium of communication, through General Dearborn, 
of his letters. For his complimentary notice of our labors in 
the science of Horticulture, we feel highly honored. Another 
excellent letter is postponed, for want of room, to our next. 

Art. IV. Descriptions of Eight New Varieties of Prairie 
Roses. By the Editor. 

No productions of the flower garden have attracted more 
attention within a few years than the new and beautiful vari- 
eties of Prairie roses, which now form the principal ornaments of 
-every good collection during the month of July, after other 
roses have gone. Mr. Feast, who was the first to give a 
new feature to our native Prairie, deserves the thanks of 

354 Desci'iptions of Eight New Varieties of Prairie Roses. 

every lover of this beautiful tribe for the origination of his 
superb seedlings. For years, we have been cultivating for- 
eign roses, very few of which, in comparison with the 
Prairies, deserve a place in the garden. Some of the Bour- 
saults are exceedingly showy and brilliant, but, with few ex- 
ceptions, they, like all other varieties of climbing roses, must 
give way to the Prairies. 

Two years ago, we gave a full descriptive account of all 
Mr. Feast's seedlings, (Vol. X. p. 246,) with a view to correct 
any errors which might have arisen in the dissemination of 
the kinds; and we believe our article was the means of en- 
abling cultivators to detect mistakes, and the different varie- 
ties are now readily obtained under the correct names. 

It is well known that, since Mr. Feast produced his fine 
seedlings, our correspondent, Mr. J. Pierce, of Linnsean Hall, 
near Washington, D. C, whose place we have twice noticed, 
has raised several new and extremely beautiful varieties, 
some of them vieing with Mr. Feast's, while others much ex- 
cel them. Mr. Pierce raised twelve kinds, brief descriptions 
of which he sent us last season ; but, as they only referred to 
the color of the flowers, we thought it preferable to delay 
their publication until we could render them complete. Most 
of our plants have flowered finely this year, and we have been 
enabled to do so, and we now annex the following descriptions 
of each : — 

Anne Maria. — Flowers, medium size, pale pink, with rose 
centre, cupped and very double : clusters, large, numbering 
twenty to thirty flowers, and rather compact : foliage, medium 
size, very pale green, undulated, slightly serrated, and rather 
smooth : spines, strong, pale green : habit, robust, vigorous 
and good. It is quite distinct from any of the others. 

Eva Corinne. — Flowers, large, very delicate blush, with 
beautiful carmine centre, globular, and very double : clusters, 
medium size, containing from ten to twenty flowers, rather 
compact : foliage, medium size, rugose : spines, purplish : 
habit, vigorous, and very erect. This is the most delicate of 
all the Prairies, and its clusters of blush flowers, with their 
deep centre, which are perfectly globular and quite fragrant, 
entitle it to a prominent place in every garden. It blooms 
quite late. 

Descrijitions of Eight New Varieties of Prairie Roses. 355 

Miss Gunnell. — Flowers, medium size, of a delicate blush 
or buff, precisely of the shade of Lady Hume Camellia, 
cupped, very regular, and double : clusters, large and spread- 
ing, numbering twenty-five to thirty flowers : foliage, large, 
undulated, and partially rugose : habit, vigorous and good. 
This is quite unique for the delicate tint of its flowers, which 
are produced in large clusters. It is one of the very best. 

Jane. — Flowers, medium size, of a beautiful light, or lilac, 
rose, imbricated, and very double : clusters, large and rather 
compact, numbering twenty-five or thirty flowers : foliage, 
large, coarselj'', and sharply serrated : habit, very strong and 

Ranunculiflora. — Flowers, small, pale blush, very much 
resembling Baltimore Belle: clusters, large, usually twenty 
or thirty flowers : foliage, very rugose : spines, purplish : 
habit, vigorous and good. This variety is slightly fragrant, 
and flowers rather late. 

Pride of Washington. — Flowers, medium size, pale rose, 
cupped and double, somewhat resembling Jane : clusters, 
medium size, numbering ten to twenty flowers: foliage, me- 
dium size, slightly serrated, and nearly smooth : habit, vigor- 
ous and good. 

Triumphant. — Flowers, medium size, deep brilliant rose, 
imbricated, very double, and finely formed : clusters, large, 
and rather compact, numbering from twenty to thirty flowers : 
foliage, very large and handsome, undulated and bright green, 
deeply and sharply serrated : habit, very strong and robust. 
This variety is remarkable for its ample and beautiful foliage, 
as well as its deep and brilliant rosy flowers. 

President. — Flowers, small, deep pink, compact, and very 
double : clusters, medium size, and rather loose, numbering 
fifteen to twenty flowers : foliage, medium size, rugose,* and 
rather deeply serrated : prickles, purplish red : habit, vigor- 
ous and good. This is one of the latest flowering varieties. 

These are aU Mr. Pierce's seedlings, eight in number. We 
have four others, which have not yet flowered sufficiently 
strong to give a correct description : their names are, Mrs. 
Hovey, a superb white; Virginia l.ass; Linnsean Hall Beau- 
ty, and one unnamed. Another season they will probably 
bloom in fine condition. Mr. Pierce speaks very highly of 

356 Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Exotics. 

Mrs. Hovey, as being a fine white, the "largest, doublest and 
best" of all his seedlings; it is of superb habit, with splendid 
deep green foliage, and, if it proves a pure white, it will be 
the greatest acquisition which has yet been made. 

In our volume for 1844, (X. p. 98,) will be found an article 
by Mr. Pierce, upon the Prairie rose, with some remarks on 
its employment for hedges or live fences. In that article he 
states, that, having sown a lot of seeds for the purpose of 
stocks, "he was not a little surprised to find that he had 
among them twelve fine varieties of double roses." It would 
be gratifying to amateurs to know how he procured the seed 
by which he should be so very successful in producing these 
double varieties; whether they were from the single Prairie, 
or from the double varieties — or whether they had been im- 
pregnated with other sorts. We trust Mr. Pierce will find the 
opportunity to communicate this information, that those who 
wish to follow up his experiments may have some guide as 
to the best method to adopt to attam the end in view. 

To Messrs. Feast and Pierce, the Covers of the rose are 
deeply indebted Mr Feast, we are gratified to know, has 
received some reward for his beautiful productions. We trust 
that Mr. Pierce, whose seedlings are fully equal to any which 
have been raised, will, in due time, also receive that token of 
merit which is justly his due. 

Art. V. On the Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Ex- 
otics : in a Series of Letters. By James Kennedy, Gardener 
to S. T. Jones, Staten Island, New York. 

Letter TV. Propagation by Layers. 

There are many kinds of Exotics, such as the ilfyrtus, Tas- 
minum, A'erium, Punica, «fcc., which succeed best by this 
mode of propagation, and, indeed, it may be considered the 
most certain mode of propagation by division. The great ad- 
vantage it has over any of the other modes is, that the part 
layered receives nourishment from its parent wliile roots are 
being formed, whereas cuttings get no further supply than 

Proj)agation of Stove and, Greenhouse Exotics. 357 

that laid np in the leaves. The state of the wood most favor- 
able for layers is that of a medium state for ripeness ; both 
wood and bark should be softish and not too ripe ; and. above 
all, in a perfectly healthy state. The month of May is a 
favorable time for performing this work. Shoots or branches 
properly situated for layering, should be brought down gently, 
slit, and inserted into the pot of the parent plant ; but when 
this is not convenient, let pots be filled with the soil in which 
the plants love to ramble, and placed conveniently near for 
the purpose : let them be secured firmly with wooden pegs, 
and cover them about two inches or so with suitable soil, 
over which let a little moss, or mowings of short grass, be 
placed to keep the earth moist. This done, give all a good 
soaking of water, which must be repeated regularly when 
necessary. As soon as roots are found to protrude, an occa- 
sional watering with clear liquid manure would be of great 
benefit to the young layer. At any rate, we are certain it 
would not do injury, and, therefore, might be applied without 
risk. By attending to the above hints, the shoots will be 
eflectually rooted, and ready for potting off by the end of the 
summer, but, should there be any not sufiiciently rooted, they 
must be allowed to remain till the following spring. 

Lettek v. Propagation hy Inarching. 

When it is desired to inarch any particular kind of Exotic, 
the stock to be grafted on, as well as the plant from which the 
graft is to be taken, must stand sufficiently near each other to 
allow the branch, as it grows on the parent plant, to approach 
and join readily to that part of the stock where it is desired 
to be worked on, forming a kind of arch, for the graft is not 
intended to be cut off till sonif time after performing the ope- 
ration ; nor is the head of the stock intended to be cut off 
till there is a perfect union between the two. The Citrus, 
Punica, and similar exotic genera, are often propagated by 
this mode, on stocks raised from pips ; and some genera, such 
as the Magnolia, Camell/'a, &c. &c., are generally worked on 
the commoner sorts, and sometimes three or four sorts on one 
stock ; in fact, 1 have seen as many as twelve varieties of the 
camellia on one stock, which was, indeed, a varied and im- 
posing object when in flower. 

358 Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 

The single red camellia is the best for stocks to work upon ; 
it is easily propagated by '^•uttings; and it produces a much 
greater quantity of fibrous roots than any of the other sorts, 
and, consequently, must be able to coii\^ey a greater quantity 
of nutriment up into the system. The time to take off the 
cuttings is about the middle of May, or when the wood has 
become somewhat firm. They should be cut off in a hori- 
zontal direction, close at the place where they pushed from 
last, and smoothed off a little at the base with a sharp knife. 
Well-drained pots, the same size recommended for seeds and 
cuttings, will exactly suit. Let the pots be filled with equal 
parts of loam and silver sand. After inserting them tightly 
into the pots, give a little water to settle the soil, when they 
should be put in a cool frame for a week or so, and kept 
shaded when the sun is strong, after which they should be 
plunged to the rims in bottom heat, and regularly watered 
when necessary, and kept shaded, as above remarked. 

When they have struck root, which is generally indicated 
by their pushing young shoots, they should be potted off 
singly into small pots, well drained. A compost composed 
of the following materials will be found suitable : — To 
a barrowful of turfy loam, — not sifted, but chopped with the 
spade, — add half a barrowful of well rotted cow manure ; half 
a barrowful of peat and leaf mould ; and one fourth of a barrow- 
ful of silver sand : by following this mode, the young propagator 
will soon have an ample supply of stocks to practise upon. 

Staten Island^ July 28^/«, 1847. 

Art. VI. Floricultural and Botanical Notices of Neir and 
Beautiful Plants figured in Foreign Periodicals ; uith De- 
scriptions of those recently introduced to^ or originated in, 
American Gardens. 

Calystegia pubescens. — This new and beautiful climber, 
which we lately noticed, (p. 78), as one of Mr. Fortune's 
acquisitions in China, is now beautifully in bloom in our col- 
lection. Mr. Fortune sent it home as a double convolvulus. 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 359 

It has much of the habit of the common bindweed of the fields, 
with shghtly pubescent fohage, and the flowers are about the 
size of an anemone, irregularly double, and of a pale, delicate 
pink. It will probably prove a fine plant for turning out into 
the border in the same way as the Ipomaea Learii. At pres- 
ent, it is extremely rare. It is a valuable acquisition to our 
summer flowering greenhouse plants. 

16. Fuchsia micra'ntha Hook. Great-flowered Fuchsia. {Ona- 


A greenhouse shrub ; growing two feet high ; with rosy crimson flowers ; appearing in summer; 
a native ofPeru ; increased by cuttings -, cultivated in good rich light soil. Flore des Serres, Vol. 
n pi. 15i. 1S46. 

Among all the fuchsias which have been mtroduced. this 
species stands conspicuous, not only in the color of the flow- 
ers, which are of the most brilliant deep rose, but in their 
very large size, and the abundance in which they are pro- 
duced on plants not more than two feet high. It was found 
in Peru by Mr. Lobb, collector for Messrs. Yeitch of Exeter, 
and first flowered in their collection in 1845. It is one of the 
most desirable which has yet been introduced, having all the 
splendor of the F. corymbiflora, but, unlike that variety, bloom- 
ing with the ordinary care given to the common varieties. 
{Flo?-e des Serres, Sept. 1846). 

17. Metho'nica LeopoYdh Van Houtte. King Leopold's Me- 

thonica, (hiliacece). 

A bulbous plant ; growing four feet high ; with yellow flowers; appearing in summer; a native 
of Africa ; increased by offsets; cultivated in sandy peat and loam. Flore des Serres, Vol. H. pi. 

163. 1846. 

Another fine plant belonging to the liliaceous tribe, and 
having somewhat of the noble appearance of the Japan lilies, 
and like them flowering in summer. It is described as hav- 
ing a majestic bearing, ample and deep green foliage, and 
large flowers of a soft yellow, marbled and striped with rose, 
and the colored figure fully justifies the description. It was 
sent home from the western coast of Africa in 1845, by the 
collector of Van Houtte, and first flowered at his establish- 
ment in August 1846. It is named in honor of Leopold, King 
of Belgium. It is of robust habit, but the stems are rather 
slender, and the leaves, which are recurved, have a terminal 
tendril which is generally curled up. The flowers are very 

360 Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 

large, with undulated segments. It requires the same soil 
and treatment as the Japan lilies. Increased by offsets in the 
usual way. {Flore des Sen-cs, Nov. 1846). 

18. Came'llia japo'nica var. La Reine. The Queen's Ca- 

mellia. ( Ternstromiaceix). 
This is stated to be one of the most beautiful camellias 
which ha^ yet been produced ; of exquisite form, and of a 
pure white, delicately tinted with rose : petals round, and 
finely imbricated. It history is not known ; but it was pro- 
cured by Van Houtte of an amateur cultivator, whose taste 
for the camellia was so nice that but few varieties were 
esteemed of sufficient excellence to deserve cultivation: it has 
also been pronounced, by the principal amateur cultivators of 
Gaud, " one of the three best camellias known." {Flore des 
Serres, Nov. 1846). 

19. Abu^tilon PiEONiFLo^RUM Nob. Pseon^^-flowered Abutilon. 


a greenhouse plant ; growing four feet high ; with deep crimson fiowers ; appearing in summer ; 
a native of Brazil ; increased by cuttings ; cultivated in peat, loam, and sand. Flore des Serres, 
Vol. II. pi. no. 1816. 

A pretty species of the abutilon, with bright rose-colored 
flowers, and pubescent foliage, attaining the height of three 
or four feet, and flowering in clusters at the ends of the branches. 
For out-door cultivation in summer, it will probably become 
a very ornamental object. Cultivated in any good soil, and 
increased by cuttings. {Flore des Sen-es, Nov.) 

20. Leschenau'ltia sple'ndens Hook. Splendid flowered Les- 

chenaultia. {GoodenidcecB.) 

a greenhouse plant ; growing a foot high ; with scarlet flowers ; appearing in spring ; a native of 
New Holland ; increased by cuttings ; cullivaied in peat, leaf mould, and sand. Flore des Serres, 176. 1816. 

The beauty of the well known Leschenaultta formosa, is 
familiar to all cultivators. L. splendens is of the same habit, 
but more robust, and the flowers have all the brilliancy of the 
old Ferbena Melliidres, being deeper and brighter than for- 
mosa. It was introduced into England by MesTs. Lucombe 
& Pince, and a plant exhibited by them in 1846 had upwards 
of three hundred flowers expanded. It should be introduced 
into every fine collection of plants. Its cultivation is the 
same as for the other species. {Flore des Serres, Dec). 

General Notices. 361 

21. Hydra'ngea involucra^ta, var. fl. ple^no, Sieh. Double- 

flowered Hydrangea, (^S'axifragacege). 
This is another beautiful Hydrangea, introduced by Dr. 
Siebold from Japan, and somewhat of the character of H. 
japonica. The sterile flowers compose the outer circle of the 
corymb, and are double, of fine rose color, and resemble little 
pompone roses. The fertile flowers are numerous, and fill up 
the centre. Siebold found it growing in mountainous dis- 
tricts, flowering in the months of July and August. This in- 
defatigable collector, it is also stated, distinguished four vari- 
eties, viz., one with lilac flowers — one second with blush 
flowers — a third with yellow flowers — and the last with rose- 
colored flowers, which is the one now under notice. In habit, 
the plant is erect and handsome. It will prove a beautiful 
companion to the H. japonica, and should receive the same 
treatment as that species. {Flore des Seires, ^c, Jan). 

22. BEGo>^iAFucHsiofDEsiiZooA-. Fuchsia-likc Begouia. {Begon- 


A greenhouse plant ; growing two or three feet high ; with scarlet flowers ; appearing in winter ; 
a native of New Grenada ; increased by cuttings ; cultivated in peat, loam, and sand. Flore des 
Serres, kc, Vol. H. pi. 212. ll>47. 

This is without doubt the finest Begonia which has yet 
been introduced. The flowers are very large, of a brilliant 
scarlet, and, being produced in long, pendent racemes, they 
have the appearance of a fuchsia, from whence its name. It 
is of easy cultivation, commences flowering in winter, and 
remains in bloom for a long time. Its cultivation is the same 
as that for the other species, of which some are well known 
in our gardens. This and the B. coccinea should be in every 
good collection. Their brilliancy would add greatly to the 
appearance of the warm greenhouse or stove during the win- 
ter and spring months. {Flore des Ser?'es, ^c, Mar). 


Art. I. General Notices, 

Culture of Asparagus in Germany. — Numbers 20, 21, and 22, of the 
Chronicle, the last I have received, contain sundry articles on the culture of 
asparagus, by which it appears that, in your country, the preference is- 


362 General Notices. 

given to asparagus which is suffered to grow some inches above the ground, 
and which, consequently, acquires a green color by atmospherical influence. 
You consider this mode of culture preferable for two reasons : first, because 
the eatable part of such asparagus is larger ; secondly, because it has a 
finer flavor. 

Living in a part of Germany where the culture of asparagus is very com- 
mon, I hope the following remarks, though from a foreigner, will not be 
unwelcome. Asparagus which has obtained a green color by its being ex- 
posed to the air, will neither be grown nor eaten here, and, strange enough, 
exactly for the same reasons which have been alleged by you for growing it 
above ground. However, we do not avail ourselves of artificial means, as 
supposed by you, such as tubes of earthenware or metal, and still our as- 
paragus, if well managed, is white and eatable almost the whole length. 

The manner of growing it is as follows : It is never planted otherwise 
than in a deep, light, and sandy soil, which has been trenched to a depth of 
three feet, well drained and well manured. A thick layer of horsedung is 
put on the bottom of the trench and mixed with the soil. Strong loamy or 
clayey soil is decidedly disadvantageous to the growth of this vegetable. 
It 'will not thrive in it, does not become tender, and will very often become 
brown spotted, which the common people here call ironmould (Cipumala), 
especially if drainage has been neglected. 

We take plants of two or three years' growth, according to their vigor, 
and usually plant them in furrows, which are made at two feet distance, and 
from one and a quarter to one and a half feet deep. The distance between 
the plants is likewise two feet. In these furrows the plants are permitted 
to grow uncovered from the month of March or April, the usual and best 
time for planting, till the beginning or middle of November ; at all events, 
before severe frost is coming on. The soil, which has been taken out of 
the farrows and heaped up at the sides, is then put in, and the beds are 
completely levelled. The plants have had time during summer to establish 
themselves sufficiently. 

Next spring, the young shoots will make their appearance above ground, 
and if every thing has been duly attended to ; if strong and healthy plants 
have been selected, and if, besides, water has been given during a dry sea- 
son, not a single one ought to fail. Some people begin to cut the strongest 
shoots in the third year, but a better result will be obtained by leaving them 
undisturbed till the fourth summer, only giving them, every spring, in Feb- 
ruary or March, a good dressing of cowdung. Manure is the most essen- 
tial requisite for growing fine and tender asparagus. The shoots are cut at 
sunrise and late in the evening, at a length of not more than nine inches, 
cutting them with a long knife under ground as soon as the top of the shoot 
is lifting the soil. Asparagus will always have the finest taste if eaten im- 
mediately after having been gathered, but ought never be kept longer than 
one day, and should be covered meanwhile with light earth, sand, or some 
other material of this description. It is a very bad practice, lately in use 
with our market gardeners, to immerge the asparagus, immediately after 
cutting, in a tub with water, leaving it in the water till they bring it to mar- 

General Notices. 363 

ket. By this practice, the finer flavor is altogether lost, and the cooks 
should be warned against doing the same. 

Wherever manure is not a very expensive article, the culture of asparagus 
pays well, since the lightest and the most sandy land, where nothing else 
can be grown with advantage, can easily be adapte 1 to its culture, and will 
yield a rent for a long series of years. Besides, the same land can be made 
use of for carrots and other vegetables, when the time of cutting is over. 
Living myself some hundred steps from the Baltic, and having read differ- 
ent accounts of the famous asparagus culture at the sea coast near Saa 
Sebastian, in Spain, I have last year made the experiment to grow it in 
pure sea sand containing no humus or vegetable matter whatever. It only 
received a moderate supply of manure, and has even not been watered dur- 
ing the last hot summer ; nevertheless, it is growing this year so well, that 
I might have cut a tolerable quantity of shoots as big as a lady's finger, if 
I would be foolish enough to do so. 

The price of asparagus with us varies from four to seven or eight 
schillings, or English pence, per pound, the former being the general price 
from the moment the weather begins to become warm. Many thousand 
poutids are sent by the steamers to Sweden and other foreign countries, 
since the Lubeck asparagus is well renowned. Though I never liad the 
advantage of seeing your fine country, and, therefore, cannot be a judge of 
your green asparagus, I have several times eaten green asparagus in Italy 
and France, but I dare confess merely for want of better. However, there 
is no quarrelling as to matters of taste. As far as regards tenderness, I am 
at a loss to understand how asparagus can improve by being exposed to the 
drying influence of air, wind, and sunshine. It may become more aromatic, 
though I doubt it, but it will certainly require a greater exertion in being 

Some persons assert that another kind of asparagus is cultivated in some 
parts of the south of (Jermany, which always appears green on the table, 
though white shoots are equally eaten. I have hitherto not been able to 
procure any authentic information about its existence, and am inclined to 
think, that only the manner of culture will produce the difl^erence. An 
English giant asparagus has lately been offered by some nurserymen, like- 
wise hitherto not cultivated by myself. Different sorts may require a differ- 
ent treatment. 

The season for asparagus is at present on the decline. However, I have 
requested a friend at Lubeck to send you with this letter a sample of our 
market asparagus, grown and sold in the common way, and I beg you to 
give it a fair trial, not overlooking that it will have been cut almost a week 
when arriving with you. — Gard. Chron., 1847, pp. 403, 404. 

CuUicating the Pine Apple in the open air in England. — The last mail 
brings to hand our foreign papers, and we fifid in one of them an important 
article on ttie growth of the pine apple, — heretofore supposed to require the 
very highest temperature, — in the open air. The communication of this 
fact has been made by Lady Rolle, of Bicton, in Devonshire, to Dr. Lind- 
ley, and we quote the whole from the Chronicle, and would particularly ask our 

364 General Notices. 

readers to notice his remarks on what he considers the " practical" interest 
of the experiment, viz : the necessity of a low night temperature in forcing- 
houses of all kinds. To our cultivators, however, the communication is of 
greater importance ; as, under our burning sun, during summer, there is no 
doubt of the perfect ripening of the pine apple, and other fruits, if the 
plants could only be stowed away from danger of frost in winter, and then 
set out in properly prepared beds, or pits, in summer, exposed to the sun 
and air. The subject is one which we shall refer to again ; for the present, 
we have not room to say more. — Ed. 

The name of Bicton will long be associated with important experiments 
in the cultivation of the pine apple. The latest which has come to our 
knowledge has had for its object a demonstration of the possibiitiy of ripen- 
ing this fruit in the open air during our summer. 

We learn from a statement, which Lady Rolle has been so obliging as to 
put into our hands, that in May last Mr. Barnes, having some plants ready, 
although the weather was unfavorable, opened a trench, casting the earth 
right and left, so as to form a bank on each side, which he imagined would 
afford some shelter from cold winds ; in the bottom of the trench he placed 
bricks in threes, in the form of a triangle, so as to make a dry bottom for 
the plants to stand on, and, at the same time, to secure a ready passage for 
air and water. The plants, having been placed on the bricks, were packed 
to the rims of the pots in tree leaves, which had been used dunng the win- 
ter in and about hot-beds. This being done, the whole surface, banks and 
all, was covered with charred hay or grass, which Mr. Barnes considered the 
best material for absorbing heat, retaining it, and giving it off gradually ; 
in which expectation he has not been deceived, for although the weather 
proved cold at intervals, stormy and windy, with frosty mornings, and many 
dark sunless days, yet no injury was sustained, and when the sun did ap- 
pear the fruit made great progress ; at the same time the suckers which 
sprung up grew vigorously and were most healthy. The varieties of pine 
apple employed in this experiment consisted chiefly of Queens, together 
with Black Jamaica, Montserrat, Enville, Moscow Queen, Anson's Queen 
or Otaheite, and Black Antigua, &c. The plants employed had never 
been subjected to fire heat at any time. They were turned out after they 
had blossomed. 

A pine apple thus produced has been placed before us by Lady Rolle, 
and we can state that it was a Queen, of excellent quality, weighing three 
pounds fourteen ounces, although from having been cut several days it had 
lost some ounces. It was perfectly well swelled, with the exception of a 
small portion below the crown, which was " blind ;" this did not, however, 
prevent its being a handsome table fruit. 

It thus appears that so tender a fruit as the pine apple may be enabled to 
bear full exposure to the air of May, June, and July in this climate, by a 
little judicious management. The cold winds were kept off by banks 
thrown up across (we presume) the prevailing currents. The want of a 
sufficient amount of earth heat was compensated for by a " lining" of leaves 
still capable of fermentation. And then, by covering the scene of the ex- 

General Notices. 365 

periineut with a black substance, the heat absorbing power of the ground 
was so much increased as to enable it to maintain a night atmosphere round 
the plants high enougii to repel the late frosts of Devonshire, and to main- 
tain a healthy growth during the day. These are, we imagine, the three 
points which have chiefly led to su -cess. It must, however, be remarked 
that the fruit was set before the p/anis were exposed to the air. Had this 
been neglected, we believe the experiment would have failed ; and we even 
attribute the " blindness" of the upper part ol the fruit to the setting pro- 
cess not having been completed there, at the time when the plants were 
removed from shelter. 

It may be alleged that this experiment is more curious than useful ; that 
the only practical result is that it merely enables a fruiting house to be 
cleared in May, and immediately converted into a succession house, instead 
of remaining full of fruiting plants till August. We, however, do not re- 
gard it in that light. It will be highly interesting to know what sort of 
young plants will be formed by the suckers thus obtained ; Mr. Barnes says 
they are extremely vigorous ; we should expect them to be so ; and if they 
continue to thrive thus during the remainder of the summer, they will prob- 
ably become the parents of very fine fruit. This is, however, in the future. 

What in our eyes is of most practical interest is the establishment of the 
fact, upon which we have so long and often insisted, that a high night tem- 
perature in forcing-houses is a fatal mistake. Good gardeners are begin- 
ning to admit the correctness of this view in vineries ; but they have 
doubted whether the principle could be applied to the pine apple, because it 
naturally grows in countries so much hotter than those occupied by the vine. 
But they forget the effect of radiatittn at night ; they have not considered 
how low the temperature of even the tropics must ofien become near the 
surface of the ground, under the bright and cloudless skies of such regions ; 
they have not recollected that ice is formed during the night in Bengal. 
The new experiment of Mr. Barnes has shown that what is true of the vine 
is equally true of the pine apple ; for, notwithstanding the efficacy of a 
black surface, it is impossible that the temporature of the air round his 
pines should not have been much below 40° in the "frosty mornings" of 
which he speaks. 

Another point is the excellent flavor of the fruit thus produced. To 
what was that owing? not to high temperature, nor to bright and long-con- 
tinued sunshine, for we are told that the weather was stormy, with many 
dark sunless days. It was caused by the free access of air constantly pass- 
ing over the leaves, incessantly feeding them on the one hand, and helping 
them on the other to elaborate their juices by the as incessant removal of 
their superfluous water. What a lesson is this to us all ! What a condem- 
nation of our vicious system of building glass-houses to be filled with stag- 
nant air and vapor ; of our miseiable ventilation ; of our barbarous flues ; 
of our water-pipes and tanks, and the sluggish atmosphere which they 
warm. Let us even add what a triumph it is for the friends of Polmaise, 
de luinstrating as it does the soundness of their views of the paramount im- 
portance of rapid currents of everchanging air. For ourselves, we are per- 

366 Domestic Notices. 

fectly convinced that the day is at hand when the first question aslfed of an 
architect will be not how he proposes to heat a hothouse, but how he will 
manage to ventilate it. The costly and complicated machinery of hot-water 
apparatus will be only remembered as a folly, and the simple processes 
which combine a rapid distribution of heat with a rapid motion of air, will 
be universally employed. We may depend upon it, that, in nine cases out 
of ten, cold is much less dangerous than heat, and that half our bad culti- 
vation is caused by a mistaken eagerness to keep plants in an artificial in- 
stead of natural condition. — {Ih. p. 467.) 

Window flowers. — This is the season when those who do not possess green- 
houses will see the reward of their care and labor in the blooming plants which 
have been tended by them in-doors. The dry air of sitting-rooms must be 
counteracted as much as possible by syringing, by exposure to gentle rains, and 
by admitting as much of the atmospheric air as can conveniently be done. 
Green fly may easily be kept down in small collections by picking and rub- 
bing them off by the hand ; or all the pots may be put into a frame closely 
covered up, and subjected to tobacco smoke. Do this in the evening and 
leave the plants till the morning, when they should receive a good watering 
by a fine rose or a syringe. Keep plants in pots moderately moist, without 
allowing water to remain in the saucers. By these means, and bringing in 
a succession as the former plants get shabby, a window may be made very 
interesting to the amateur, and an air of elegance and refinement be given 
to the dwelling. 

Plants may now be cultivated in balconies, and on the stone in front of the 
window, so as to give a beautiful and attractive appearance to the exterior 
of the house. Fuchsias do admirably well for this purpose, as they will 
continue to bloom until the frosts of autumn disturb them, and require less 
care than most plants equally showy. Let strong healthy plants be potted 
in six inch pots, in a light rich soil, and let these pots be dropped into others 
just large enough to admit the space of about half an inch all round ; the 
inserted pot standing on moss or leaf-mould until its brim is on a level with 
that of the pot containing it. By this little contrivance, the hottest suns 
will be unable to scorch the roots of the plants, they will retain moisture 
longer, and will flourish more luxuriantly. If a drooping variety of fuchsia 
is made to alternate with those of erect habit, a mass of bloom will be pre- 
sented of great depth and richness. Other showy plants can, of course, be 
treated in the same way. 

Take time by the forelock, and prepare for your collections next year, by 
purchasing or striking young plants. It requires some forethought to keep 
up a succession of window flowers without a greenhouse, but it may be 
■done. Former papers have treated more fully on this subject, and to them 
ithe readers of the Chronicle are referred. — {lb. p. 404,) 

Art. II. Domestic Notices. 

Hovey's Seedling Straiuberry. — It has been gratifying to us to hear that 
our seedling has taken the prizes at nearly every horticultural exhibition in the 

Domestic Notices. 367 

country ; at the Genesee Valley Horticultural Society, the best quart of 
strawberries the first premium for Hovey's Seedling. At the Long Island 
Horticultural Society, Messrs. Winter received the prize for three quarts, 
which were " unexceptionably fine" ; these were in competition with upwards 
of THIRTY other varieties, including Buist's Prize, North's Victory, Tay- 
lor's Seedling, Black Prince, and others, which have been advertised as 
equal or superior to the seedling ; and this, too, in Flushing, where our friends 
pride themselves upon their great collections, and the successful cultivation 
of this fruit. At the Utica Horticultural Society, " Mr. Wm. Walcott's 
Hovey's Seedlings were acknowledged, by common consent, to be the larg- 
est strawberries ever seen in this country, some of them measuring four and 
three quarters inches in circumference." At the Montreal Horticultural 
Society, " the competitors for the prize were numerous : a large basket of 
Hovey's Seedling, from J. Archbald, gardener to Jas. Savage, Esq., ex- 
cited unusual admiration, and very deservedly received the first prize." At 
the American Agricultural Association, New York, D. W. Coit, Esq., of 
Norwich, Conn., received the first prize, in competition with a large num- 
ber of varieties from Messrs. Prince & Co., of Flushing. We merely note 
these awards to show that a strawberry must be a very good one to compete 
with it, although it was raised thirteen years ago. — Ed. 

Premiums for New Varieties of Strawberries and Raspberries. — The Cin- 
cinnati Horticultural Society have offered the sum of $ 100 for a seedling 
strawberry, which shall " exceed the most our Seedling in average size," 
and, we presume, equal it in other respects. This we learn from the 
Ohio Cultivator, although we have seen no official report on the subject. 
When the report of the committee offering the premium comes to hand, we 
shall notice the particulars on which the award is to be made. The pre- 
mium is to be given in 1850. The same sum (;J;100) is also offered for the best 
seedling Raspberry. — Ed. 

Burr's Seedling Strawberries. — Three years ago. Dr. Brinkle raised a 
great number of new seedling strawberries, and named and described some 
thirty or forty of them, many of which were stated to be much superior to 
Hovey's Seedling ; but we believe not one of them has proved to be val- 
uable. Mr. Burr, of Ohio, has, within a few years, raised a great number 
of varieties, several of which, the present year, he has named and offered 
for sale ; he has also exhibited them before the Columbus and Cincinnati 
Horticultural Societies, and they have reported upon them as " remarkably 
fine." It is now nearly fourteen years since our two seedlings were pro- 
duced, and although Col. Wilder, and Capt. Lovett, of Beverly, and other 
cultivators around Boston have raised thousands of seedlings within the last 
six years, they have not found one, which they consider wonhy of a name, 
knowing that unless they excel the older kinds, there would be no real merit 
in their production. They are well aware that it is as easy to raise seedling 
strawberries of the size and quality of all the older kinds, as to raise any 
other seedling plants; but, in the present improved state of this delicious 
fruit, it would be useless to encumber our catalogues with such sorts. 

Such may not, however, be the case with Mr. Burr's strawberries i we 

368 Domestic Notices. 

hope he has succeeded in raising something finer than any we have yet had ; 
but our doubts are at once raised when he states, in his descriptions, that 
one kind " averages larger than any other known," and" yet that it is only 
"■four and a half inches in circumference," when it is well known that 
Hovey's Seedling, under ordinary treatment, measures five and a half. 
Another kind is stated to be so prolific as to have produced " thirty-five 
quarts on a bed six feet by twenty." Our seedling has produced twelve 
quarts on a bed two and a half feet by twelve, which is forty -eight quarts 
on a bed six feet by twenty. We notice these things because Ross's Phoe- 
nix, Buist's Prize, Brinkle's Gushing, and various others have all been 
advertised as the finest sorts known. 

That our amateur cultivators may know something of the merits of Mr. 
Burr's seedlings, we quote the names and descriptions, as drawn up by the 
Columbus Horticultural Society. — Ed. 

1. Ohio Mammoth. — Fruit very large, averaging larger size than any 
other strawberries known ; shape rather long, conical, and somewhat angu- 
lar; color light red, flavor sweet and excellent ; foliage large, and plants 
vigorous, hardy, and productive ; flowers perfect, or staminate. — Produced 
from Burr's old Seedling and Hovey's. 

2. New Pine. — Fruit large, color pale red, flavor very high aromatic, 
sweet and delicious ; very early and uncommonly productive ; plants vigor- 
ous and perfectly hardy ; flowers pistillate ; believed to be the best straw- 
berry cultivated. — From Burr's and Hovey's. 

3. Rival Hudson. — Fruit of a dark and shining red color, resembling 
the Hudson of Cincinnati, except that the fruit and stem are longer ; flavor 
very rich and excellent ; plants hardy and very productive ; a very hand- 
some and excellent variety for market, or domestic use ; flowers pistillate. — 
Produced by the old Hudson and Burr's. 

4. Columbus. — Fruit large, nearly round, of a beautiful dark color, and 
rich sweet flavor ; plants uncommonly prolific, and quite hardy ; flowers 
pistillate. — From Hovey's and Burr's. 

5. Scioto. — Fruit of large size ; color light scarlet ; flavor rich, sweet, 
and delicious ; plants very productive, vigorous, and hardy ; pistillate. 

6. Scarlet Melting. — Fruit rather long, with a neck ; color bright red 
or scarlet; flavor excellent; flesh very tender, (melting readily in a dish 
with sugar,) consequently not suitable for transporting to market, though 
delicious for the table ; plants very productive, of rapid and vigorous 
growth, and hardy ; pistillate. • 

7. Profusion. — Fruit medium size or small; flavor rich and sweet; 
plants hardy, and a prodigious bearer, — two hundred perfect berries having 
been counted on a single plant ; pistillate. 

8. Late Prolific. — Fruit of good size, largest berries measuring over 
three inches; flavor rich and excellent. A very valuable variety owing to 
its lateness of ripening — being full ten days later than most other varieties — 
and its great productiveness — thirty-five quarts of the berries were picked 
from a bed si.x feet by twenty, which is equal to two and a quarter bushels 
to the rod ; plants uncommonly vigorous and hardy ; pistillate. 

Domestic Notices. 369 

9. Burr's old Seedling. — (Staminate,) maintains its liigh reputation, 
in this region, for productiveness and excellent flavor, and is found to be 
the best variety for planting contiguous to the pistillate varieties to ensure 
their productiveness. — {Ohio Cultivator.) 

Pistillate Straiuherry Plants not froduclivc. — The two strawberry plants 
mentioned in my last, (p. 237), both flowered, but there never was any 
sign of a fruit while in my garden. I do not remember a season when they 
bore so well. I am doubtful whether what I got as your seedling and 
Keen's are not the same, as the leaves and fruit are exactly alike, while a 
few plants given me to try by Mr. Lewis R. Sams, as your seedling, im- 
ported direct from you by himself, are very different in both fruit and leaf. 
T have in cultivation two other kinds, the one a pistillate plant, with rather 
ovate leaves, fruit firm fleshed, sometimes with a whitish neck, conical 
shaped, and comparatively free from acid, and very productive. The other, 
a perfect flowering plant, bearing a small crop of small fruit, early, and 
afterwards a fair crop of large cockscomb-shaped fruit, soft fleshed, rather 
acid, but very high flavored, bearing for about one month after Keen's 
seedling. Both these varieties, but especially the latter, are very vigorous 
growers, and the latter variety bears its fruit upon a stalk that shoots above 
the leaves when in flower, but drops under them when the fruit grows. 
Can you tell me the names of these varieties'? They are common here, I 
believe. We have the promise of little fruit hereabouts this summer. We 
had very severe cold on the 8th January last, a black frost or ice in April, 
(about one month later than common,) then a drought, followed, for about a 
month past, by frequent and heavy rains. — Yours, R. Chisholm, Beaufort, 
S. C, June 25, 1847. [It would be rather difficult to name the kinds of 
Strawberries which our correspondent alludes to merely from his description. 
The experiment with the pistillate, or imperfect flowering strawberries, is 
only one among the many which, when fairly tried, settle the question 
about the change from the normal form. — Ed.] 

Two new Seedlincr Cherries. — Our correspondent, Dr. Wendell, of Albany, 
has raised two new seedling cherries, as will be seen by a report of the 
Albany Horticultural Society in another page. We are happy to see atten- 
tion given to the cherry, for we believe there is room for great improvement 
in this fine fruit. Undoubtedly Dr. Wendell will send us some account of 
his two seedlings. — Ed. 

Albany and Rensselaer Horticultural Society.— nBy the kindness of the 
Secretary of this new and flourishing society, we have been favored with 
detailed reports of the two exhibitions held on the 3d and 24th of July. 

We regret that we have not room to give them entire ; but, as they 
would occupy eight or ten pages, we are obliged to condense them so as to 
give only the most interesting portions of the reports. 

The first exhibition of the society was held at the Geological Rooms, in 
the city of Albany, on Saturday, the 3d of July. 

Grkenhouse Plants and Flowers. — The committee on greenhouse 
plants and flowers report, that the first premium on the six best greenhouse 
plants is due to L. Menand, of Watervliet, $2. The second to James 

370 , Domestic Notices. 

Wilson, of Albany, $1. James Wilson exhibited the largest variety of 
greenhouse plants. 

For the best twenty-five varieties of hardy roses, the committee award 
the first premium to James Wilson, $2; and for the second best variety 
of roses, to Herman Wendell, $ 1. For the greatest and best variety of 
hardy roses, a premium of $2, to James Wilson. A premium of $2 is 
awarded to J. Dingwall for a beautiful variety of flowers, consisting of 
verbenas, picotees, and carnations. 

The committee would specially commend Mr. William Cooper for the 
beautiful bouquet of wild flowers, of fifteen varieties ; and they trust that 
a very large increase in this department will be made, from the wild flowers 
of our hills and valleys. 

The chairman of the committee, W. Newcomb, having retired, the res- 
idue of the committee would report that their chairman presented a large 
and good assortment of annual, biennial, and perennial flowers, together 
with dahlias and roses, and that your committee would report that Mr. 
Newcomb has exhibited the best and largest variety of annual and herba- 
ceous, biennial and perennial flowers. 

The committee regret that they were not enabled to make a more full and 
complete report, owing to the want of time and the late hour of exhibition ; 
but, upon the whole, your committee would say, that the great number and 
variety of roses and beautiful flowers exhibited does great credit to the 
taste and enterprise of the exhibitors, and that they are specially deserving 
of the thanks of the society. — Wm. Newcomb, Chairman. 

Floral Ornaments. — The committee on floral designs and bouquets 
respectfully report, that, after a close examination, they have concluded to 
award to Nathan B. Warren, of Troy, for the best round bouquet for vase, 
the first premium of $2. To E. P. Prentice, of Mount Hope, the second 
premium of $1. For the best pair of hand bouquets, one flat and one 
round, to James Wilson, of Albany, the first premium of $2 ; and to Dr. 
Herman Wendell, the second premium of % 1. — S. E. Warren, Chairman. 
Cut Flowers, &c. — The principal exhibitors of flowers were Wm. 
Newcomb, Dr. Wendell, William Cooper, Joel Rathbone, E. P. Prentice, 
John Dingwall, James Wilson, and others. Dr. Wendell exhibited twenty va- 
rieties of verbenas, including Dove-eye, Suzette, Rosy Cluster, and Caroline. 
Fruits. — The committee on fruits report, that there were exhibited by 
Dr. Herman Wendell, of Albany, ten varieties of cherries, viz : May Duke, 
Florence, Black Heart, Napoleon Bigarreau, Arch Duke, Black Tartarian, 
Yellow Spanish or Bigarreau, Bigarreau Colouer de Chair,Wendeirs Mot- 
tled Bigarreau (a seedling), and Carnation Bigarreau (a seedling) ; and 
three varieties of strawberries : Hovey's Seedling, Hovey's Boston Pine, 
Ross's Phoenix. 

By D. T. Vail, of Hill Top, Mount Ida, Troy, six varieties of cherries, 
viz: Black Heart, Black Tartarian, White Heart, Ox Heart, May Duke, 
Morello. By A. Walsh, Lansinburgh, three varieties of cherries: White 
Tartarian, May Duke, and Morello ; one variety of gooseberries. By 
James Hall, Albany, two varieties of cherries : Ox Heart, and May Duke. 

Domestic Notices. 371 

By Isaac Dennison, Albany, four varieties of cherries : Black Heart, Ox 
Heart Bigarreau, China Heart, Black Tartarian ; one variety of gooseber- 
ries. By Frederick Keisel, two varieties of cherries : Red Heart, White 

By John Meads, a seedling cherry, raised from dried fruit. By Dr. 
Alden March, very superior Black Tartarian. By James Wilson, Albany, 
one variety of gooseberries, and four of strawberries : Bishop's Range, 
Myatt's Eliza, Victoria, Swainstone's Seedling. By John W. Haydock, 
Greenbush, Hovey's Seedling strawberries. By E. P. Prentice, Mount 
Hope, Hovey's Seedling strawberry. By J. A. Kanouse, Albany, Ross's 
Phcenix, and one name unknown. By D. D. T. Moon, Watervliet, Hovey's 
Seedlings. By Joel Rathbone, Kenwood, five varieties of gooseberries. 

The committee award the first premium on cherries to Dr. Herman Wen- 
dell, Albany, for the largest number of varieties of best character ; the 
second to D. T. Vail, of Troy. 

The first premium on strawberries to James Wilson, for Swainstone's 
Seedling. The second to J. W. Haydock, Greenbush, for Hovey's Seedling. 

In awarding the premium on strawberries, the committee decided on the 
flavor, not the size of the berry. The Hovey Seedlings were the largest 
berries, but, in the opinion of the committee, not of the finest flavor. — J. M. 
Ward, Chairman. 

Vegetables. — The committee on vegetables report, that Alex. Walsh, 
of Lansir.gburgh, is entitled to the premium of $2 for the earliest and best 
potatoes,— Ash-leafed Kidneys. Mr. Walsh also exhibited a fine specimen 
of Sea Kale, and Windsor beans. Henry Vail, of Troy, is entitled to 
premium for best Marrow Fat peas, $2; and for twelve best beets, $2. 
To Peter Chapman, of Greenbush, is awarded a premium of $2 for best 
six heads of celery ; and to Frederick Keisil, six heads nearly, if not equal 
to Mr. Chapman's, a premium of $2. V. P. Down, of Greenbush, pre- 
sented some very fine large cucumbers, which are entitled to special com- 
mendation. James Wilson exhibited some fine Ross's early potatoes, 
scarcely if at all inferior to Mr. Walsh's, quite equal in size but not in ma- 
turity. Dr. Herman Wendell exhibited two fine heads of lettuce, and some 
fine cucumbers. 

The chairman, Mr. Prentice, having retired, the residue of the committee 
examined a variety of articles presented by Mr. Prentice, all of superior 
excellence, and they award him a premium for best cauliflowers, $2; do. 
cabbages, $ 2 ; do. rhubarb, $ 2 ; all of which were very superior and en- 
titled to special notice. The rhubarb of the Giant species was of a size 
seldom equalled. 

Mr. Prentice also exhibited some of Hall's early potatoes, equal in size 
to those of Mr. Walsh, but not quite as perfectly matured ; and very fine 
specimens of onions, peas, and beets. 

The committee are gratified at the spirit manifested at this opening exhi- 
bition, and trust that the number of contributors will increase, and a new 
impulse be given to the cultivation of choice vegetables. — E. P. Prentice, 

372 Domestic Notices. 

Dr. Herman Wendell presented to the society, a Treatise on Gardening 
and Fruits, published London, 1718 ; also, Downing's Fruit and Fruit 
Trees, and Johnson's Dictionary of Modern Gardening. Thanks of society 
tendered to donor. — B. W. Johnson, Secretary. 

Exhibition of the 24th July. — The second exhibition of the society was 
held at the Court House, in Troy, on the 24th July. 

The committee on fruit report, that there were exhibited by Henry Vail, 
of Hill Top, Mount Ida, Troy, seven varieties of gooseberries, viz : Wood- 
ward's White, Smith Hepburn's Green Prolific, Winman's Green, Ocean, 
Massy's Heart of Oak, White Hardy, and Red Spine ; four varieties of 
raspberries, viz : Franconia, New Red Antwerp, Old Red Antwerp, White 
Antwerp ; four varieties of currants, viz : Champagne, Red Dutch, New 
White Dutch, and Black English ; Madeleine or Citron des Carmes pears ; 
Sweet Bough apples. 

Dr. Herman Wendell, Albany, (not entered for competition,) three vari- 
eties of cherries, viz : Wendell's Mottled Bigarieau, Transparent Guigne, 
and Black Morello ; four varieties of currants : Red Dutch, White Dutch, 
Champagne Pink, and English Black ; two varieties of gooseberries, viz : 
Roaring Lion, and White Smith ; ripe tart Bough apples. Wm. New- 
comb, Pittstown, three varieties of gooseberries, and two of currants. S. E. 
Warren, Troy, twelve varieties of gooseberries, viz : Lord Crewe, Fox 
Hunter, Queen Caroline, Eagle, White Smith, Sulphur, Husbandman, Sir' 
Sidney, Eliza, Ashton Seedling, Overall, Roaring Lion ; four varieties of 
currants : English Black, Red Dutch, Champagne, White Dutch ; Red 
Antwerp raspberries 

A. Walsh, Lansingburgh, Crimson, Yellow, and White gooseberries ; 
Black and Red currants. Nathan G. Warren, Troy, four varieties of cur- 
rants : Black English, Red Dutch, Champagne, and White Dutch ; two 
varieties of raspberries ; Red and White Antwerp. V. P. Down, Green- 
bush, White Smith gooseberries ; Improved Red Antwerp, and White 
Antwerp raspberries. James Wilson, Albany, four varieties of currants, 
viz : May's Victoria, Knight's Sweet, White Grape, and Red Dutch ; May's 
Giant raspberries, and two plates of different varieties of gooseberries, not 

Joel Rathbone, Kenwood, Albany county, five varieties of gooseberries, 
not named ; one variety Red Antwerp raspberries. E. P. Prentice, Mount 
Hope, Albany county, ripe Early Harvest apples. John V. Fassett, Troy, 
White Smith gooseberries. John VV. Haydock, Greenbush, near Troy, 
White Grape currants. Amos Briggs, Schaghticoke, Rens. county. White 
and Red Dutch currants. 

Premiums awarded as follows : Currants. — 1st, to J. W. Haydock, 
White Grape, $2; 2d, James Wilson, Knight's Sweet, fl. Gooseber- 
ries. — 1st, S. E. Warren, Lord Crewe, $2 ; 2d, Henry Vail, Green Walnut, 
$1. Raspberries. — 1st, Henry Vail, Franconia, $2; 2d, V. P. Down, Im- 
proved Red Antwerp, $1. — Herman Wendell, Chairman. 

Greenhouse Plants and Flowers. — The committee on greenhouse 
plants and flowers report, that Louis Menand, Watervliet, is entitled to first 

Domestic Notices. 373 

premium .$2, on greenhouse plants, and that he exhibited the greatest va- 
riety of greenhouse plants. Mrs. Day O. Kellogg, Troy, exhibited a beau- 
tiful Ardisia Philadelphia. Dr. Herman Wendell exhibited sixteen varieties 
of phloxes, viz: Auguste, Madam Renard, Fleur de Marie, Noi Polkii, 
Gralo, Anais Chauviere, Picta, Lavvrencia, Van Houttei, Tendre Emelie, 
Princesse Marianne, Alcarda, Suaveolens, Lilach, Superbissima, Grandissima 
Nova; also, roses and dahlias, and the following twelve varieties of new 
and beautiful verbenas, viz: Dove Eye, Rosy Cluster, Suzette, Roseum, 
Monk's Purple, Buist's New Blue, Feast's White, Bicolor graadiflora, 
Majestica, Polk, Eclipse, and Caroline. 

Wm. Newcomb exhibited thirty named varieties of Dahlias, and thirty- 
six unnamed do. in bouquets, and a large variety unnamed ; one round bou 
quet, with a large variety of choice flowers ; one flat do ; a large collection 
of annual flowers, and biennial and perennial. 

James Wilson, Albany, thirty six choice varieties of Dahlias not named. 

Wm Buswell, Troy, three varieties of Dahlias. 

The Chairman of the Committee retired, and the residue of the Committee 
report that they recommend a premium of $2 to Wm. Newcomb for a very 
large and best variety of Dahlias named and unnamed ; also a premium of 
$1 for beautiful flat bouquet of cut flowers. He also exhibited the greatest 
variety of annual, biennial, and perennial flowers. 

Stephen E. Warren, of Troy, exhibited a beautiful floral ornament, taste- 
fully arranged. — Wm. Newcomb, Chairman. 

Floral Ornaments. — The Committee have been much gratified with 
the fine display of Floral Ornaments at this, the second exhibition of the So- 
ciety. Fifteen vase bouquets were oftered for competition. The first pre- 
mium was awarded to Mrs. D. Thomas Vail, of Hill Top, Troy. The Chair- 
man retired, being interested, when Amos Briggs of Schaghticoke was ap- 
pointed Chairman. To Joel Rathbone, of Albany, the second premium was 
awarded. To Dr. Herman Wendell, of Albany, the first premium for best 
pair of hand bouquets, one of which contained twelve varieties of Verbenas. 
Wm Newcomb, of Pittstown, offered for exhibition three designs, mostly 
composed of Dahlias, of which there were seventy-six varieties. Mr. New- 
comb is entitled to much credit for the interest he has taken in the culture 
of flowers. 

The Committee think Mrs. Charles H. Merritt deserves at least the thanks, 
of the Society for five vase bouquets, containing many fine balsams most 
tastefully arranged. 

James Wilson, of Albany, exhibited a bouquet of mixed rockets, very 
showy. E. P. Prentice, of Mount Hope, many beautiful flowers. Allen 
Clarke, of Lansingburgh, a large collection of flowers, among which the 
Abutilon meekly raised its head, one of Nature's gems, raised on Flora's 
fairy ground. — S. E. Warren, Chairman. 

Vegetables. — Premiums awarded : — 

Beets. — Twelve earliest and best blood, E. P. Prentice, $2. String 
Beans. — Dr. Herman Wendell, $1. Cucumbers. — V. P. Down, best 

VOL. XIII. — NO. VIII. 34 

374 Domestic Notices. 

brace, $2. Six fine Roman Cucumbers, do., special premium, Si. 
Squashes. — Joel Ralhbone, $2. Tomatoes. — Best six, Y. P. Down, $2. 
Second do., E. P. Prentice, $ 1. 

Discretionary. — The Committee recommend, as worthy of special no- 
tice and commendation : — 

Some very fine onions by Wm. Newcomb. Superior mountain June 
potatoes, John H. Willard. Winter squash, James Montgomery, Troy. 
Choice celery, by the President, Joel Rathbone. Very fine onions, E. P. 
Prentice. Oxheart Cabbage, V. P. Down. Seedling cherries, very fine 
flavored, Dr. Herman Wendell. Very large mountain June potatoes, 
rhubarb, beets, onions, by Isaac Lovejoy. Alexander Walsh, a variety 
of vegetables, fruits, flowers, garden loots, &c., tastefully arranged, at- 
tracted much notice. A premium for collection awarded of $2. — Henry 
Vail, Chairman. — Yours, B. P. Johnson, Secretary. 

Seeds of Grasses. — I send a few more seeds of the grass which I once 
sentyou as the Muskeet, but Mr. Camak was misinformed about it. It is 
not the Muskeet of the South-western prairies, but has been cultivated for 
some years in southern gardens under the name of South A merican Velvet 
Grass. It proves hardy here, and a tuft or two of it tastefully placed in a 
flower bed, highly ornamental, especiall}' when contrasting its whitish spikes 
with its dark green leaves. These leaves are exceedingly soft to the touch. 
— Yours, M. A. TV., Athens, Ga., July, 1847. 

Cincinnati Horticultural Society. — Among the many Reports of Exhi- 
bitions which have been kindly sent us by our correspondents, but which 
we are not able to publish from their length, is one of the Cincinnati Horti- 
cultural Society. Our correspondent writes as follows: — 

" Our spring exhibition went off very well, as you will see by the en- 
closed report. Your old Seedling Strawberry continues to maintain its 
high character and popularity. I noticed they were selling in n.arket yes- 
terday, [June 4], at 15 cents per quart, while the Hudson and other kinds 
sold at 7 to 10 cents. The sale of all kinds now averages 200 bushels per 
day in our different markets ! It would amuse you to hear the German 
hucksters recommending " Ho-vey's Shtrawberries ; firscht-rate." — YourSf 
J. B. R., Cnicinnati, June 5, 1847. 

As Cincinnati is considered the great market of the Union for the Straw- 
berry, certainly in quantity, if not in quality, we make room for th& follow- 
ing account of the exhibition of strawberries, as it will tend to show what 
varieties are principally cultivated, where some writers still insist that the 
old Hudson, so called, is the best: Mr. Carter has shown what the fertile 
soil of Kentucky will do when accompanied with proper treatment. We 
shall send him the first number of our Fruits of America, to show that 
we highly appreciate his skill in the cultivation of the Strawberry : — 

" A. H. Ernst exhibited 12 different kinds of Strawberries, 25 elegant 
Bouquets, with a liberal supply of Evergreens, &c. 

From Mrs. W. P. Resor, Hovey's Seedhng Strawberry, with a profu- 
sion of elegant cut flowers and Bouquets. 

From S. S. Jackson, several baskets of cut flowers, superb bouquets^ 

Domestic Notices. 375 

Hovey's Strawberries, &c. ; besides 14 neat bouquets from his sons, Mas- 
ters John and Isaac. 

Dr. Mosher exhibited a dish of Hovey's Strawberries, several Bouquets, 

and a pot of the famous Muskeet grass, the seed of which was brought by 

him from the prairies of Western Texas, considered there one of the most 

nutritious grasses. 

S. M Carter, of Kentucky, sent over handsome specimens of Hovey's 

Strawberries, and a plant of the same (potted,) which contairned 50 berries, 

30 of them being ripe." — Cin. Gaz. 

Hiirtkultural ExhihUions of the A'ncrican Agricultural Association. — At 

the meetin-gs held on the 19th of May and the 23d of June last, premiums 

were awarded to the following persons : — 

Exhibition on May 19th. 

To Mr. James Hogg, for the best set of bridal bouquets. 

To Mr. John Quinn, gardener to N. J. Becar, Esq., for the best six pelar- 
goniums, best six calceolarias, and the best seedling greenhouse plant (a 

To Mr. Isaac Buchanan, florist, for the best six roses in pots, the best six 
fuchsias, and the best.three cactuses. 

To Messrs. Ball and Hawser, florists, for the second best seedling green- 
house plants (azaleas). 

To ■ Cummings, Esq., Williamsburgh, for the best twelve pansies. 

To Mr. Richard Brewster, gardener to J. F. Penniman, Esq., a discretion- 
ary premium for pelargoniums. 

To Mr. Wm. Russell, florist, discretionary premiums for seedling pelargo- 
niums, cinerarias, and hardy azaleas. 

To Mr. J. Woods, gardener to P. Perit, Esq., a discretionary premium for 
well grown greenhouse plants. 

To Mr. Dummett, gardener to Halsey, Esq., Astoria, for the best 

strawberries, and the best peas. 

To Mrs. Henry Parish, a discretionary premium for very fine lemons. 

To Mr. Routh, gardener to J. C. Beekman, Esq., for the best potatoes, the 
best two heads of cauliflowers, the best brace of cucum.bers, and a dis- 
cretionary premium for rhubarb. 

To Mr. John Briell, for the best six stalks of rhubarb, and the best three 
heads of lettuce. 

To Mr. F. Hay ward, gardener to Archibald Russell, Esq., Esopus, for the 
best blanched Sea Kale. 

To John White, gardener to R. K. Delafield, Esq., for the best mush- 

To Mr James Dooriss, gardener to J. J. Jones, Esq., a discretionary pre- 
mium for cucumbers. 

Exhibition on June 23d. 

To Mr. G. C. Thorborn, for the best pair of parlor bouquets, and the best 
pair of hand bouquets. 

To Mr. Charles More, for the second best pair of parlor bouquets. 

376 Domestic Notices. 

To Mr. Joseph Monk, for the second best pair of hand bouquets, and for 
the best display of climbing roses. 

To Mr. George Saul, gardener to Shepherd Knapp, Esq., for the best bas- 
ket of flowers, and for the best bush beans. 

To Mr. Kennedy, gardener to S. T. Jones, Esq., for the second best bas- 
ket of flowers. 

To D. W. Colt, Esq., Norwich, Conn., for the best strawberries. 

To Mr. Wm. R. Prince, for the second best strawberries, the largest col- 
lection of strawberries, and for the best twenty hardy roses. 

To Mr. H. Van Horn, for the best Morello cherries. 

To Wm. Armstrong, gardener to H. Delafield, Esq., for the best goose- 

To Mr Dummett, gardener to Halsey, Esq., for the best apricots, for 

the best turnips, and a discretionary premium for melons, (one weighing 
9 lbs. 13 oz.) 

To Mrs. W. C. J I. Waddell, a discretionary premium for lemons. 

To Mr. Charles Doran, gardener to E. Holbrook, Esq., for the best six 
fuchsias, for the best display of greenhouse plants, and a discretionary 
premium for a fine display of roses. 

To Mr. John Quinn, gardener to N. J. Becar, Esq., for the best ten per- 
petual roses. 

To Messrs. Parsons & Co., for the second best perpetual roses. 

To Mr. Wm. Russell, florist, a disci-etionary premium for a beautiful dis- 
play of seedling climbing roses. 

To Messrs. Phelan & Sons, florists, a discretionary premium for a fine dis- 
play of roses. 

To Mr. J. B. Mantel, a discretionary premium for a fine display of roses-. 

To Messrs. Ball & Hawser, for a fine display of seedling roses. 

To Mr. Clovis Le Roy, gardener to Dr. Stevens, for the best cauliflowers. 

To Mr. McNamara, gardener to Pillot, Esq., for the second best cau- 
liflowers, and for the best artichokes. 

To Mr. John Buill, for the best early cabbage and for the best lettuce. 

To Mr. Joseph Cudlipp, for the best beets. 

To Mr. Routh, gardener to J. C. Beekman, Esq., for the best peas and for 
the best potatoes. By order of the Executive Committee : James Hogg, 
■ Sec. fro tern. 

[We regret that, in the above report, the names of the flowers and fruits^ 

which obtained the premiums, are not given. It is of very little interest to 

know who, but it is very important to know what, takes the premium. We 

trust, in future reports, the Society will see that the names of the success- 
ful flowers and fruits have the names given. — Ed.] 

The Nineteenth Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety will be held at the Society's Hall, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Fri- 
day, September 22, 23, and 24.— £</. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 377 

Art. III. Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Saturday, July 3d, 1846. — A stated monthly meeting of the Society was 
held to-day, — the President in the chair. 

The Finance Committee reported that they had sold ten shares of stock 
in the Shoe & Leather Dealers' Bank, which produced the sum of $ 1067 18. 
One thousand dollars of this had been invested in the Massachusetts Hos- 
pital Life Insurance Co., on the 15th of May last, being the Ltman Fund. 
A certificate of deposit had been placed in the hands of the Treasurer, and 
the balance, $67 18, paid into the Treasury. The Report was accepted. 

The following membeis were elected . — Nathaniel Dana, C. B. Dana, 
and John N, Turner, E. C. Emerson, James P. Oliver, and R. A. Rich- 
ards, Boston. 

Adjourned two weeks to July 17th. 

[In our last report, we omitted to give the doings of the meeting on the 
19th of June. At that meeting, the Fruit Committee made a Report on the 
Special Prize List for Fruits, as follows] : — 

Early in the year 1846, a gentleman in the vicinity of Boston, desirous 
of promoting and advancing the science of Horticulture, placed at the dis- 
posal of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Three Hundred Dollars, 
to be expended at the rate of one hundred dollars per annum for three con- 
secutive years, in special premiums for fruit, viz. : Twenty premiums of 
five dollars each to be awarded by the Committee on Fruits, under the direc- 
tion of the Society, with the understanding that the Committee should pub- 
lish a special report, stating the kinds and varieties of fruit to which the 
premiums were awarded, together with the names and residences of the 
cultivators. In accordance with the wish and desire of the donor, the Com- 
mittee have awarded the following prizes to the finest specimens and best 
varieties of fruit which have been exhibited at the Hall of the Society dur- 
ing the past season, 1847. 

[This Report has already been given in full, page 85. — Ed.] 

To such other varieties of Fruit as may be presented at the Hall of the 
Society during the years 1847 and '8, and which shall prove equal or supe- 
rior, in all respects, to the varieties which now constitute the prize list will 
be awarded the prizes under this donation, and they will be added to this 
list, but, as long as the above varieties shall continue to prove superior to 
all other kinds exhibited at the Hall, they will be considered as entitled to 
the special prizes, and will be designated in future reports as having re- 
ceived the prize for one, two, or three years, the object of the donor being to as- 
certain, and make known through the Society, the best varieties of Cherries, 
Plums, and Peaches which may have been exhibited before the Society for 
three consecutive years. Respectfully submitted. — S. W alker. Chairman. 

The above Repon was accepted. 

The following persons were elected members : — Anson Dexter, Edward 
Sayers, Boston ; H. H. Crapo, New Bedford ; Charles A. Hewins, Rox- 
bury ; Charles Spring, Brighton ; Thomas Wiilott, Roxbury ; Royal Doug- 
lass, Cambridge ; Benjamin W. Balch, Dedham. 


378 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, ten plants of 
new Gladioli, as follows : — Due d'Orleans, Lemanhii, Christianus No. 1, 
insigiiis, Willielmus, Spoershill, pyraniidalis, Dohreii, Paulonia, and Queen 
Victoria ; some of them very beautiful ; also, new scarlet geraniums, viz., 
Prince Albert, Cyrus, Queen, Shrubland superb, Brighton Hero, Gen. 
Tom Thumb, and Goliah, and cut roses of various kinds. From J. L. L. 
F. Warren, ten plants in pots, including Rondelet/a speciosa, JErica ventri- 
cosa alba, Ix6ra rosea. Gardenia radicans, &c. ; also, one round va?e bou- 
quet, one flat do., six flat hand do., and two round hand do. ; a fine display 
of Prairie Roses, and cut flowers in variety. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., one large circular bouquet, two very fine 
large flat do., and six hand do. ; also a great variety of fine Roses, and other 
cut flowers. From John Kenrick, a fine flower of Magnolia macrophylla. 
From J. E. Teschemacher, a plant of Haemanthus tenuifolius, a rare and 
very beautiful flower. From Joseph Breck & Co., one large circular bou- 
quet ; Prairie and other Roses ; Pinks ; and a great variety of perennial 
flowers, including Van Houtte's phlox. Bouquets and cut flowers from S. 
Needham, A. Aspinwall, W. Kenrick, S. Walker, P. Barnes, A. Bow- 
ditch, W. Mellar, B. V. French, and Messrs. Winships. 

Premiums were awarded as follows : — 

Plants in Pots. — For the best six plants, to J. L. L. F. Wyren, $2. 

Bouquets, &c. — For the best six hand bouquets, to Messrs. Hovey 
& Co., $2. 

For the second best, to Azell Bowditch, $ 1. 
For the best pair flat Mantel bouquets, to Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the second best, to Winships, $ 1. 
For the best round bouquet, to Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the second best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $ 1. 

Prairie Roses. — For the best display, to Samuel Walker, of $4. 
For the second best, to Messrs. Winship, 3. 

Gratuities. — To M. P. Wilder, for ten new varieties of Gladioli, $ 5, 
To J. E. Teschemacher, for a fine plant of Haemanthus tenuifolius, $3. 

Fruit : The exhibition of Strawberries was one of the finest we have 
ever witnessed, and presented a marked contrast with the display a few 
years since. The specimens of Hovey's Seedling and Boston Pine, of 
which the display was mostly composed, were the largest which have ever 
been seen, one basket of about four quarts by Mr, Richardson being filled 
with berries from five to five and a half inches in diameter. A variety of 
seedlings were shown, but none of them of any great merit. 

From the President of the Society, a few specimens of Alice Maud, and 
Jenny's seedling, and one truss of Lizzie Randolph, one of Dr. Brinkle's 
seedlings, having upon it five or six berries of very ordinary appearance and 
size. From Josiah Richardson, two large baskets of Boston Pine, very 
fine, Swainstone, Richardson's Seedlings, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the 
most magnificent basket of Hovey's Seedling, containing about four quarts, 
which we ever saw ; six of the berries weighed three ounces and a half. 

Massachusetts Hortmiltural Society. 379 

From Isaac Fay, Fay's Seedling, of good size. From Otis Johnson, Hov- 
ey's Seedling strawberries, and beautiful specimens of Cooledge's Favor- 
ite peaches. From W. T. G. Morton, M. D., Hovey's Seedling. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Hovey's Seedling and Boston Pine straw- 
berries. From E. Bovven, Lynn, Early White Heart cherries^ From J. 
L. L. F. Warren, Early White Heart cherries, (?) and Swainstone 
Seedling, Jenney's Seedling, Prince Albert, Stoddard's Pine, British 
Queen, White Wood, (beautiful specimens,) and Hovey's Seedling straw- 
berries. From John Fisk Allen, five varieties of Grapes; black Figs ; 
and three varieties of peaches, viz., Royal George, (fine,) Grosse Mignonne 
of New Jersey, ? (small,) and Hoffman's Favorite; also Black Tartarean 
and Elton cherries. From Samuel Downer, Jr., Cooledge's Favorite 
peaches, and fine specimens of Hovey's Seedling strawberries. From Sam- 
uel Walker, of Roxbury, Seedling Wood strawberries. 

July Idth. Exhibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, 
three new phloxes, viz., Annais Chauviere, similar to GEil de Lynx, but 
more delicate ; Augusta and Delecta ; also Prairie and other Roses. From 
T. Needham, a fir.e plant ot Buddlea Lindley^na ; and cut flowers of Phlox 
Van Houtten, very fine. From Jos. Breck & Co., a fine lot of perennial 
plants, including fine specimens of Delphinium Barlowjj. From J. Thomas, 
six plants of the buff, white, and orange Thunbergias. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Ten kinds of Perpetual Roses, including 
some new and fine sorts, viz.. Queen of the Prairie, Perpetual Pink, Su- 
perba, Eva Corinne, Anne Maria, Jane, Pallida, Miss Gunncll, Piide of 
Washington, and Triumphant ; also the following Picotees and Carnations : 
Duke of Newcastle, Princess Victoria, Lady Peel, Lady Campbell, Meteor, 
Victoria, Chiswell Beauty, &c. ; also two new seedling picotees, six hand 
bouquets, two table bouquets, one round bouquet, and a plant of the beau- 
tiful new Achimenes patens. From J. L. L. F. Warren, six plants, viz., 
Zamia elephantipes, Gardenia radicans, Anigozanthus coccineus, Soliya 
heterophylla, Echinocactus multiplex, and Mammillaria sp. ; also bouquets 
and cut flowers. Bouquets, dahlias, &c., from Messrs. Winship, A. Bow- 
ditch, James Nugent, P. Barnes, W. Kenrick, W. Mellar, and A. Aspinwall. 
Premiums were awarded as follows : — 
Bouquets. — For the best six hand bouquets, to A. Bowditch, $2. 

For the next best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $ 1. 

For the best pair of mantel bouquets, to Messrs. Winship, $2. 

For the next best, to J. Thomas, $ 1. 

For the best round pyramidal bouquet, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., $2. 

For the second best, to J. Thomas, $ 1. 
Gratuities — For seven plants of Thunbergias, to J. Thomas, $2. 

For a fine plant of Buddlea Lindleya//o, to T. Needham, % 1. 

For Echinocactus multiplex in bloom, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $ 1. 
Fruit. — From the President of the Society, Black Eagle and Bigarreau 
cherries. FromO. Johnson, Bigarreau Colouer de Chair, Bigarreau, Spar- 
hawk's Honeyheart and Black Tartarian cherries, fine specimens ; also 
Cooledge's Favorite peaches, and British Queen, Prince Albert and Alice 

380 Massachusetts Horticultural i>)OCiety. 

Maud strawberries. From F. W.Macondry, Cooledge's Favorite peaches. 
From Jos. Richardson, Black Tartarian cherries; also Hovey's Seedling, 
Deptford Pine, Prince Albert, and Richardson's Seedlings, Nos. 1 and 2. 
From J. F. Allen, seven varieties of Grapes, and Black Figs. 

Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited Myatt's new Hautbois Strawberry, one 
of the most delicious of this class which has been produced ; the plants hav- 
ing been obtained of Mr. Myatt, in 1844 ; alsoBuist's Prize. Deptford Pine, 
Alice Maud, and Hovey's Seedling. From Capt. Lovelt, Prolific Haut- 
bois and Hovey's Seedling strawberries. From P. Barnes, Bigarreau cherries. 
From Isaac Fay, Seedling strawberries, which the Committee consider 
" large and handsome, but they lack the essential quality of a good straw- 
berry, viz., delicious flavor"; White and Red Wood Strawberries from 
J. Owen and J. L. L. F. Warren. In deciding the qualities of new Seed- 
ling strawberries, the Committee used Hovey's Seedling as the Standard. 
We had the opportunity of tasting the various Seedlings presented, but 
none of them can be considered as having any remarkable qualities. 

July 17. — An adjourned meeting of the Society was held to-day, — the 
President in the Chair. 

A delegation of three members was appointed to attend the next annual 
Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, and extend the invi- 
tation to them to attend the coming Exhibition of the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticnltural Society. Messrs. M. P. Wilder, B. V. French, and S. Walker 
were chosen. 

William H. Parker was elected a member. 
Adjourned two weeks to August 7. 

Exhibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, four Seed- 
ling Japan Lilies, resembling the L. speciosum, but not so dark. From 
Messrs. Winship, a variety of shrubs and trees, such as ZJ'lmus variegata, 
crispa., and viaiinalis, ^etula lasciniata, pendula, &c. ; also bouquets and 
cut flowers. From J. Thomas, plants of Achimenes longiflora, Gardenta 
radicans, and a species of Dendrobium. From Dr. C. F. Chaplin, Cam- 
bridgeport, very fine double China Pinks. 

Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited several very large specimens of Japan 
lilies. One plant of L. lancifolium album had five main stems, and up- 
wards of thirty buds and flowers; one of L. rubrum (or speciosum) had 
fourteen buds and flowers, and a most magnificent object ; Achimenes picta, 
grandiflora and patens, (new) ; Nutlaha granditlora, Platycodon grandi- 
florum and Fuchsia Nymph ; also ten varieties of fine carnations and pic- 
otees, in all upwards of 80 blooms, six hand bouquets, two table bouquets, 
and one round bouquet, carnations, cut flowers, dahlias, &.C., from J. 
Breek & Co., N. Stetson, J. L. L. F. Warren, J. Nugent, W. Mellar, 
S. R. Johnson, A. Bowditch, P. Barnes, and W. Quant 
The award of premiums was as follows : — 

Bouquets. — For the best six hand bouquets, to Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the second best, to A. Bowditch, $ 1. 
A gratuity for six do., to J. Nugent, $ 1. 
For the best pair of mantel bouquets, to Messrs. Winship $2. 
For the second best do., to Hovey & Co., $ 1. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 381 

For the best large oval bouquet, to William Quant, $2. 
For the second best do., to Hovey & Co., $ 1. 
Plants in Pots. — For the best six plants, to John Thomas, %2. 

A gratuity to Hovey & Co. of $ 5. 
Caknations and Picotees. — For the best ten varieties of flowers, to 
Hovey & Co., $5. 
For the second best, to S. R. Johnson, $4. 
A gratuity to Hovey & Co., for the best display. 
A gratuity to Parker Barnes, for fine seedlings, of 2. 
Double Hollyhocks. — For the best display, to Messrs. Winship, $2. 
Fruit. — From J. F. Allen, ten varieties of Grapes, including some good 
specimens of Wilmot's Black Hamburgh, and a fine cluster of the White 
Nice; also fine peaches. From Messrs. Hovey & Co., very fine speci- 
mens of Faslolff raspberries. From Messrs. Hyde, a seedling cherry, 
somewhat resembling the Black Eagle. From J. S. Sleeper, a seedling 
cherry, similar to the Downer. From O. Johnson, Black Tartarian, Flor- 
ence, Napoleon Bigarreau, and Black Heart cherries. From S. Walker, 
fine specimens of the Downer cherry. New large black Bigarreau from 
Mrs. Walsh. From S. A. Walker, handsome red and white Dutch cur- 
rants. N. Stetson, of Bridgewater, sent some very splendid Figs, large, 
but not quite ripe. From W. Quant, a fine Melon, and cherries called 
the Harback Cherry. From Messrs. Winship, handsome mulberries from 
the Canton or Alpine variety. From Capt. Macondry, very handsome 
peaches. From J. L. L. F. Warren, Franconia, FastolfF, and new Victo- 
ria raspberries and thimbleberries. From C. Newhall, Knevett's Giant 
raspberries. White and Red Dutch currants from Jos. Richardson, An- 
son Dexter, and W. & R. Williams. From B. V. French, fine Black 
Eagle cherries. 

July 2ilh. Exhibited. — Flowers : From the President of the Society, 
fifty pots of seedling Japan Lilies, having from one to three blooms on each ; 
also Veronica Lindleyana, new and pretty, and V. speciosa, both good spe- 
cimens, and Gladiolus gandavensis and Liebnitzu. From W. Mellar, a 
fine plant of Clivta nobilis, and cut flowers. From Jos. Brack & Co., a 
quantity of cut flowers, including iilium longiflorum and chalcedonica. W. 
Kenrick exhibited a pretty specimen of the double rose bramble, with small 
pink flowers ; also bouquets. From Hovey & Co., plants of Gloxinia Car- 
t6ni, and a seedling, fuchsias, Majestica, Enchantress, and Salter's 41, 
and yinca alba ; also bouquets of various kinds, and carnations. From J. 
Thomas, Achimenes longiflora, a seedling gloxinia, and other plants and 
bouquets. From W. Quant, Achimenes longiflora, Japan lilies, Finca alba, 
and rosea, and Agapanthus umbellatus. Cut flowers and bouquets from P. 
Barnes, S. R .lohnson, E. M. Richards, A. Bowdiich, C. F. Chaplin, J. 
L. L. F. Warren, John Hovey, and Messrs- Winship. 
Award of premiums : — 

Bouquets and Designs. — For the best six hand bouquets, to Messrs. 
Hovey & Co., $2. 
For the second best, to Azell Bowditch, $ 1. 

382 Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

For the best pyramidal bouquet, to Hovey & Co., $2. 

For the second best, to Mrs. Russell, $ 1. 

For the best pair of mantel bouquets, to Messrs. Winship, $2. 

For the second best, to Hovey & Co., $ 1. 

For the best design, a premium of S 2 to J. Thomas. 
Gratuities. — To M. P. Wilder, $5 for his fine display of Japan lilies, 
and $ 3 for a fine plant of Veronica Lindleya?!a 

To William Meller, a gratuity of $ 3 for a plant of Clivia nobilis. 

To Joseph Breck & Co., for a fine display of hollyhocks, $3. 

To P. Barnes, for fine hollyhocks, $2. 
Plants in Pots. — For the best six, to William Quant, $2. 

For the second best six, to Hovey & Co., $ 1. 
Fruit : From J. F. Allen, the following varieties of grapes : Black Por- 
tugal, Tottenham Park Muscat, White Frontignan, Black Hamburgh, 
White Nice, Wilmot's Black Hamburgh, and Zinfindal ; also, Violet Hative, 
Nectarines, Yellow Rareripe, Noblesse, and Crawford's late peaches, Sweet 
Montmorency cherries, two varieties of figs, and specimens of the Bergamot 
lime. Mr. Tudor exhibited from his gardens, at Nahant, a branch of the 
Amire Joannet pear, which contained two hundred and thirty-two pears, 
which were not, however, ripe ; the branch measured but twenty-seven 
inches in length, and was literally covered with fruit. From C. Newhall, 
Knevett's Giant raspberries. From O. Johnson, Franconia raspberries. 
From H. Bailey, Franconia raspberries. 

From Hovey & Co., the following grapes: Chasselas of Fontainebleau, 
Pitmaston White Cluster, Macready's Early White; also, FastolflJ" rasp- 
berries. From F. W. Macondty, fine specimens of peaches. From J. L. 
L. F. Warren, Franconia and FastolfF raspberries. From Anson Dexter, 
Franconia raspberries. From the Messrs. Winship, White Antwerp, and 
Franconia raspberries, and White thimbleberries. From Josiah Lovett, 
Knevett's Giant raspberries. S. R. Johnson, John Hovey, and J. G. 
Thurston, exhibited fine specimens of English gooseberries. From S. W. 
Cole, three varieties of apples, of last year's growth. 

Vegetables : From Samuel Walker, water cress, raised from seed from 
the banks of the Isis. From A. D. Williams, new potatoes. 

July 31. Exhibited. — Flowers : From J. Breck & Co., twelve varieties 
of fine double balsams, and twelve do. of fine double hollyhocks, and the 
following fine phloxes : Charles, white with blush eye; Kermesi7ifl', white 
with lilac eye ; Fleur de Marie, white with violet purple eye ; Annais 
Chauviere, pure white with a very distinct light purple eye, corolla large, 
round, and perfect, — a very beautiful variety ; (Eil de Lynx, white with a 
purplish red eye, fine ; Grato, rose white mottled with pink ; also, cut 
flowers in great variety. From Messrs. Hovey & Co., two large flat, one 
pyramidal, and six hand bouquets. Bouquets and cut flowers from J. Par- 
ker, J. Nugent, Wm. Kenrick, Messrs. Winships, E. Winslow, J. L. L. 
F. Warren, and A. Bowditch. 
Award of premiums : — 
Bouquets. — For the best six hand bouquets, to Hovey & Co., $2. 

Horticultural Memoranda. 383 

For the second best, to A. Bowditch, $ 1. 

For the best pair of mantel bouquets, to Hovey & Co., $2. 

For the second best, to J. L. L. F. Warren, $ 1. 

For a large pyramidal bouquet, to Miss Russell, $ 2. 

A gratuity to Miss Russell for a basket of flowers, $ 1. 
Fruits: From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Muscat J31anc Hatif, Pitmaston 
White Cluster, and Chasselas de Fontainebleau grapes ; also, Lemercier, 
and Late Duke cherries. From J. F. Allen, Wilmot's Black Hamburgh, 
Victoria Hamburgh, Purple Muscat, and Black Hamburgh grapes ; also. 
Sweet Montmorency cherries. Noblesse, Grosse Mignonne peaches, and figs. 
From O. Johnson, Black Hamburgh, Zinfindal, White Muscat of Alexan- 
dria, White Frontignan grapes; also. White Dutch currants. 

From W. Quant, Regne de Nice, Black Frontignan, Purple Muscat, 
Muscat Muscadine (?), Black Hamburgh, extra large berries, Muscat of 
Alexandria, White Frontignan grapes, very handsome. From John Wash- 
burn, Red Astrachan apples, From John Owen, Early Harvest apples. 
From A. D. Weld, Red and White currants, fine. From A. D. Williams 
& Son, Red and White currants, fine. From John Hovey, seedling goose- 
berries. From Mrs. Spalding, figs, extra large. 

Vegetables : From John Galvin, Newport, R. I., by Eben Wight, Ro- 
man Emperor cucumber. From S. H. Hunneman, Roxbury, by J. C. 
Hunneman, two large winter squashes, of last year's growth, perfectly 
sound. From A. D. Williams, new potatoes. 




Grape Vines in the greenhouse or grapery will now be nearly ripe ; some 
of the earlier kinds quite ripe, such as the White Chasselas, Macready's 
Early White, &c. Plenty of air should now be given, a little very early 
in the morning, and the floor should not be damped any longer. If any of 
the laterals push, they should becut back again to the first eye. Vines in 
the cold house will need particular care, as this is the season for mildew : 
see that the house is closed early in cool windy weather, and do not allow 
great drafts of air at any time until they begin to color ; keep the floor well 
damped in hot dry weather. Vines in the open air should be now looked 
after : see that all the laterals are cut off two eyes beyond the fruit, which 
will prevent the shoots from becoming entangled ; lay in the wood carefully 
for next year's bearing, and head in all that is not wanted for that purpose ; 
this will throw the sap into the grapes, and mature a few leaves, which 
are better than a mass of young foliage for elaborating the sap. 

Strawberry beds may be made this month, after the first good rain, pro- 
vided the ground has been duly prepared. Let the rows be two feet apaity 

384 Horticultural Memoranda. 

and the plants a foot apart in the rows ; alleys may be allowed at any dis- 
tance, as the cultivator may fancy. Our plan is to set ten rows of Hovey's 
Seedling, leaving an alley four feet, and then ten rows of the Boston Pine ; 
both are equally productive, and one fertilizes the other. Old beds should 
now be duly weeded, and if the old plants have not been dug in, it should 
be done without delay. New beds set out last spring should have the run- 
ners laid in, or if large fruit is the object, all cut off. 

Summer-pruning trees should yet be continued as advised in our last. 

Plum, Cherry, Pear, and Apple trees should be budded this month. 

Insects : continue to attend to the destruction of these pests of the culti- 


Camellias should be potted immediately, if not already done; grafting 
should also be completed early in the month. Plants wanted for very early 
flowering should novi' be taken into the house and placed in a warm situation. 

Oxalis Hirta and Boiviei should be potted. 

Mignonette should be sown early in the month, and if a succession is 
wanted, another sowing should be made about the 25th. 

Roses should be budded and layered this month. 

Chrysanthemums should be layered this month, and if plants have been 
raised from cuttings, they should now be repotted for the last time, and the 
tops pinched off. Water occasionally with guano. 

Dahlias should all be staked in season, or one severe wind will destroy 
the expectations of the year. Prune off all superfluous laterals. 

Pansies may now be increased by cuttings or layers. 

Chinese Primroses raised last month from seed should now be potted off 
in small pots. 

Verbenas for keeping over winter should now be layered into small pots. 

Fuchsias should be repotted, if very large specimens are wanted. 

Cactuses should be repotted this month. 

Euphorbia jacquinceflora should be repotted, and the tops of all the strong 
shoots pinched off to make them bushy. 

Orange and Lemon trees should be budded now. 

Victoria, Ten Week, and other stocks should be sown now, if plants are 
wanted for flowering in the spring. 

Pelargoniums will now require attention. If the plants were not headed 
down last month, they should be done so now, and the cuttings put in as 
directed last month. 

Perennial plants, of many kinds, may be separated and transplanted the 
last part of the month. 

Ncmophila insignis, schizanthuses , and other winter flowering annuals 
should be sown now. 

Petunias, of fine kinds, should now be propagated from cuttings or lay- 
ers for a spring slock. 

Tree pcconies should be propagated by grafting. 

Greenhouse plants, of all kinds, should be repotted now, and put in order 
for the winter. 






Art. I. On the Importance of the Cultivation of the Oak and 
other valuable Timber Trees ; icith Observations on the 
Preservation of Ship Timber, and the Process of Decay 
in Wood. By A. Mitchell, M. D., Portland. In a Let- 
ter to the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. Communicated by Gen. 

My dear Sir, — The following article was communicated 
by me to Gen. Joseph M. Hernandez, of St. Augustine, Fl., 
and published in the Florida Herald. You will probably 
recollect that this gentleman has been, for many years, ex- 
clusively devoted to the science of Agriculture, and is one of 
the best systematic planters in that State. An Essay written 
by him on the Culture of the Tobacco Plant has been consid- 
ered to be one of the most elaborate articles ever published on 
that subject. 

Reasoning from analogy on the soil and productions of the 
southern portion of our Union, we may attribute to Florida, 
as having within its domains as many natural advantages as 
any of the tropical regions in the cultivation of those plants 
that are indigenous to those countries, presenting an exten- 
sive surface, which as yet remains imperfectly explored — rich 
in the spontaneous growth of many esculent plants for the 
support of man, and the growth of domestic animals, and offer- 
ing a wide field for the cultivation and introduction of many 
more for exportation and home consumption. Such are the 
tea-plant, cojffee, tobacco, sugar cane, Turkish poppy, olive- 
tree, cotton, indigo, saffron, grape, fig, &c. As we shall 

VOL. XIII. — NO. IX. 35 

386 Importance of the Cultivation of the Oak 

briefly descant, at present, on the vital importance of a com- 
munity being well versed in agricultural science, in order to 
improve with advantage those rich fields which a bounteous 
Creator has spread out before us, we shall principally ad- 
vert to the forest-growth of this peninsular portion of our 
United States, with some original observations on the preser- 
vation of ship timber, and the process of decay in these woods. 

As our navy may be considered the present and future bul- 
wark of our safety as a commercial nation, it is not thought in- 
appropriate to make a few remarks on those woods which are 
principally used in the construction of our ships of war and 

The process of decay termed dry rot has been a theme of 
scientific inquiries for man)?^ years among many of our most 
eminent chemists ; and the most elaborate investigations have 
been made, both at home and abroad, in order to ascertain 
the chemical effects of air, heat, light, and moisture, on the 
same, as our oaks and various timbers that have been pre- 
viously prepared and appropriated to use for ship-building. 
We do not, at present, have the presumption to offer any pre- 
servative means that would counteract the effects of this 
dreaded enemy to our national purse, but simply to throw 
out some hints that may, in the future, be useful as a rally- 
ing point to others that can claim a precedence over their 
more humble brothers in the profession of science. The mod- 
ern use of iron in the construction of marine vessels has been 
thought, at a subsequent period, would supersede that of 
wood ; we should then have oxides to contend with instead 
of fungi ; but we do not believe the former will ever super- 
sede that of the latter. As the grand engine of navigation is 
deteriorating every day from the causes of decay, it may be 
asked, what is the dry rot ? and how long has it been known 
to affect the timbers of vessels, and the cause of this effect? 
Well, in answer to the former, the dry rot is caused by the 
spontaneous decomposition of the vegetable albumen which 
acts as a ferment on the other constituent principles that may 
be present in the wood, as sugar and starch, which disinte- 
grates the fibres of the wood, and accelerates the growth of 
mushrooms by the formation of ammoniacal salts. Of these 
fungi, there are two species, — as the Xylostroma giganteum^ 

and other valuable Timber Trees. 387 

which grows in the timher hke a thin hroad patch of 3'^ellow 
leather, and the Serpula distruens, which is not so large, of 
a reddish color, and white at the edge growing externally. 
As the canse of this dry rot proceeds from an excess of vege- 
table albumen in those woods that have been in modern use 
for ship-building, we may answer the latter question by say- 
ing that the primitive oaks of Great Britain, and those of our 
country, which were used in the early construction of their 
navies, were not so rich in albuminous matter as the oaks of 
secondary growths, and those of various locations, are now : 
therefore the dry rot and fungous growths in such timbers 
were not known, nor never would have been, had we the tim- 
ber now of those primitive forests of our country, Europe, and 
Great Britain. It will appear, by these observations, that we 
intend to maintain that the cause of dry rot proceeds from the 
inegligence and want of knowledge in the selection of those 
trees which resist the effects of time and exposure without 
the process of decay. Such is our position, and. without fur- 
ther comment, we proceed to illustrate many points connect- 
ed with the subject under consideration, as it is one of the 
most important to which the attention of a maritime people 
can be turned. 

The oaks of North America, as described by Andrew Mi- 
chaux, consist of twenty-nine species and varieties, most of 
which are useful in ship-building; the one considered the most 
useful, and stands at the head of the list, is the live oak, 
Quercus virens. It is a perennial tree, of slow growth, like the 
rest of its congeners, and is common to Florida, where the 
most extensive forests of this tree are seen. It is generally 
found growing from latitude 37° to Florida, '' and westward 
to the mouth of the Sabine River," but never more than 15" or 
20 miles from the sea. This valuable tree can be said to con- 
tain less of the causes of decomposition, as albumen, sugar, 
and starch, than any of the species hitherto described ; there- 
fore, it is the most durable, and less liable to decay ; and, 
with all this natural immunity against spontaneous decompo- 
sition, we should not overlook the locality of its growth, age, 
and season of cutting for ship-timber. This is a necessary 
precaution, which is applicable to the whole tribe of oaks 
that are used in the mechanics. The best localities for the 

388 Importance of the Cultivation of the Oak 

selection of durable timber from those trees, are elevated re- 
gions, high table lands, and an open comitry, where they are 
not overshadowed by other growths. They should stand 
where there is ample room for their branches, with a free 
access of air, heat, and light on all sides, as often seen on the 
boundary of some plantation, or as ornaments which ven- 
erate the mansion of the planter, or such like places. The 
woody fibres of such trees are more dense; they contain more 
carbon or astringent qualities, with less vegetable albumen : 
whereas, to the contrary of this, should such timber be cut in 
low wet grounds, ravines and shady places where they grow 
compact, it would be liable to decay from the causes men- 
tioned, as there would be an excess of those constituent prin- 
ciples, and a softer structure that would hasten the decay, 
and cause the dry rot, so deleterious to our navies. The age 
of the oaks is next to be considered. They generally attain 
their maximum height and full development at the age of 
fifty or sixty years, and, after that period, they progress but 
slowly, until they arrive at a very advanced age, as two or 
three hundred years or more. Those of the live oak that can 
be best recommended for durable timber, are such as have 
arrived to the period of a hundred years or more, if the con- 
stitutions of the trees are sound, and no visible decay is pres- 
ent. The gigantic growth of this tree at the age last men- 
tioned far surpasses any of its species. The measurement of 
one of its limbs by myself in a horizontal line exceeded sixty- 
five feet, while the diameter at the junction exceeded the size 
of the bodies of many red and black oak species of a full size, 
or secondary growths that have survived seventy winters. 
We repeat that the maturity of the species of oaks must be 
considered before used or appropriated for ship-building ; for 
it is at this period the strength and durability of the wood 
are fully developed, and the longitudinal fibres tough and re- 
sisting. As the albuminous matter of which we have spoken 
is a nitrogenized compound, it is of a putrescible nature, and 
therefore forms food for insects, which penetrate the wood in 
various directions, admitting air and water to the interior of 
the timber. It is evident that this chemical action, or fer- 
mentative process, must be greatly favored by external causes, • 
or the location in which the wood is placed. The close ap- 

and other valuable Timber Trees. 389 

position and dense mass of timbers that are seen in the hull 
of a battle-ship of the line on the stocks is considered as favor- 
able to this action, although there are no doubts but what the 
germs of the disease are lurking in the timbers previous to 
their use, occasioned by the want of care and suitable selec- 
tion of appropriate trees, and preservation of the timber after 
cutting. The local sites of navy yards, where there must be 
a proper depth of water, unavoidably place the timber in a 
topographical situation that is unfavorable to the preserva- 
tion of the wood, as heat and moisture accelerate the chem- 
ical action, and promote the fungous growths, whose nu- 
trition depends on the chemical changes heretofore men- 

Could we always find a suitable hydrographical station for 
a navy ^^ard, where, combined with its facilities, there was 
a dryness and purity of atmosphere, many of the causes 
that decompose the materials tor ship-building would be pre- 
vented ; but, as such localities cannot always be found in the 
surveys for such stations, we must patiently submit to the in- 
jurious effects of heat and damp almosphere, however well 
giiarded the ships may be in their sheltered positions by ven- 
tilation and suitable protection ; although it is of the highest 
importance that the geographical situations of such places 
should be well understood and taken into consideration, 
as rivers, marshes, bogs, mean standard of the thermom- 
eter, barometer, and hygrometer, and mean quantity of 

The proper season for cutting such timber will next be con- 
sidered. The months of July and August, when the trees arc 
in foliage, and the juices circulating freely, is decidedly the 
best period for cutting; as then the greater portion of the al- 
bumen is contained in the cambium or descending sap, while 
most of the nitrogen is set free by exhalation, and is princi- 
pally combined with the fluids that circulate exteriorly. T he 
trees, after they are fallen, should be immediately rough hewn, 
and deprived of their sap-wood and bark, placing the timber 
in the most favorable situation for seasoning and desiccation 
by elevating it from the earth. The ordinary process of sea- 
soning wood consists in merely exposing it to a current of air. 
It would be a desirable thing if we could find a location where 

390 Importance of the Cultivation of the Oak 

a dry air could be naturally maintained throughout the year ; 
but this desideratum could not be easily obtained. The time 
necessary to season the oaks differs according to the density 
of the structure, (and various dimensions of those woods that 
are exposed for desiccation;) a plank probably would not 
require twelve months, while a piece of larger dimensions 
could not be thoroughly seasoned in six or seven years ; and, 
if placed in a humid situation, would not season at all, and 
the result would be a decomposition from the formation ofam- 
moniacal salts and mushroom growths. 

To benefit property, and perpetuate the materials for ship- 
building, and increase our navies, we propose that the legis- 
latures of our States appropriate means for the cultivation of 
those oaks that are indigenous to their regions. In order to 
ensure success in such an undertaking, a tract of land should 
be set apart of some thousand acres in a favorable location for 
their growth. The soil for this purpose should not be too 
rich nor stimulating : the trees can be propagated from the 
acorn, or transplanted from their native forests. If the lat- 
ter plan is adopted, the trees selected for this purpose should 
be from four to five years of age, of a healthy appearance, 
and perfect symmetry. We recommend their being taken up 
in the latter part of October or the month of November, with 
a careful preservation of their roots, and immediately trans- 
ferred to the soil that is allotted for their permanent abode. 
This period for transplanting those trees is decidedly the best, 
as then the descension of the sap is completed, and the action 
of the leaves quiescent, while that of the absorbing rootlets 
ceases also, because the nutrition which is taken in by them 
is not convertible into woody substance without the coopera- 
tion of the leaves. They should be set apart, at proper dis- 
tances, in such a manner as to have ample room for growth, 
and the free action of heat and light on all sides. Such parks 
or nurseries in our States would be more commemorative of 
the genius of a nation than all the marble monuments and 
towering edifices that can be erected. This scheme is not 
only thought worthy of a government's consideration, but is 
applicable to every individual farmer and landed proprietor 
in this country. They should be transplanted on the out- 
skirts of every farm or plantation ; marking the boundary of 

and other valuable Timber Trees. 301 

their different possessions, by the growth of those sylvan 
giants that have been the pride of nations for centuries. 

Augustus Mitchell, M. D. 
Portland, June 24, 1847. 

Hon. H. a. S. Dearborn. 

No subject is of more importance, in a national point of view, 
than the preservation of our Forests, and the formation of 
new plantations for the supply of timber for maritime pur- 
poses. The subject has been, from time to time, agitated, 
and Congress has been memorialized in reference to it, (Doc. 
241, 25th Congress.) But amid the party strife v/hich at 
that time occupied public attention, the matter ended with a 
reference to the Committee on Naval Affairs. 

We hope, now, that the efforts of Dr. Mitchell may be in- 
strumental in again drawing attention to this important ques- 
tion, and should the establishment of an Experimental Gar- 
den in Florida for the cultivation and acclimation of tropical 
plants be successful, that not only will the attempt be made 
to acclimate the useful trees of other climes, but that the whole 
subject of Arboriculture will be its leading feature, — that a 
series of experiments may be carried out to ascertain the 
best period of felling trees, and the best plan of seasoning 
timber, — the prevention of dry rot, — and all other questions 
pertaining to the preparation of timber for naval purposes. 

Should Congress not move in the matter, we trust the in- 
terests of each and every State maybe appealed to in the way 
Dr. Mitchell proposes ; our own State has just concluded her 
Report upon the trees indigenous to her soil, and we doubt not 
that the interests of the Commonwealth will induce her to 
take some steps to accomplish this. Mr. Emerson lias set 
forth, in just terms, the importance of the preservation of our 
forests, and urged the formation of new plantations of trees 
on the thousands of acres which now lay waste and barren. 
A tract of land set apart for the growth of our native trees, 
as well as all those of other parts of the country, and of 
foreign growth, which will flourish in this latitude, and en- 
trusted to the care of some competent individual, would be 
an object, as Dr. Mitchell remarks, " more commemorative of 
the genius of a nation, than all the marble monuments and 

392 May's Victoria Currant. 

towering edifices that can be erected." Such a garden would 
form a school for the study of the noble trees which enrich 
our forests, and make them as familiar as the commonest 
plants of our gardens, and furnish a fund of practical in- 
formation in regard, to their growth, habits, usefulness in 
the arts, and. adaptation to the purposes of ornamental land- 

But we have not room to follow the train of ideas which 
Dr. Mitchell's article calls up : of the importance of the sub- 
ject, all will agree, and we hope that something may soon be 
done, especially in our own State, to induce our land-owners 
to preserve what remains of our primitive forests, and to com- 
mence, at least in a limited way, the plantation of new ones 
on what are now considered unimproveable lands. — Ed. 

Art. II. May^s Victorio Currant^ with an Engraving of 
the Fruit. By the Editor. 

In our article upon the cultivation of the currant, in a pre- 
vious volume, (Vlll. p. 325,) we offered some remarks upon 
the importance of raising currants from seed with a view to 
the production of new and improved varieties. Among the 
smaller fruits, none possess a greater value than the currant, 
and yet none have received less attention at the hands of cul- 
tivators. Mr. Knight, impressed witli the idea that very su- 
perior kinds would be the result of proper attention to the 
growth of seedlings, wrote an article upon the subject v.'hich 
was published in the Transadions of the Society. He also 
raised a great number of seedlings, and three of them were 
thought to possess ^uch merits as to be deserving of names. 
The gooseberry has been improved fr( rn a small and austere 
berry to a very large and delicious fruit : the strawberry has 
also been produced of such size and flavor as to be scarcely 
recognized as the offspring of the wild berry of the woods and 
pastures. And why may not the same success attend exper- 
iments to improve the currant ? There is no reason to do.ubt 
they will, and we may yet hope to see currants nearly as 

May's Yictor'ia Currant. 


large as cherries, and possessing a flavor much sweeter and 

richer than any we now possess. 
The White and Red Dutch 
currants have been cuUivated for 
a great length of time, and have 
not, until now, been displaced by 
any new varieties. Mr. Knight's 
seedlings, though good, did not 
supersede these old sorts. We 
have, however, in the variety 
under notice, one which bids fair 
to take a place at the head of all. 
This is May's Victoria. Though 
recently raised from seed, and as 
yet confined to a hmited number 
of collections, its merits are so 
great that it will soon find its 
way into every garden. The 
berries are of very large size, of 
a rich deep color, often meas- 
uring five eighths of an inch in 
diameter, and the bunches are 
from five to six inches long. The 
flavor is also excellent, and, — 
what is of great importance, — the 
fruit will hang in perfection for 
a much longer time than the 
White or Red Dutch. 

This variety was raised by 
Mr. Wm. May, nurseryman, of 
Yorkshire, Eng., and the fruit 
was exhibited at one of the shows 
of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety, and was awarded the prize 
both for its size and excellence. 
It has been but little disseminated, 
owing to the high price of the plants ; bat, as they are easily 
multiplied, we may soon hope to see it introduced into every 
garden where the production of fine fruit is an object. 

Fisc- 32. Victoria Currant. 

394 Descriptions of Select Varieties of Cherries. 

Our plants produced a few specimens last year, and, from 
the ordinary size of the clusters and berries, we thought it had 
been overrated ; but, the present season, when the bushes had 
acquired sufficient strength to bear a crop, we were happily dis- 
appointed in finding the fruit and bunches of such large size 
and beautiful appearance ; and our drawing {^fig- 32) is an 
accurate representation, by measurement, of the size of both 
berry and bunch. 

The plants are of exceedingly vigorous habit, with foliage 
differing from the White and Red Dutch in being thicker, 
deeper green, and not so finely cut at the edges : in good rich 
soil, the annual shoots are very stout and strong. 

The currant, as we have stated in the article before allud- 
ed to, requires to be severely pruned when the object is large 
and handsome bunches and berries. It would be useless to 
expect fine fruit unless this is attended to. At the spring 
pruning, every new shoot should be headed back to four or 
five eyes, and the old wood wholly cut out, or as much of it 
as possible, as it is only on the young and vigorous wood 
that the best fruit is produced. By attending to these sug- 
gestions, the cultivator may have the very finest fruit. 

We may therefore highly recommend the Victoria cur- 
rant ; and, as its production is one step towards a superior 
fruit, we hope our amateur cultivators may be induced to fol- 
low up ther experiment until something still better shall be the 

Art. III. Descriptions and Engravings of select varieties of 
Cherries. By the Editor. 

Having, in our several volumes, described and figured up- 
wards of EIGHTY varieties of pears, embracing all the choicest 
which have yet been proved, and having also commenced 
another series of articles in which we intend to describe and 
figure all the fine sorts of apples in the same manner, we now 
intend to devote the same attention to the cherry, and describe 
and figure all the fine ones which are worthy of cultivation. 
We have been gathering the materials for some time, and 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Cherries. 395 

should hav& commenced our article sooner ; but, as om* object 
is to enumerate them only so far as we can do so with perfect 
accuracy, we have deferred it until our own trees have come 
into bearing. "We have now nearly one hundred specimen 
trees, of about as many sorts, which we have received from 
all the best sources, both at home and abroad, and as they 
have commenced fruiting this year, we are enabled to 
give an account of them with the specimens before us. 

The late Mr. Manning, in an excellent paper in a previous 
volume, (VIII. p. 281,) and one of the last which he ever 
wrote, has given a brief synopsis of forty-four kmds, includ- 
ing several seedlings, which he had fruited in his collection. 
Our object will be to give the descriptions in detail, with the 
habi's and general character of the trees, together with out- 
line engravings of the varieties enumerated, and we hope they 
m^y be the means of aiding the amateur in clearing up the 
confusion hi the nomenclature of this fine fruit. 

Nothing, it seems to us, could more impress an individual 
with the importance of a careful selection of the best kinds 
of fruit when planting a garden, or an orchard, than an in- 
spection of our market during the cherry season. First, let 
him look at any of our pomological works, and then at the 
catalogues of our most extensive nurseries, and he will find 
there enumerated some sixty or eighty sorts all characterized 
from " fair to prime;" then let him, and, if he pleases, with 
catalogue in hand, walk through our market and examine the 
fruit. What does he find ? Why, with three or four excep- 
tions, if, from the limited quantity, they can so be called, he 
does not meet with one of the varieties. The May Duke, 
Sparliawk's Honey, Downer's Late Red, a few Tartarians, 
and a few Bigarreaus, to the amount of some bushels, may 
be seen ; but the named sorts do not amount to one tenth of 
the supply. The Downton, the Elton, the Black Eagle, the 
Waterloo, the Florence, and other equally delicious sorts, in- 
troduced twenty-five years ago, are not seen, and indeed 
scarcely known. The whole stock is mazzards, and even poor 
at that, for we have seen very fine mazzards better worthy of 
a name than some which have received a high-sounding title. 

And why all this neglect? Are not the fine sorts to be ob- 
tained 1 Or, are seedlings good enough. Undoubtedly, until 

396 Descriptions of Select Vmieties of Cherries. 

within a few years, the former were not to be had in any 
quantity, and the trees of only moderate size. This, coupled 
with the prevailing mania for large trees, has induced many 
to purchase seedlings ; but another great cause has been, that 
few of the many who plant have any knowledge of the su- 
periority of the choice sorts over the wildings, and are con- 
tented to know that they have a cherry ; and this idea is, 
unfortunately, too prevalent : for we are assured by nursery- 
men, that the call for large mazzard trees is still very great. 
For ourselves, we should as soon think of planting seedling 
pear trees as seedling cherry trees, for there is almost as much 
difference between an Elton cherry and a mazzard. as between 
a Seckel and a wild pear. 

The cherry has received too little of the attention of amateur 
cultivators. From the period of the introduction of the Black 
Tartarian into England, as early as 1794, very little improve- 
ment was made until 1814 or 1815, when Mr. Knight, with 
that application of science to the art of gardening for which 
he was so eminent, produced several new kinds, remarkable 
for then- beauty and excellence; but, from that period till 
within a few years, there seems to have been as little done as 
previous to Mr, Knight's efforts. We have some accidental 
seedlings of native growth which possess superior qualities, 
but few attempts have been made to produce new varieties by 
cross fertilization. The plum, during this period, has been 
nearly doubled in size, and greatly improved in quality ; but 
there is scarcely a cherry whicn excels in size, and but few 
which equal in flavor, the Black Tartarian, the oldest variety 
we possess. Cultivators have turned their attention to the 
growth of seedling pears, and we hope that the cherry may 
also be made the subject of experiment for the production of 
larger and better varieties. 

Notwithstanding the apparent efforts of pomological writers 
to clear up the doubts in regard to the distinct character of many 
sorts of cherries, great confusion still exists; and it will be 
difficult to arrive at certain conclusions only through a care- 
ful examination of the trees, foliage, and fruit, of each. 
Though a work of no little labor, we hope to do our part 
towards accomplishing it ; and our series of articles is 
commenced with that end in view. Another year, when our 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Cherries. 397 

trees will be more fully in fruit, we shall be enabled to iden- 
tify many sorts ; for the present, we annex the descriptions 
and engravings of three late varieties, each of which are but 
very little known to cultivators. 

1. Late Duke. Pomological Magazine, pi. 45. 

Anglaise Tardive, Hort. Soc. Catalogue, 1842. 

The origin of this fine cherry is unknown ; it was first re- 
ceived from M. Vilmorin, of Paris, by the London Horti- 
cultural Society, and though, from one of its names, Anglaise 
Tardive, it would seem to be of English origin, no trace of 
it has been discovered in English collections. The Pom,. Mag. 
states that Switzer and Hill, old writers, mention a late May 
Duke, but it is doubtful whether it could be referred to this 

Lindley, in his description of the Late Duke, observes that 
it has great affinity to the Arch Duke, and Thompson, in his 
Synopsis in the Transactions of the London Hort. Soc, (vol. 
vii. p. 276,) says that the " Arch Duke may not be found to be 
diflerent when obtained correct, but that 
hitherto the May Duke has been received 
for it." There is no doubt, however, 
that the Arch Duke is a different fruit, 
as we shall soon show, and that the true 
variety had not come under Mr. Thomp- 
son's observation at that time. 

The Late Duke {fig. 33.) is a val- 
uable cherry, ripening very late, of large 
size, an abundant bearer, and resembling 
the May Duke in quality, though rather 
more acid ; our tree, though small, was 
covered with fruit, and, but for the birds, 
we should have gathered a fine crop ; 
by netting over some of the branches, 
we succeeded in obtaining some fine 
specimens, from which our drawing is 

made. -^'^•23. Late Duke 

• Clierry. 

i^ rmt, large, one and an eighth of an inch in diameter, round- 
ish heart shape, with a slight suture on one side : Skin, rich deep 

VOL. XIII.— NO. IX. 36 

398 Descriptions of Select Varieties of CJierjies, 

shining red when mature : Stem, long, about one and a half 
inches, slender, and rather deeply inserted in a shallow cavity: 
Flesh, pale amber color, tender, and slightly adhering to the 
stone : Jidce, abundant and rich, subacid, similar to the May 
Duke : Stone, medium size, roundish. Ripe the last of July 
and beginning of August. 

The frnit is borne in pairs, or threes, on a short peduncle, 
about a quarter of an inch in length. The tree is of vigorous, 
upright, and rather compact growth, little more spreading 
than the May Duke, and with rather larger leaves. It will 
prove a very valuable cherry. 

2. Arch Duke. Guide to the Orchard. 

Griotte de Portugal, Duhamel. 

Portugal Duke, of some collections. 

Late Arch Duke, ? tj * c /^ , oj tj lo^r. 
_ ^ , ' S-Hort. Soc. Cat., 3d Ed. 1842. 

Late Duke, j 

There has been a variety of opinions among pomological 
writers in regard to this cherry, {fg- 
34,) some asserting that it is synonymous 
with the Late Duke. Lindley is the 
only English author who seems to have 
been acquainted with it. Mr. Thomp- 
son, at the time he wrote the excellent 
paper in the Transaciiovs of the Hort. 
Society, above alluded to, had not proved 
it, and, as late as 1842, it had not been 
identified in the garden of the Society. 
The May Duke has generally been sold 
for this variety ; our tree was received 
from Mr. Rivers, and is quite unlike 
either the May Duke or Late Duke, 
though the habit of the tree is similar ; 
the fruit ripens intermediate between the 
two, and is more heart-shaped, of larger 
size, rather darker color, and fully equal 

Fig. M. Arch Duke Cherry. ^ !, r^, ■ V^ 

to either of them m quality. 
Fruit, large, one and an eighth of an inch in diameter, ob- 
tusely heart-shaped, slightly compressed, with a distinct 

Descriptions of Select Varieties of Cherries. 399 

suture on oue side, and indented at the apex : Skin., dark 
shining red, when fully mature mottled with a deeper shade : 
Stem, long, about one and a half inches, slender, and deeply- 
sunk in a roundish cavity: Flesh, light red, tender, and 
slightly adhering to the stone : Juice, abundant, subacid, rich 
and high flavored : Stone, medium size, oval, compressed. 
Ripe from the middle to the end of July, about a fortnight 
before the Late Duke. 

The fruit is borne, like the Late Duke, in pairs and threes, 
on a common peduncle, which is about a quarter of an inch 
to the fork and rather slender. Tree, vigorous, rather more 
spreading than the May Duke, and with thicker and larger 

3. Lemercier. Migazine of Horticulture, Vol. XIL 

The Lemercier (/o-. 35,) is a new French variety of very 
recent introduction; and a brief account of 
which will be found in our last volume, 
(p. 343.) It nearly resembles the Late 
Duke, ripening about the same time, and 
of about the same quality. The original 
tree is said to have been found in Bra- 
bant, by M Lemercier, after whom it was 
named, and was introduced to Paris by 
M. Noisette, in 1835. Our tree was received 
from France in 1842, and bore, for the first 
time, last season ; the present year, the 
trees were quite full of fruit, although only 
four years old, and standing in the nursery 
row. The fruit was ripe the latest of any 
cherry, and, but for the high wind and rain 
of the fifth of August, would have remained ^^v 35? Lanerder 
in parfection till the present time. Cherry. 

Fruit, large, one inch in diameter, roundish, and rather 
obtuse, with a shallow suture on one side, ending in a distinct 
prominent paint : S/cin, light shining red, of a somewhat trans- 
parent appsarance, and marbled with a deeper shade : Stem, 
rather long, about one and a half inches, moderately slender, 
and deeply inserted in a large, broad, deep hollow : Flesh, 

400 Propagaiio7i of Stove and Greenhouse Exotics. 

pale amber, tender, and partially adhering to the stone : Juice^ 
very abundant, subacid, rich and good : Stone, rather small, 
roundish. Ripe the beginning of August. 

The tree is of vigorous growth, with the foliage of the 
Duke cherries, but with branches of a very spreading habit. 
The fruit is also generally borne in pairs, and not on forked 
stems, which will at once distinguish it from the Late Duke. 

Art. IV. On the Propagation of Stove and Greenhouse Ex- 
otics : in a Series of Letters. By James Kennedy, Gardener 
to S. T. Jones, Staten Island, New York. 

Letter VI. Propagation hy Root Divisions. 

This is a mode often resorted to in increasing those kinds 
of exotics that will not produce seed, or propagate readily by 
any other means. But it could not be carried out extensively, 
unless the propagator possesses the acquisition of a conserva- 
tory to supply his wants. And even then, the greatest care 
should be taken, not to approach too near, or to injure the pa- 
rent plants. However, let as large pieces as possible be pro- 
cured, and potted off separately, using that compost in which 
the parent plant is found to flourish best. It is useless to re- 
mark that the pots ought to be proportioned to the size of 
the roots. In potting, let their points be a little above the sur- 
face, (say an inch) ; after potting, let them have a sprinkling 
of water to settle the soil round them, when they must be 
plunged up to the rims in a previously prepared hot-bed ; but 
not too hot, nor containing much rank steam. A little air 
should be given in the middle of the day, and regularly 
shaded by means of mats when the sun is powerful. As soon 
as they have taken fresh root, and the tops begin to produce 
leaves, let them be removed, and hardened off gradually to 
their respective departments. 

There are many species of that most interesting and orna- 
mental genus Acacia, which can only be increased by this 
means, as .4cacia decipiens, iSophora falcata, &c. &c. 

FloricuUural and Botanical Notices. 401 

Letter VII. Propagation by Leaves. 

This is a mode of propagation which has become quite as 
common, and fidly as successful, as propagation by cuttings; 
and, indeed, I consider it the easiest and most successful mode 
of increasing such exotics as gesneras, gloxinias, Hoya car 
nosa, &c. &c. 

The state most favorable for rooting leaves, is when they 
have completed about three parts of their growth. Let the 
leaves of the desired kinds be taken off close to the stem, and 
inserted into pots, such as were recommended for cuttings, pre- 
pared in the same manner. The whole of the leaf-stalk and 
about half an inch of the leaf should be covered, and laid in 
a slanting direction, when they should have a sprinkling of 
water, the bell-glassns put on, and removed to the propagatmg- 
house, or a previously prepared hot-bed, where, if kept uni- 
formly moist, warm, and the bell-glasses regularly wiped inside 
every morning, they will soon strike root ; but care must be 
taken to shade them in bright sun-shine, in order to prevent 
excessive perspiration until they emit roots ; after which they 
may be fully exposed to the light. Should any happen to 
damp off, let them be immediately removed, otherwise, they 
might endanger the whole. As soon as the leaves begin to push 
young shoots, the glasses may be taken off and the pots re- 
moved to a dry shed, there to remain for a ^e\v days previous 
to their being potted off. 

Staten Island, N. Y., August, 1847. 

Art. V. Floricnltural and Botanical Notices of New a?id 
Beautiful Plants figured in Foreign Periodicals ; with De- 
scriptions of those recently introduced to, or originated iti, 
American Gardens. 

Schubertia. (^raveolens. — This new and handsome climber, 
already noticed, (Vol. XII. p. 480,) with flowers greatly re- 
sembling the beautiful Stephanotus, is now coming into bloom 
in our collection. The flowers appear in clusters, are pure 

402 FloricuUural and Botanical Notices. 

white, and very fragrant. It is a most desirable greenhouse 

New Phloxes. — Some fine additions to this elegant family of 
hardy garden perennials have been recently introduced, prin- 
cipally from the Belgian and French collections. A few ^xars 
ago none but self-colored sorts were to be seen, but now we 
have them edged, pencilled, striped, marbled and shaded, of 
almost every tint and hue. Some of the new ones are re- 
markably beautiful and distinct, and among them may be 
named the following : — Standard of Perfection, with two 
colored flowers, each petal half white and half pale blue, of 
fine form, and disposed in magnificent pyramids : Goethe, 
white, flamed with pale lilac, beautiful : Eclipse, blush, 
shaded at the edges of the petals with deep purplish rose, 
flower large and handsome : Fleiir de Marie, white, with dis- 
tinct violet eye: Annais Chaiiviere, white, with a distinct pur- 
ple eye : Specidum, white, slightly mottled with pink, the 
flowers disposed in spikes. 

Many others have been introduced and will yet flower, but 
owing to the weakness of imported plants, not so strong as 
another year. Charles, Blanc de Neuilly, Nymphse^a alba, 
Kermesiutt, OEil de Lynx, Princess Marianne, and some oth- 
ers, have flowered superbly this year; and are all fine addi- 
tions to this most brilliant of our aiitumnal flowers. 

23. Imp.Otiens plalype'tala Lindl. Flat-petaled Balsamine. 


A greenhouse plant ; growing two feet hi; h ; willi vinirt-colored flowers ; appearingin winter; 
a native of Java ; increased by cuttings and seeds ; cultivated in rich soil. Flore des Jserres, pi. 
L'la. 1B47. 

A new and charming species of the Balsam, which, in our 
climate, will probably succeed as an annual, and become a 
great ornament to our gardens. Unlike the other species, the 
petals are quite flat, and the flowers appear in clusters at the 
axils of the leaves. It is of the easiest cultivation in any 
good rich soil. {Flore des Serres, April.) 

24. Leschena'ultia arcua'^ta De Vriese. Drooping Lesche- 

naultia, (Gooden/dcecc.) 

A greenhouse plant; growing one foot hi^h; witli yellow and crimson flowers ; Rppraring in 
spring ; a i.ative of Swan River ; increased by cuttings ; cuUivaied in peat, leaf mould, and sand. 
Flore des Serres, pi. 21 U. IM'. 

Another most brilliant species of this fine tribe, with large 

Floricultural and Botanical Notices. 403 

yellow flowers, with the centre petals tipped with deep crim- 
son, and very showy from the contrast of colors. The habit is 
more robust than the L. formosa, and the flowers are pro- 
duced in the same profusion as in that species. It is a native 
of Swan River, and requires the same treatment as formosa. 
{Flore des Scrres, (^'c, April.) 

25. Ixo^RA sALiciFO LiA De Cand. Willow-leaved Ixora. 


A stove plant ; growin? two feet hi;h ; with bright rose-colored (lowers ; appearing in spring \ 
a native of Java ; increased by cuttings ; cultivated in peat, loam, and sand. Flore des Serres, 
pi. 217. 1847. 

This is one of the prettiest of this family, which, we regret 
to say, is very little known in our collections, though the old 
I. coccinea has been introduced many years. I. salicifolia has 
very long and narrow leaves, and the flowers, which at first 
are of a bright nankeen, change, as they open, to a rose ver- 
milion. The corymbs are ample, and, by the variety of tints, 
form a showy object. Introduced into the collection of Van 
Houtte from Java, where it first flowered in March last. It 
requires the same treatment as the I. coccinea. {Flore des 
Ser?-es, April.) 

26. Gloxi'nia teuchleri (hybrid) Hort. Teuchler's Gloxinia. 

{Gesner dcecs.) 

a greenhouse plant ; growing a foot lii^li ; wiili bUie and scarlet flowers ; appearing all sum- 
mer ; a hybrid ; increased by cuttings ; cultivated in peat, leaf mould, and loam. Flore des Ser- 
res, pi. 2iO. 1617. 

This is one of the most magnificent hybrids which has been 
produced, having the ground color of the old G. rubra, and 
distinctly marked with large bands or stripes of deep blue, of 
the color of G. caulescens. It is said to have been obtained 
from seed by M. Teuchler, of Bohemia, between the G. 
caulescens and rubra, the flowers being the size of the former. 
Recently, many amateurs have visited the garden of Van 
Houtte to see it in flower, doubting the remarkable coloring 
which has been given in the plate. We hope soon to ss^, it 
in our collections. {Flore des iSerres, April.) 

27. L'lLiu:,! callo^sum Zucc. Hard-bracted Lily, {hili- 


A greenhouse bulb ; growing two feet high -, wilh scarlet flowirs : appearing in summer ; a na- 
tive of Japan ; increased by ortsets ; culiivateU in peat, leiif mould, and loam. Flore des Serres, 
pi. 23U. 1S47. 

A very delicate species of lily, with linear, grass-like leaves, 

404 Floricultiiral and Botanical Notices. 

and small scarlet flowers, having two bracts, terminated in a 
small roiuidish hardened point. It is a native of Japan, and 
was found by Siebold at an elevation of one or two thousand 
feet above the sea, where it grew in abundance in a volcanic 
soil. It is a very pretty addition to the lily tribe, flowering as 
it does at the same time of the larger Japan kinds. It is cul- 
tivated in the same manner. {Flore cles Serres, Ma}^.) 

28. He'nfreya sca'ndens Lindl. Chmbing Henfreya. (Aca;i- 


A greenhouse plant ; growing three or four feet high ; with white and rose-colored flowers ; ap- 
pearing in spring ; increased by cuttings ; cultivated iu peat, loam, and sand. Flore des Serres, 

pi. :331. 1847. 

A beautiful species of*a new genus, remarkable for its 
climbing habit, — unusual in this family, — its beautiful foliage, 
and terminal clusters of Urge white flowers, tinted with rose. 
Its native country is not given ; but it flowered in England last 
spring in the collection of Mr. Knight, and a medal was 
awarded by the London Horticultural Society for a fine speci- 
men. It is increased by cuttings, and grown in a rich light 
soil. {Flore des Serres, May.) 

29. Ce^reus grandiflo^ro-speciosi'ssimus Maynardii Nob. May- 

nard's Cereus. [Cactdcece). 

a greenhouse plant ; growing four feet hi^h; with orange scarlet flowers ; appearing in spring ; 
an English hybrid ; increased by cuttings ; grown in ricll soil. Flore des Serres, pi. 23o. 1847. 

Many attempts have been made to produce new varieties of 
the cereus, between grandiflorus and speciosissinius ; but we 
are not aware of any successful accomplishment of the ob- 
ject, except the plant now under notice. It has been thought 
that some singularly fine kinds might be the result of the 
union of these two. The specimen before us is certainly very 
showy ; having a stem similar to the grandiflorus, and flow- 
ers somewhat like it in form, but of a deep orange scarlet 
shade : the pale tint of the former having neutralized the rich 
violet hue of the speciosissinius. The flower has two rows 
of numerous petals, the outer ones standhig erect, and the in- 
ner ones with the ends curved inward. Their diameter is 9 to 
10 inches. 

This variety was produced from the seed of speciosissimus, 
impregnated with grandiflorus, by Mr. Keynes, gardener to 
Viscount Maynard. It is of vigorous habit, flowers freely 

FlorirAiUural and Botanical Notices. 405 

and abundantly, and the flowers remain in beauty two or 
three days. It is a fine addition to this showy and brilliant 
family. {Flore des Serves, June.) 

30. AzaYea indica exquisi^ta Ho7-t. Charming Azalea. (E?-i- 


A greenhouse plant; growing three feet hi^h ; with variegated flowers; appearing in spring ; 
a garden hybrid. Flore des Serres, pi. 239. 1847. 

The production of seedling azaleas has greatly increased 
during the last few years, and the English, French, and Bel- 
gians, have raised many superior varieties ; our own ama- 
teurs have also given this fine tribe much attention, and 
some of their seedlings are among the best in our collections. 
The variety now under notice is one which well represents its 
name, being exquisitely beautiful : the flowers are of a deli- 
cate rose, mottled with a deeper shade, striped with crimson, 
and edged with white. It is of a robust habit, and an abun- 
dant bloomer, and must rank among the very choicest which 
have yet been produced. It was raised by Mr. Smith, of 
Norbiton, near London, who has been one of the most suc- 
cessful cultivator'^ of seedling azaleas and rhododendrons. 
{Flore des Serres, June.) 

31. Azalea indica stria^ta formosi'ssima Hort. Beautiful 

striped Azalea. (E/*icdce«.) 

A peculiarly delicate and unique variety, raised by Mr. Van 
Geersdale, of Ghent. The flowers are white, elegantly and 
irregularly striped with pale rosy violet ; they are large and 
of handsome form, and abundantly produced. It is a tine 
companion to the exquisita. Gledstanesi/, and others of the 
same style of flowers, being distinct from either. The plant 
is of good habit. {Flore des Serres, June.) 

32. Calceolarias. Van Houtte's Seedlings. 

Amateurs, who have seen the ordinary seedlings which 
have been shown at our exhibiiions, can form no conception 
of the beauty of the new ones, raised by M. Van Houtte, of 
Ghent. About twelve varieties are figured in the Flore des 
Serres, for June, and they are of the most remarkable char- 
acter, both foi the variety of their spots, blotches, bands, and 
pencillings, as well as for their brilliant colors. 

406 Alleii on the Culture of the Graj)e. 


Art. I. The Culture of the Grape. By J. Fisk Allen. Em- 
bracing Directions for the Treatment of the Vine in the Nor- 
thern States of America, in the Open Air, and under Glass 
Structm-es, with or without artificial heat. Pamplilet, 8vo. 
56 pages. Boston, 1847. 

The culture of the grape, under glass, is rapidly extending 
every year. In our northern climate, where, except in cities, 
this delicious fruit cannot be produced in the open air, in any 
perfection, a grape-house, either with or without heat, will 
soon be a necessary appendage to every garden of any extent. 
A few years since, a bunch of handsome grapes, even as early 
as September, was quite a rare production, and commanded a 
very liberal price. Now our market is supplied with them from 
April to December, and at such reasonable rates, as to greatly 
increase the consumption of such a healthy fruit. 

The increased attention which has been given to its culti- 
vation, has demanded more information in regard to the treat- 
ment and management of the vines. With the exception of 
Prince's Treatise^ there has been no elementary work, adapted 
to our climate, to which amateurs could refer, and the princi- 
pal information has been given through the pages of our 
Magazine. A book, of the character of that before us, has 
been wanted, and Mr. Allen, whose experience as an exten- 
sive cultivator for the supply of large quantities of fruit, has 
been extensive, and his practice successful, has been so often 
applied to for information in regard to this subject, that he has 
been induced to give the results of his experience in the 
pamphlet now under notice. 

The cultivation of the grape in England has been exten- 
sively pursued] and many treatises have been written upon the 
subject: oneof the best of these isthatof Speechly, whohas been 
considered the best cultivator. But neither his, nor other 
treatises of foreign writers, are wholly adapted to our climate, 
and the young tyro who follows them, is often sadly disap- 
pointed in his crop. The difference of climate requires differ- 
ent modes of management, and althougli valuable hints and 

Allen on the Culture of the Grcqic. 407 

suggestions may be learned from Speeehly, and other writers, 
yet there will be much judgment to be exercised in applying 
their practice to our own. 

Mr. Allen has thus alluded to this : — 

" There are several works published in England, written by practical 
men, giving ample directions for the cultivation of the grape in that coun- 
try ; but the climate of the Northern States of America is so different from 
that of England, that, however well calculated these directions may be for 
the latter, they can hardly be expected to suit the former. The tempera- 
ture of England is milder, and is not subject to the great extremes of heat 
and cold which we experience. The searching northwesterly winds, which 
prevail with us in New England in the winter and early spring months, with 
the mercury often at zero, and even below that point, and the sudden 
changes we are liable to, in this season of the yeai, often equal to forty de- 
grees in a few hours, render the care requisite, for the successful forced 
culture of fruit, very great, and the process a more difficult one, in (his coun- 
try, than in England." — p. 2. 

In regard to the "more difficult" process of producing the 
grape, in this country, the atUhor undoubtedly alludes to early 
forcing ; for we apprehend that in cold houses the process re- 
quires as little care, if not much less, than in England. 

The directions, Mr, Allen remarks, " are intended for those 
who may dgsire to cultivate this fruit, for their own pleasure 
or convenience, and do not wish to incur the expense of a 
regularly educated gardener, and who have felt the want of a 
concise and simple explanation of the process, and the rules 
by which the operations of forcing and of growing grapes, 
under glass structures, can be carried out." 

Mr. Allen thus alludes to some of the advantages of our 
climate over that of England : — 

" The disadvantages we labor under, in this country, in forcing fruit, 
from the extreme coldness of the weather in winter, are counterbalanced, in 
some degree, by the superior brilliancy of the sun, and consequent dryness 
of the atmosphere, at the time of ripening, which gives a flavor to tiie fruit, 
such as it can rarely be made to attain, in the moist, dull, and cloudy 
weather of England. The variations of the temperature are always in- 
dicated by a Fahrenheit thermometer." — p. 4. 

Having just written our article upon the treatment of the 
grape in the greenhouse, (p. 293,) and having given our 

408 Allen on the Cnlture of the Grape. 

views in relation to the formation of the border and general 
management of the vine, we shall briefly notice some of the 
directions of Mr. Allen, which differ from our own ; particu- 
larly his views in relation to the preparation of grape borders. 

The work commences with the grapery, — its location, — the 
formation of the border, — planting the vines, — and their treat- 
ment for five years successively. The forcing of the grape, — 
the retarding-house. — list of varieties, — and, in conclusion, the 
pruning and training of out-door grapes. 

"First in order," the author remarks, "and of the utmost 
importance, is the situation of the house. It must be so lo-